3LEARNING OBJECTIVES By the end of this unit, you are supposed to grasp the author’s purpose of writing and make clear the structure of the whole passage through an intensive reading of Text 1 Fresh Start.comprehend the topic sentences in Text 1 thoroughly and be able to paraphrase them.get a list of new words and structures and use them freely in conversation and writing.be aware of the cross-cultural differences of a freshman’s experience in college.
4Text 1. Fresh StartDo you remember your first days at college? Did anything special happen then?Are you afraid of making mistakes that cause embarrassment?
5The passage can be divided into three parts. Part One: (Paragraphs 1)this is the introductory paragraph.1. What does “first-gradish” mean? (“having the qualities and characteristics of a first-grade student”)2. Why did the author have the impression that “everyone on campus was watching me”? (being too sensitive, was uneasy with her identity as a freshman. She thought a new student would attract others’ attention, as what she did or said was liable to be too naive to be right.)
6Part Two: (Paragraphs 2-9) The writer recalls a few incidents during her first days of college.1. Why did the author exclaim “what confidence, what reserve, what muscles!” when saw the football player? (college life is new to her, it shows her excitement about the new college life.)2. Why did a cold sweat break out on the back of her neck? (she found she was in a wrong class.)4. Why did she remain in the wrong room? (She didn't’t want others to notice her ignorance.)5. How did the students react when she slipped and fell down? (They cheered and clapped. She felt embarrassed and humiliated.)6. Why did she dine on junk food for the next three days? (She thought she had become the laughing-stock on campus. She couldn't’t stand by being laughed at by the students in cafeteria.)
7Part Three: (Paragraph 10-14): This is the concluding part.1. What was the key lesson Evelyn Herald learnedduring her first few weeks in college? (The key lesson was that since people grow by trial and error, one should relax and be oneself.)2. What lessons have you learned from EvelynHerald’s experiences after reading the article“Fresh Start”?
8LANGUAGE WORK Distinct: clearly seen, heard, felt, understood, etc.; noticeableE.g. 1) Now that the boss no longer present, there wasa distinct change in her attitude.2) The children have distinct memories of theirgrandfather in his last days.
9Clutch: vt. to hold or grasp tightly; vi. to try to grasp or seize E.g. 1) The frightened woman clutched her bags to her breast.2) He clutched at the rope we had thrown to him but couldnot reach it.Reserve: self-restraint in expression; the habit of not showing one’s feelings or thoughtsE.g. 1) Being a man of reserve, Mr. York was never popularwith his colleagues.2) Judy has tried every moment to break through thereserve of her stepson.
10Whereabouts: n. approximate location; ad Whereabouts: n. approximate location; ad. about where; in, at or near what locationE.g. The orphan’s whereabouts is/are still unknown.Whereabouts do you live?Tip off: to give an advance warning or hint toE.g. Somebody must have tipped off the burglars offthat the house world be empty.
11Flail: to (cause something to) wave or swing about wildly E.g. 1) I flailed her arms to get her attention.2) The baby’s feet flailed under the quilt.Rear end: buttocksSomebody’s heart goes out to somebody: used to say that someone feels a lot of sympathy towards another personE.g. His heart went out to Mrs. Bradshaw and herfatherless child.
12Slink: to go or move in a quiet, stealthy way; to move as if one feels guilty or ashamed, or does not want to be seenE.g. 1) She tried to slink out of the office so that nobodywould see her.2) The cat slunk through the grass toward its prey.Malicious: having the nature or wish to hurt othersE.g. a malicious remark
13Shackle: a metal fastening, usually one of a pair, for encircling and confining the ankle or wrist of a prisoner or captive; a restraint or check to action or progress, often used in the plural formE.g. 1) The policeman placed shackles on the suspect’shands.2) It is hard to break through the shackles of habit.
14QUESTIONS What is the text concerned with? What is the message of the text?
15MAIN IDEAS 0F TEXT 2A University Stands and Shines was the author’s response to a toast in his honor. In the text, he highly evaluates the significance of university and the honor of being a member of a university.A Topic to discussHow do you think a university is even more enduring than religions and dynasties?
17LEARNING OBJECTIVES By the end of this unit, you are supposed to grasp the author’s purpose of writing and make clear the structure of the whole passage through an intensive reading of Text 1 Tyranny of the Urgent.comprehend the topic sentences in Text 1 thoroughly and be able to paraphrase them.get a list of new words and structures and use them freely in conversation and writing.
18Text 1. Tyranny of the Urgent Do you often feel pressed by time? Do you hate meeting deadlines?Do you think the busier you are, the more accomplished your life will be?
19The passage can be divided into three parts. Part One: (Paragraphs 1-2)The first two paragraphs serve as an introduction. In the first paragraph, the writer mainly explains why people wish for a thirty-four hour day. In the second paragraph, he goes on to explain why this extra time may not help people much. The following questions are suggested:1. How does the author introduce his topic? (by a rhetorical question)2. Does the author believe that this extra time will help people to ease the pressure? (No. The author does not think that the prolongation of time may solve the problem of shortage of time once for all because one’s work is endless.)
20Part Two: (Paragraphs 3-5) This is the main body of the essay. The writer explains the people of priorities and explores the cause of “tyranny of the urgent”.1. What is the problem of priorities? (What should people deal with first when confronted with endless work?)2. When are people liable to frustration? (When they find numerous tasks unfinished and especially when they find that they have left the important tasks aside.)3. Why do people often delay an important task? (People are constantly driven by urgent tasks while they are usually given more time to accomplish important tasks. As a result, they are likely to lack a sense of urgent for important tasks.
21Part Three: (Paragraph 6): In this paragraph, the writer comes to the conclusion that we have become slaves to the “tyranny of the urgent”.1. Why does the author say: “A man’s home is no longer hiscastle”? (A castle is a strongly-built building fortified against attacks, especially as in former times. In old days, one might be kept away from all the worries about work once he was back home. But in modern times, with the development of telecommunication, one can hardly avoid being interrupted even when he is at home.)2. What does “tyranny of the urgent” mean? (It implies that the urgent things outweigh everything else.)
22LANGUAGE WORKTrail: a stream of dust, smoke, people, vehicles, etc. behind something movingE.g. 1) He went inside, leaving a trail of muddy footprintsbehind him.2) The typhoon has left a trail of muddy foot prints behindhim.Haunt: to be always in the thoughts ofE.g. 1) The decision to leave her children now hauntsher.2) Thirty years after the fire he is still haunted byimages of death and destruction.
23Exacting: (of a person or piece of work) demanding much care, effort and attention E.g.1) The trains used in the Channel Tunnel have toconform to exacting fire safely standards.2)Volunteers are needed for an exactingassignment.
24Dilemma: a situation in which one has to make a difficult choice between two courses of action, both perhaps equally undesirableE.g. 1) The doctor’s dilemma was whether he should tell thepatient the truth or not.2) The president finds himself in a dilemma over how totackle the crisis.
25Priority: something that needs attention, consideration, service, etc Priority: something that needs attention, consideration, service, etc. before othersE.g. 1) You have to learn to get your priorities straight.2) Getting your priorities in order is an effective way notto waste time on trivial or even meaningless pursuits.Misgiving: (a feeling of ) doubt, distrust, or fear, especially about a further eventE.g. 1) We had misgivings about flying near mountains in suchweather.2) The plan seemed utterly impractical and I was filledwith misgiving about it.
26Crowd out: to keep out for lack of space E.g. Pressure on study space has crowd out new students frommany university libraries.Maxim: a short saying that expresses a general truth or rule for good and sensible behaviorE.g. Aesop’s fables illustrate moral maxims.Rebuke: to speak angrily to someoneE.g. 1) Her mother rebuked her for frighteningher brother.2) He was rebuked for cheating.
27Breach: to break (a promise, agreement, etc Breach: to break (a promise, agreement, etc.); to make an opening in a wall or fenceE.g. 1) They breached the agreement they had made with theiremployer.2) The defenses were easily breached.Imperious: (too) commanding; expecting obedience from othersE.g. 1) She sent them away with an imperious wave of the hand.2) From across the table he gave an imperious look.
28Devour: to used up all of something; to eat hungrily and in large quantities, so that nothing remains.E.g. 1) In the light of recent incidents, we are asking ourcustomers to take particular care of their personalbelongings.2) In the light of this information, it is now possible toidentify a number of key issues.
29Prominence: the fact or quality of being well-known and important E.g. 1) He came to prominence during the World Cup in Italy.2) Most of the papers give to prominence to the same storythis morning.
30MAIN IDEAS 0F TEXT 2 A topic for discussion Time illustrates the author’s view on time from several aspects, trying to imply than to value time is to be wise.A topic for discussionWhat is your view on time?
32LEARNING OBJECTIVES By the end of this unit, you are supposed to grasp the author’s purpose of writing and make clear the structure of the whole passage through an intensive reading of Text 1 Fresh Start.comprehend the topic sentences in Text 1 thoroughly and be able to paraphrase them.get a list of new words and structures and use them freely in conversation and writing.be aware of the cross-cultural differences of food between Chinese and Western.
33Text 1. Chinese Food How important is food to the Chinese people? What are the characteristics of Chinese cuisine?
34The passage can be divided into three parts. Part One: (Paragraphs 1-4)Discuss the difference in Chinese and Western attitudestoward food. Here are some questions for consideration:In the life of an individual, how, according to Kenneth Lo, is food different from music, a lecture or conversation, or matters of business? (As music, a lecture or conversation, or matters of business will never be integrated into one’s body or spiritual and moral fiber, one may not attend to them whole-heartedly. Yet, food is different. As it is going to be part of our bodies, it requires our serious treatment.)How does Lo make his point clear? (by comparison and contrast)What is the Chinese attitude of food? (They regard food as their first happiness.)
35Part Two: (Paragraphs 5-6) Deal with the reasons of the international successof Chinese food.Why does the writer mention “from Hong Kong to Honolulu to Huboken to Huddersfield”? (These places with “H” as the initial are located in different areas of the world. They are randomly chosen, just to show the ubiquity of Chinese food.)What has helped the spread of Chinese food to the rest of the world? (First, many people from Hong Kong, China opened restaurants in various places. Secondly, the Western people have become interested in the pursuit of sensual pleasures and are eager to the old Western habits. Finally, sensual concept is an inherent element of Chinese food.
36Part Three: (Para. 7-9) Elaborate the nature of Chinese food. 1. How does the writer explain that the traditional high-quality Chinese meal is a serious matter? (He uses figures to explain how complicated and time-consuming it is to prepare the Chinese meal. The he lists several methods of cooking to show that cooking itself is no easy work.2. What else must be pleased besides the palate? Why? (The eye must be pleased, to. The philosophy that underlies Chinese food and everything else is Taoism, which signifies the proper human conduct and the ultimate harmony of the universe. In the enjoyment of food, the eye, as well as the palate, is the essential element to be please.)
37LANGUAGE WORK Derive from: to come from a source or origin E.g. The word “deduct” derives from Latin.Ecstasy: sudden intense feeling or excitementE.g. They went into ecstasies over the view.Smother: to cover closely or thicklyE.g. The cook smothered a steak with mushrooms.Marked: striking; conspicuousE.g. John worked really hard. He showed marked improvement in all the tests.
38Assert: to declare strongly E.g. He asserted boldly that he was innocent of the crime.Bedeck: to decorate; to hang ornaments or decorations onE.g. He led us into a room bedecked with tinsel.Infamous: deserving of or causing an evil reputationE.g. He is famous for saying that cheating is the way the game is played.
39Part and parcel: an essential part that must not be ignored E.g. It’s best to accept that some inconveniences arepart and parcel of travel.Phenomenal: very remarkableE.g. He enjoyed phenomenal success as a racecare driver.Inherent: existing as a natural and permanent qualityE.g. She stared fastidiously at the dirty table.He fastidiously copied every word of hisnotes onto clean paper.
40Fastidiously: with excessive care of delicacy E.g. She stared fastidiously at the dirty table.He fastidiously copied every word of his notesonto clean paper.Chore: a hard or unpleasant task; a small job that someone has to do regularlyE.g.In 1862, a technique was contrived to take aseries of photographs showing stages of movement.Conform: to act in accordance with; to comply withE.g. He clothes are conformed to fashion.Though educated, we conform to some old customs.
41Palate: the sense of taste E.g. We’ll have a dinner to delight the palate.I let my palate dictate what I eat.Elusive: hard to express or defineE.g. He tried to recall the elusive thought he had had months before.Piquant: having a pleasant sharp or strong tasteE.g. With that piquant tomato sauce, the dish tastes much better.
42MAIN IDEAS 0F TEXT 2 A topic for discussion Say No to Western Fast Food introduces a new phenomena which is happening around China now. It implies the harm the fast food brings to people. On the other hand, it doesn't’t deny the advantage of eating in the fast food restaurants. The article compares fast food with Chinese traditional food, emphasizing the significance of keeping food tradition in China.A topic for discussionWhat should we learn from the western restaurants and what should not we learn from the western restaurant, according to the author of text II?
44LEARNING OBJECTIVES By the end of this unit, you are supposed to grasp the author’s purpose of writing and make clear the structure of the whole passage through an intensive reading of Text 1 Why I Want a Wife.comprehend the topic sentences in Text 1 thoroughly and be able to paraphrase them.get a list of new words and structures and use them freely in conversation and writing.
45Text 1. Fresh StartWhat role does a wife usually play in a traditional Chinese family? What role does an American wife play in her family? Are there any similarities or differences between them?Is there any change in women’s status in China and around the world?
46The passage can be divided into four parts. Part One: (Paragraphs 1-2)The author’s recent encounter with a friend of hers who has just had a divorce and who is looking for another wife make her think about the topic of wanting a wife.The writer introduces her identity in the first paragraph and starts her bitter satire, in the second paragraph, on those men desiring for a wife who fits in with their ideal notions by pretending that she would like to have a wife with all possible virtues.
47Part Two: (Paragraphs 3-7) The writer divides a wife’s duties and responsibility into various functions or services according to the ideal notions most men are likely to have for a wife.Three main duties are taking care of the baby; arranging the husband’s social activities; and satisfying husband’s sexual needs.“wife” is consistently used in the text to help emphasize a wife’s role, duties and responsibilities by de-emphasizing her sex.The writer presents in an ironical tone all the duties a wife should fulfill.
48Part Three: (Para ):By the way he behaved when confronted with another sad moment---the loss of his grandpa, the author shows us that he came to understand what his grandpa had taught him.One would divorce the present wife and marry another new one, leaving the ex-wife solely responsible for the care of the children when one find a more suitable wife.
49LANGUAGE WORKIncidentally: in a way that was not planned, but as a result of something elseEx-wife: former wifeIf need be: if necessaryRambling: (of a speech, writing) disorder and wanderingE.g. 1) I’ve just had this rambling, incoherent letter from mysister.2) His actions were accomplished by a ramblingmonologue.
50Replenish: to fill up again E.g. 1) Let me replenish your glass.2) Food stocks were replenished by imports fromthe USA.Sensitive to: strongly or easily influenced or changed byE.g. She is sensitive to the change of weather.Clutter up: to make untidy or confused, especially by filling with useless or unwanted things.E.g. 1) This room is so impressive that it would be a shame toclutter it up.2) She says she deliberately tried to clutter up her mind.
51Entail: to make (an event or action) necessary; to involve E.g. 1) The changed outlook entails higher economicgrowth than was previously assumed.2) Repairing the roof will entail spending a lot ofmoney.Adherence to: acting in accordance (with something); following (something)E.g. 1) He was noted for his strict adherence to the rules.2) The villager’s adherence to their religious beliefsimpressed all the visitors.Monogamy: the custom or practice of having only on wife or husband at one timeReplace…with: to change one for another, often better, newer.E.g. We’ve replaced those typewriters with computers.
52MAIN IDEAS 0F TEXT 2Of Marriage and Single Life expresses the writer’s view on marriage or single life for a man. It illustrates the advantages on marriage an being single, mean it indicates the features on both sides for a man. The writer tries to enlighten people what kind of life people will choose eventually, get married or being single without suggesting directly.A topic for discussionBased on your reading and person views, decide whether you would like to be married or single in your life.
54LEARNING OBJECTIVES By the end of this unit, you are supposed to grasp the author’s purpose of writing and make clear the structure of the whole passage through an intensive reading of Text 1 The Company Man.comprehend the topic sentences in Text 1 thoroughly and be able to paraphrase them.get a list of new words and structures and use them freely in conversation and writing.
55Text 1. The Company ManWhat do you think is the life of a typical workaholic like?How important do you think work is to a person?
56HighlightsThe text talks about a company man devoted all his thoughts and energy to work and everything else secondary to that and the end might be considered tragically heroic: he worked himself to death. The author paints an ironic picture of the cutthroat life of a company man and his family. The man was a workaholic who died of a heart attack, which surprised no one. His wife lost him years ago to his work, and his children did not know him well.
57The passage can be divided into four parts. Part One: (Paragraph 1)This is introductory part of the text. The first sentence provide the information about “who”, “what”, “how” and “when”. “Finally” suggests the doomed ending of the workaholic. “Precisely” emphasizes his devotion to work, as he died on a Sunday, a day when people are supposed to take a rest.
58Part Two: (Paragraphs 2-6) This part reports how devoted the man was to his work. Unlike most essays which usually make it clear who the character is at the very beginning, this essay begins with the pronoun “He”. At the end of the third paragraph where the name was finally mentioned, readers only get to know the first name of the deceased, not his full name. This, on the one hand, is meant to get the fact that workaholicism has become a common phenomenon. The deceased was only one of the many workaholics who bury themselves in their work and forget all about their individuality.The man that the author describes in the text was a workaholic who cared about nothing but work while many others in his company worked four days a week, he worked long hours for six days every week.
59Part Three: (Para. 7-13):This part describes Phil’s role in his family. At home, the wife has lost her husband too his work for many years. And his eldest son tried to know what his father was like from his neighbors. His daughter found nothing to talk with him and his youngest son had very little to share with him. To his children, he seems like a stranger.The author repeats “he finally worked himself to death, at precisely 3:00a.m. Sunday morning” three time. By repeating this sentence, the author relates the two contradictory ideas----work on Sunday and thus reveals the personality of the man and suggests that the man is destined to be exhausted.
60Part Four: (Paragraph 14-16) After the cause of Phil’s death being restated, the author goes on to report the company president’s inquiry for his successor.By putting contradictory actions or ideas together such as “work himself…at 3:00 a.m. Sunday morning”, “On Sundays, Phil wore a sports jacket to the office” “…he (his son) went around the neighborhood researching his father”, the author creates the imagine of a workaholic, one who worked on days when others were having their holidays and one who failed to be a qualified husband and father while being successful in his career. The article ends with a president’s question “who’s been working the hardest?” this question shows that being hard-working is the deciding factor in determining whether one will be promoted. From this, we can learn that it was this social value of the competitive society that determined Phil’s attitude towards work and caused his death.
61LANGUAGE WORK Precisely: exactly E.g. They arrived at five o’clock precisely.Overweight: weighing more than is normal, necessary, or allowed, especially having more body weight than is considered normal or healthy for one’s age or build.Fat: implies excessive weight and is generally unfavorable in its connotations;E.g. Charlie is not merely overweight but downright fat.Obese: implies gross overweight;
62Fleshy: suggests a not necessarily excessive abundance of flesh; E.g. Susan quite likes her boyfriend’s firm, fleshy arms.Stout: is sometimes used a polite term to describe fatness. In stricter application stout refers to person with a thickset, bulky figure;E.g. Even slim girls can become stout matrons.Pudgy: means short and fat;E.g His pudgy fingers look really funny.Plump: applies to pleasing fullness of figureE.g. Everybody loves Rita, the plump, rosy little girl.A chubby person is round and plump;E.g. a chubby toddler; chubby cheeks
63Survive: to live longer than; to outline E.g. it’s amazing that she could have survived all her childrenand grandchildren.Marketable: wanted by purchasers or employersE.g. They have failed to launch a marketable model for years.Straighten out: to solve or settle; to remove difficulties (from something) or the doubt or ignorance (in somebody’s mind)E.g. We need someone capable of straightening out all the confusion.
64QUESTIONS What is the text concerned with? What is the message of the text?
65MAIN IDEAS 0F TEXT 2The Unhappy American Way attempts to tell the readers the major causes that prevent people from being happy is that most Americans act on some principles rather than on impulse.. They believe in a general theory on how to make one happy, but the theory is basically false. A competitive struggle dominates life in which happiness lies in getting ahead of those who are your neighbors, colleagues or friends. They forget joys devoid of competitive elements. If people desire to live a healthy and happy life, they should allow impulse to have sufficient scope to remain alive and they should preserve a range of interest.A topic for discussionWhat are the causes prevent people from being happy as much as possible?
67LEARNING OBJECTIVES By the end of this unit, you are supposed to grasp the author’s purpose of writing and make clear the structure of the whole passage through an intensive reading of Text 1 The Company Man.comprehend the topic sentences in Text 1 thoroughly and be able to paraphrase them.
68Text 1. The Company ManWhat kind of people are considered wise? What are the elements that constitute wisdom?How can you become wise? Do you think what you are doing in college contributes to wisdom?
69HighlightsThe author of the text tries to tell us the essence of wisdom lies in impartiality, the ability to defy the physical world. Russell believes knowledge itself cannot save the world. Knowledge without wisdom will not benefit the world and in some cases will even pose a serious threat to humanity. So a wise perosn has to have a comprehensive view. The author also implies that the process of growing wise is that of tearing itself away from the physical and emotional world and moving into a higher stage, the spiritual world.
70The passage can be divided into two parts. Part One: (Paragraph 1)The first paragraph serves as introduction. The view is commonly accepted by most people that knowledge is not equal to wisdom as history has suggested that the acquisition of knowledge does not necessarily lead to the increase of wisdom. In the first paragraph, the author states the purpose of writing, which is the discussion of what contributes to wisdom and how to teach wisdom.
71“The ends of human life” refers to the goals of human life. Part Two: (Paragraphs 2-5)This part is the main body of the essay. The four paragraph tell us what wisdom is. The author holds that these factors contribute to wisdom: a sense of proportion, an awareness of the ends of human life and emancipation from personal prejudice. “A sense of proportion” means the ability to take account of all the importance factors in a problem and to attach to each its due weight. In other words, it refers to the ability to judge correctly what factors are of more importance and what are of less importance.“The ends of human life” refers to the goals of human life.The author suggests that people cannot avoid being partial. The difference between a wise man and an unwise man is the former has a lesser degree of partiality. As one becomes more impartial, his wisdom grows.
72Part Four: (Paragraph 14-16) After the cause of Phil’s death being restated, the author goes on to report the company president’s inquiry for his successor.By putting contradictory actions or ideas together such as “work himself…at 3:00 a.m. Sunday morning”, “On Sundays, Phil wore a sports jacket to the office” “…he (his son) went around the neighborhood researching his father”, the author creates the imagine of a workaholic, one who worked on days when others were having their holidays and one who failed to be a qualified husband and father while being successful in his career. The article ends with a president’s question “who’s been working the hardest?” this question shows that being hard-working is the deciding factor in determining whether one will be promoted. From this, we can learn that it was this social value of the competitive society that determined Phil’s attitude towards work and caused his death.
73LANGUAGE WORK Surpass: to do or be better than E.g. 1) The student was surpassing himself in mathematics.2) Tom surpassed all expectations.Cease: to come to an endE.g. He never ceased from his activities as propagandist.Means: a method that enables a purpose to be fulfilledE.g. 1) He was prepared to use any means to get what hewanted.2) The quickest means of travel is by plane.
74Contribute to: to help to cause or bring about E.g. Her singing will contribute greatly to the success of the party.Attach due weight to: to ascribe proper importance toE.g. 1) They will surely meet with due punishment.2) Due care must be taken while one is driving.Populous: densely populatedSpectacular: strikingly large and obviousPursuit: the action of following somebody or somethingE.g. 1) The police care raced through the streets in pursuit ofanother car.2) He devoted every spare moment to the pursuit of hispassion.
75Many eminent historians have done more harm than good: what many eminent historians have done is more damaging than helpE.g. 1) She is more thoughtless than stupid.2) Their beliefs are more Christian than Buddhist.Lack: the state of not having enough of something; to be without or deficient in; not o have enough ofE.g. 1) He failed in the appeal for lack of evidence2) There is no lack of entertainment abroad the ship.
76Inculcate: to fix (ideas and principles, etc Inculcate: to fix (ideas and principles, etc.) in the mind of (somebody)E.g. 1) It’s important to inculcate you with a respect for culture.2) They will try to inculcate you with a respect for culture.Standard-bearer: a leading figure in a cause or movementEmancipation from : freedom from political, moral, intellectual or social restraints offensive to reason or justiceConfer: to grantE.g. 1) The queen conferred knighthoods on several distinguished men.2) The honor was conferred on him just after the war.
77Search for: to look carefully in order to find something E.g. She searched through her purse for the keys.Appalling: horrifying, shockingE.g. 1) When will this appalling war end?2) He became, as it were, a man without a country.Instill: to gradually but firmly establish (an idea or attitude, especially a desirable on) in a person’s mindE.g. It is a part of the teacher’s job to instill self-confidenceinto his or her students.
78Be bound up with: be involved in, dependant on, connected with E.g. 1) The survival of these creatures is intimately bound upwith the health of the ocean.2) Dominant and submissive behavior is closely bound upwith childhood.Impartially: the condition of treating all rivals or disputants equallyE.g. 1) Certainly ministers are pressing for new rules ordisputants equally.2) Political impartiality is strengthened.
79MAIN IDEAS 0F TEXT 2How to Become a Man of Genius is mainly target at D. H. Lawrence. The essay indicates the major conflict between Russell and Lawrence for the emotional, physical side. Russell despites Lawrence for his primitive man’t understanding of the relationship between men and women and his reliance on passion and desire for emancipation. And Lawrence criticizes the cold and impotent nature of rationality each of them is just the opposite of the other..
81LEARNING OBJECTIVES By the end of this unit, you are supposed to grasp the author’s purpose of writing and make clear the structure of the whole passage through an intensive reading of Text 1 The Chaser.comprehend the topic sentences in Text 1 thoroughly and be able to paraphrase them.get a list of new words and structures and use them freely in conversation and writing.
82Text 1. The Company ManDo you believe love can be fostered? How can you lure one into love with you?What is likely to happen when a couple no longer love each other?
83HighlightsThe text is a story tells a young man who fall in love one-sidedly are seldom right enough to win young lady’s heart. He went to an old man to buy love lotion for the girl he fancies. The conversation between the young man and the old man indicates serious philosophy. One of the moral lessons the text contains is anything precious, love included, is most likely to have an end. A person can easily fall in love and get married, but what await him or her could be endless remorse, and a with that it might end as soon as possible. So one should be wise and keep their eyes open when they are in love though love is said to be blind.
84The passage can be divided into three parts. Part One: (Paragraph 1)The first paragraph describes a timid, skeptical and hesitant character, Alan Austen.
85The old man is trying to sell his mixture. Part Two: (Paragraphs 2-12)The old man is trying to sell his mixture.Paragraph 2 indicates the young man is very nervous and timid.Paragraph 3 from the greeting of the old man, it indicates the old man is expecting Alan’s arrival.The following paragraphs implies the experienced old man hadencountered many young men who had been in the grip ofromantic desire before, but who eventually got tried of thepossessive love they had experienced. He knew for sure thatAusten’s possessive love would not last long. It would eventuallybore and anger him. He expected that when his enthusiasticpassion changed into hatred. Austen would come to him again,because he had already seen those disillusioned customers returnto buy the “chaser” so that they could be free from the women forwhom they had previously bought the love potion.
86Part Three: (Paragraphs 13-45): This part mainly developed through the dialogue between the old man and Alan. Alan got to know about the love potion and in the end bought it.For Alan, love means entirely passion for lover.The surprising ending suggests that the wise old man had a good understanding of men like Austen: they were filled with illusion about love but once in the possession of this love, they were most likely to be tormented to such a degree that they would like to buy the life-cleaner. The cynical tone of the old man gives what he said a double meaning.
87LANGUAGE WORKPeer: to look very carefully or with difficulty, especially as if not able to see clearlyE.g. She peered over my shoulder at the computer screen andasked about the figures.Peep: to look at something quickly and secretly, especially through a hole or other small openingsE.g. Now and then she peeped to see if he was noticing her.Make somebody’s acquaintance: to meet somebody for the first timeE.g. He made her acquaintance at a dance.
88Imperceptible: that cannot be noticed or felt because so small, slight or gradual E.g. Martha’s hesitation was almost imperceptible.Apprehensively: full of anxiety about the futureE.g. They looked at each other apprehensively.Students are waiting with apprehension for their final examresults.Oblige: (1) to do somebody a favor; to fulfill the wises ofE.g. She asked him to lend her his car, and he willinglyobliged her.(2) to make it necessary for somebody to do somethingE.g. The heavy snow obliged me to abandon the car andcontinued ton foot.
89Rapture: great joy and delight E.g. They stared with rapture at the new opera house.Overwhelm: (1) to give somebody a particular feeling verystronglyE.g. The family of the victim was overwhelmed by /with grief.The need to talk to someone, anyone, overwhelmed me.Overwhelming: very large or very greatE.g. The overwhelming majority of small business went backwithin the first twelve months.
90Fervently: with deep sincere feelings E.g. It is a cause of which we have campaigned fervently thesepast four years.We fervently believe in the peaceful reunification of themotherland.Be better off: to have more than one used to have or most other peopleE.g. Mr. Cooper was much better off when he got promoted,and even could afford foreign travel.Be better off doing/ to do something: to be wiser to do something specifiedE.g. If you’ve got heavy bags you are better off taking/to take ataxi.
91QUESTIONS What is the text concerned with? What is the message of the text?
92MAIN IDEAS 0F TEXT 2The story describes a hero tried all means to instruct a girl on how to become a smarter person and he suggested a kind of intimate relationship between them. But the girl pointed out different fallacies in his logic. It tells us one should not be too calculate in everything, particularly in love that is the result of natural affection developed over a long time.A topic for discussionIs love built up gradually between loves or generated naturally?
93Fan, Oh Boy. Fun. You Could Die from It Unit 8Fan, Oh Boy. Fun. You Could Die from It
94LEARNING OBJECTIVES By the end of this unit, you are supposed to grasp the author’s purpose of writing and make clear the structure of the whole passage through an intensive reading of Text 1 Oh Boy. Fun. You Could Die from It.comprehend the topic sentences in Text 1 thoroughly and be able to paraphrase them.get a list of new words and structures and use them freely in conversation and writing.
95Text 1. The Company Man What is the greatest fun in your life? How important is fun in your life?
96HighlightsAccording to the author, fun is not a family visit to Disney World; not is it celebrating big occasions. Fun is simple pleasure in life, which lies rather in one’s work and the fulfillment of one’s duty. The author points out that fun cannot be compared with duty and morality. People should not be obsessed with fun; instead they should devote themselves to their work and the fulfillment of one’s responsibility.
97The passage can be divided into three parts. Part One: (Paragraph 1-5)The first five paragraphs, which from the introduction to the essay, provide a stipulate definition to “fun”.The first two paragraphs state fun is hard to have and fun is a rare jewel. The author uses definition, comparison and a series of questions to introduce the topic.By making a startling statement and raising a series of questions, the author points out that fun has become the major concern of people. It has overweighed many other questions.
98Part Two: (Paragraphs 6-11) In this part of the essay, the writer offers the extended definition of the word “fun” by negation.In paragraph 6, the author lists several things that are supposed to bring people fun, like family outings, sex, education, work, Wart Disney, church and staying fit.In paragraph 8, the author tried to clarify something will not bring people fun, like in a test, dirty bumper, stick refrigerator doors are some to the things that are not sources of fun. Some people resort to thrilling ways such as adventures, immoral actions, crimes or alcohol to have fun. The author creates a conversational style by using “everything, everybody, Golly gee”.
99Paragraph 9 tells us when people live under pressure stress, they can hardly relax and the monotonous routine work is not exciting enough for them. Only when they indulge themselves in drugs and alcohol can they forget the worries of the day and have a little fun.Paragraph 10 with high expectation for fun, people are not content with the joy that big occasion such as holidays, weddings or birthdays bring them. To make up for the inadequacy of fun and joy, they are still expecting the next big occasion which might bring them excitement.
100Part Three: (Para. 12-15): the essay concludes with an anecdote that further explains what fun is. Paragraph 12 according to the author, we should treat fun respectfully. Fun is not supposed to be everywhere. We cannot easily get fun out of everything.Paragraph 13 the author develops the idea that fun is a mystery.In paragraph 14, the author claims that as a rule, no holiday, no big occasions would take place on this day. But if we treat fun properly, we can have fun even on such an ordinary day.
101LANGUAGE WORKOvershadow: to make somebody or something less successful, important, or impressive by comparison with others; to dominateE.g. 1) Ben overshadows all his colleagues.2) She is overshadowed by her younger and moreattractive sister.Flunk: to fail, especially in a course or an examE.g. The boy was upset because he flunked in an English examflunk out: to expel or be expelled from a school or course because of work that does not meet required standardsE.g. We didn’t flunk out, but our records weren’t so good.
102Epitome: an ideal; a typical representation E.g. His father is the epitome of goodness.Epitomize: to be an epitome of somethingE.g. 1) He epitomizes the loving father.2) She epitomizes all the good qualities for her family.Damper: something that stops an occasion from being as enjoyable as it was intended to beE.g. The bad news put a damper on the party.Blaspheme: to swear, to use words which show a lack of respect for God or religionE.g. The bank manager began to rage and blasphemed Islam.
103Malted milk: a soluble powder made of dried milk, malted barley, and wheat flour Chunky: 1) (of candy, etc.)containing small, thick piecesE.g. chunky peanut butter; chunky soup2) (of a man) short and strong; stockyE.g. A chunky man usually has a wide upper body and looksstrong.Scan: 1) to examine something carefully, with the eyes or with a machine, in order to obtain informationE.g. She anxiously scanned the faces of the young men leaving the train inthe hope of finding her son.2) to scan a text can also mean to look through it quickly in order to find a piece of information that one wants or get a general idea of what the text contains
104QUESTIONS What is the text concerned with? What is the message of the text?
105MAIN IDEAS 0F TEXT 2The Age of Thrill tells us our age is the age of thrill. It generates many more thrills than any of the previous ages did and people in our age expect to be thrilled as continuously as people in no other ages did. Happiness is not rooted in thrills, which are merely amusements. Happiness chiefly derives from affection for people and interest in various objects in the external world. Those who are truly happy to do not dependent on thrills for their happiness, for thrills can only help to get rid of the feeling of boredom.A topic for discussionShould we deny ourselves entirely the excitement of thrills?
107LEARNING OBJECTIVES By the end of this unit, you are supposed to grasp the author’s purpose of writing and make clear the structure of the whole passage.comprehend and paraphrase the useful or important expressions/sentences.Learn the new words and structures, and use them freely in conversation and writing.have a good understanding of the personality traits and the tips given in the text.
108Text I On Becoming a Better Student Topics for Pre-reading DiscussionWhat are the greatest problems your group has in English study? Specify two or three, or recommend your effective study habits.As a student, what is your expectation of teachers? Do you expect them to be omniscient and omnipotent, or as human as you are?What do you think are the personality traits of a fine student?
109HighlightsDonna Farhi Schuster is a certified yoga teacher from the San Francisco Bay Area. This article originally appeared in Yoga Journal in September/October 1987.The text presents a snapshot of major qualities of a good student and tips for an aspiring student in a clear and concise way so as to give students some guidelines on how to “become a better student”.The author wants to tell us that good study skills and positive personality traits are actually more important to academic success than intelligence and hard work.
110The passage can be divided into three parts. Part One: (Paragraphs 1-2) the writer explains what teaching and learning is meant to be – students should learn how to learn by themselves.Part Two: (Paragraphs 3-9) the writer discusses various factors that will make a good student – curiosity, discipline, risk-taking, initiative, and enthusiasm.Part Three: (Para. 10): the writer gives advice to the aspiring students – be attentive, be seen, be on time, be consistent, listen with your whole body, appreciate constructive criticism, ask pertinent questions, don’t be too free to express your disagreement, and let your teacher know how much you appreciate him or her.
111LANGUAGE POINTS1. We may even have the expectations that they be endless repositories of skill and knowledge from which we may partake at will.=> Verbs to express order, decision, suggestion, etc., and their derivatives (as “expectations” here) are usu. followed by clauses in the be-pattern subjunctive mood.
1122. repository: n. a place where things are stored. e.g.: My father is a repository of interesting facts.3. at will: whenever, wherever, etc., one wishes.e.g.: You can use my car at will (=at any time you want to).4. feel weighted: feel anxious or nervouse.g.: He felt heavily weighted with such high expectations from his parents.5. partial negation in “all… not” structureTranslate the sentence “All the words and theories and techniques are of no use to students who have yet to open themselves with receptivity and to take it upon themselves to practice.”
1136. receptive: adj. able or quick to receive new ideas, suggestions, etc. e.g.: Generally speaking, young people are more receptive to new developments than old people.7. paraphrase: “learn how to find themselves through their own investigation”.(para.2)8. embody: v. to serve as a symbol or expression of an idea, suggestion, etc.e.g.: He embodies all the best qualities of a teacher.9. not so much… as: not… but rathere.g.: Success in life does not depend so much on one’s school record as on one’s honesty and diligence.Compare “not so much as”: She is a manager in a company, but it is strange that she cannot so much as write her own name well.
11410. in a good/bad/favorable light (so as to be seen well or badly) e.g.: It is hard to view his conduct in a favorable light.11. discipline:a. training, esp. of the mind and character, aimed at producing self-control, obedience, etc.E.g.: Military discipline is imposed on freshmen each yearb. result of such training; ordered behavior.E.g.: The test-takers showed perfect discipline during the examination.c. a branch of knowledge; a subject of study.E.g.: We are going to take a wide range of scientific disciplines in the university.
11512. but: only; cannot but: can only e.g.: I could not but admit that you were right and I was wrong.13. dry (quality): plain, without anything pleasant or interesting.e.g.: They offered no apology, just a dry explanation for the delay.14. for open discussion: “Our culture is in need of redefining what it means to study.” (para. 5)15. compare discrete with discreet:These small companies now have their own discrete (= independent, separate) identity.We must be extremely discreet (=careful); the police suspect something.(fail to) live up to one’s principles, one’s reputation, one’s parents’ expectations, etc.
11617. well-paved road; pave the way for/to e.g.: The agreement paved the way for a lasting peace.18. for discussion or debate: “To be a student is to take risks.” (para.6)19. paraphrase: “Children enter school as question marks and leaves as periods.” (para.6)20. relinquish: to give up; abandone.g.: He had relinquished all hope that she was alive.paraphrase and illustrate: “failures has tremendous social stigma.” (para.6)
11722. compare precedence with precedent precedence: the condition of being dealt with before other things or of being considered more important than other things.e.g.: The needs of the community must take precedence over individual requirements.precedent: earlier decision, case, event, etc. that is regarded as an example or rule for what comes latere.g.: The Queen has broken with precedent by sending her children to ordinary schools.ask students to illustrate “There is nothing quite so satisfying as undergoing a difficult process and after long hard work discovering the true nature of that process.” (para.7)
11824. be proportion to sth./be in proportion to sth. e.g.: Payment will be proportional to the amount of work done, not to the time spent doing it.25. spoon-feed: give too much help or teaching in a way that does not allow him to think for himselfe.g.: Some teachers are just spoon-feeding their students.26. initiative:a. the ability to make decisions and take action without asking for the help or advice of others;e.g.: A man who lacks the initiative never makes a good leader.b. the position of being able to take action or influence events;e.g.: Because of a stupid mistake, we lost the initiative in the negotiations.
11927. prior: coming or planned before e.g.: She was unable to attend the meeting because of a prior engagement.All the arrangements should have been completed prior to our departure.28. pitfall: mistake that may easily be made.e.g.: Chinese spelling presents many pitfalls for foreign students.29. complacency: usu. derogative, a feeling of satisfaction, esp. without good reason.e.g.: The situation is increasingly desperate; I can see no justification for your complacency.
12030. strain (every nerve) to do sth. e.g.: There was so much noise that I had to strain to hear what he was saying.31. go out of one’s way to do sth.: take particular care and trouble to do sth.e.g.: The shop assistant went out of her way to find what we needed.32. pertinent (to): relevant (to)e.g.: Your remarks are not pertinent to our present discussion.33. badger: to repeatedly tell sb. to do sth. or ask sb. questionse.g.: The little girl badgered her father into taking her to the cinemaThe reporters were requested to stop badgering the chairman with questions.
121QUESTIONSWhat does the author mean by saying “it is really not possible to teach”? (para.2)What is an “investigative spirit”? (para.4)According to the writer, what should study mean? (para. 5)Why does the writer say that “A creative person uses these failures as stepping stones”? (para.6)How do you understand the statement “To learn, then, is to open oneself”? (para.8)
122MAIN IDEAS 0F TEXT IIIn a vivid story, the writer tells us how she had been so confident, arrogant and even rude a student, how she became poorly-spirited after several disastrous events, and how she regained the self-confidence and self-respect with the help of a teacher.Through this story, the writer tries to illustrate that the greatest of human potentials is the potential of each one of us to empower and acknowledge the other, and that our greatest genius may be the ability to prime the healing and evolutionary circuits of one another.
123Paraphrase the following sentences from the text II 1.The old Greek tragedies warn us that when hubris rises, nemesis falls. (para.3)2.Intellectual decline such as this often happened to young women when they became interested in other things. (para.4)3.Every day brought its defeats and disacknowledgements, and after my previous career I was too proud to ask for help. (para.5)4.Hegal, agnosticism, structuralism, phenomenology, and the intellectual passions of the Sorbonne cracked the ice of my self-noughting…(para.7)5.I felt my mind fall into its usual painful dullness. (para.12)
1246.I was off and running and haven’t shut up since. (para.15) 7.I would go so far as to say that the greatest of human potentials is the potential of each one of us to empower and acknowledge the other. (para.18)8.The process of healing and growth is immensely quickened when the sun of another’s belief is freely given. (para.19)9.It can be a look that goes straight to the soul and charges it with meaning. (para.19)10.Something so tremendous and yet so subtle wakes up inside that you are able to release the defeats and denigrations of years. (para.20)11.Our greatest genius may be the ability to prime the healing and evolutionary circuits of one another. (para.21)
126LEARNING OBJECTIVES By the end of this unit, you are supposed to Ø grasp the author’s purpose of writing and make clear the structure of the whole passage.Ø comprehend and paraphrase the useful or important expressions/sentences.Ø learn the new words and structures, and use them freely in conversation and writing.Ø have a good understanding of the different love from the mother and the father.
127Text I The Wonderful Lousy Poems Topics for pre-reading discussionØ How different is your father from your mother in their methods when they try to give you proper education?Ø Whose love do you think is important to your growth?
128HighlightsBudd Schulberg is an American novelist, short story writer, screenwriter, and contributor to major national magazines.The Wonderful Lousy Poems is a story about the author’s past experience: as a son of “a Hollywood tycoon”, he wrote his first poem when he was eight or nine years old. His mother gave an affirmative response to the poem while his father rejected the same poem.The story is narrated from the author’s point of view, in the tone of recollections of the past. With great vividness and truthfulness, the author tries to prove that a combination of his mother’s love and his father’s love contributes to his growth.It is implied that what we should do is to navigate our own craft and follow our true course, just as Budd does.
129The passage can be divided into three parts. Part One: (Paragraphs 1-6) this is the introductory part of the whole text, beginning the right story.Part Two: (Paragraphs 7-20) his father came home, and beyond his expectation, the poem was denounced as “lousy”.Part Three: (Para ): in the last part, the author makes a comparison between the father’s love and the mother’s love.
130LANGUAGE POINTS 1. oxymoron in the title “wonderful lousy poem” oxymoron means that words expressing contradictory and inconsistent ideas are joined together to produce a peculiar rhetoric effect, esp. for emphasis.e.g.: “Parting is such sweet sorrow.” (from Romeo and Juliet by Shakespeare)“New York has the poorest millionaires, the littlest great men, the haughtiest beggars, the plainest beauties, the lowest skyscrapers, the dolefulest pleasures of any town I ever saw.” (by O. Henry)
1312. tycoon: wealthy and powerful businessman of industrialist e.g.: an oil tycoon; a newspaper tycoon3. prime mover: person or thing that has great influence in the development of sth. importante.g.: He was the prime mover in the revolt against the government.4. “You didn't really write this beautiful, beautiful poem!”＝>How could you write such a beautiful poem!I couldn't imagine that you could write a poem beautiful as this!
1325. nothing short of: nothing less than; almost the same as e.g.: A hundred dollars for a room – that is nothing short of robbery!6. have no idea: don’t know; be incompetente.g.: He had no idea how to manage people.He hasn’t the slightest idea how to manage people.7. can hardly/not wait to: be very eager toe.g.: I cannot wait to tell them the good news.
1338. the best part of: most, nearly e.g.: We waited for the best part/the better part of an hour.She lived there for the greater part of her life.9. elaborate: full of detail; carefully worked out and with a large number of partse.g.: She made elaborate preparations for the part only to find on one came.10. do justice to: to treat in a fair or proper way; to get the best results frome.g.: The photograph does not do justice to the rich colors of the garden.11. paraphrase: “The suspense was exquisite.” (para.6)
13412. call sth. down on sb.: to invoke (curses, oaths, etc.) on sb. e.g.: The priest called down God’s anger on the people.13. oatha. (words used in making) a solemn promise or solemn declaration (usu. appealing to God as a witness)E.g.: There is a standard form of oath used in law courts.b. casual and improper use of the name of God to express anger, surprise, etc.E.g.: He hurled a few oaths at his wife and walked out, slamming the door.
13514. sentence: to state that sb. is to have a certain punishment e.g.: He has been sentenced to three years in prison.A crippling disease sentenced him to a lifetime in a wheelchair.15. blank: adj. empty of expressionless; n. an empty spaceWhen I tried to remember his name, my mind went completely blank.When I tried to remember his name, my mind was a complete bland.16. glare: to look/stare in a angry waye.g.: They didn’t fight, but stood there glaring at each other.
13617. paraphrase: “How wonderful it would be if this very first work of mine drove away the angry clouds that now darkened my important father’s face!” (para.9)18. verdict: decisione.g.: The judge directed the jury to return a verdict of guilty.19. hold/keep/stand one’s ground: maintain one’s claim, intention, argument, etc.e.g.: She held her ground in spite of all the counter-arguments. 20. paraphrase: “it is hard to hear clearly when your head is making its own sounds of crying.” (para.18)21. tear sth. apart/to shreds/to bits, etc.: destroy or defeat sth. completely; criticize sth. harshlye.g.: The critics tore her new play to pieces.
13722. reluctant: unwilling and therefore slow to cooperate, agree, etc. e.g.: She was really reluctant to accept our proposal.23. work sth. up: to cause oneself to have, develop.e.g.: I’m afraid I can’t work up much enthusiasm for this scheme.24. ask students to illustrate “There is nothing quite so satisfying as undergoing a difficult process and after long hard work discovering the true nature of that process.” (para.7)25. dawn (on sb): (gradually) become clear to one’s minde.g.: It finally dawned on me that he had been lying.
13826. “Only when it was all finished and I was in a triumphant glow of achievement did he take me down a peg”a. partial inversione.g.: Only in this way can we accomplish it on time.Often does he warn us not to touch the poisonous chemical.b. take sb. down a peg (or two): make (a proud or conceited person) more humblee.g.: Many pop stars need taking down a peg or two.
13927. on the crest: at the highest/greatest point e.g.: After its election victory, the party was on the crest of a wave of popularity.28. paraphrase: “Now, on the crest of having written a novel, I could absorb a sharp critical blow.” (para.22)29. paraphrase: “Those conflicting but complementary voices of my childhood echo down through the years.” (para.24)30. paraphrase: “I try to navigate my little craft so as not to capsize before either.” (para.24)
140QUESTIONS 1．Why did he look forward to his father’s arrival? (para.6) 2．Why did he describe his father’s anger with an actress? (para.8)3．Why did he lower his head and stare down into his plate when his father was reaching for his poem? (para.9)4．question open for discussion: How do you think of Buddy’s parents’ different kind of love?
141MAIN IDEAS 0F TEXT IIThrough his own experience, Malcolm, the author, tells us that the relationship between a son and his father changes over time: to a little boy, a father seemed a god with strange strengths and uncanny powers; he could teach him a variety of rules guiding his growth; with the time, the son was not trying to please his father so much as trying to impress him; then even the son began to see the father’s weakness although never throwing these up at him; gradually, politics and issue gave way to talk of empty errands and to ailments; and finally the son was learning to understand the problems involved in the father’s aging and dying.
142Paraphrase the following sentences from the text II 1.It may grow and flourish in mutual maturity. It may sour in resented dependence or independence. (para.2)2.a father seemed a god with strange strengths and uncanny powers enabling him to do and know things that no mortal could do or know. (para.3)3.He was there, too, with his big arms and his own tears and some thoughts on the natural order of life and death, although what was natural about a speeding car that didn’t stop always escaped me. (para.6)
1434.He provided perspective, not telling me what was around the great corner of life but letting me know there was a lot more than just today and the next. (para.7)5.I could tell we had each taken our own, perfectly normal paths. (para.10)6.No amount of love could make someone else care about life; it was a two-way street. (para.15)
144Question for consideration How well can a person younger than forty understand the problems involved in a parent’s aging and dying?=> (This question is open for discussion; the following is for students’ reference.) Young people take it for granted that their parents will look after them all their lives, and will provide them with food, clothing and shelter. They hardly think of the fact that their parents will become old and one day one of them will die.
146LEARNING OBJECTIVES By the end of this unit, you are supposed to Ø grasp the author’s purpose of writing and make clear the structure of the whole passage.Ø comprehend and paraphrase the useful or important expressions/sentences.Ø learn the new words and structures, and use them freely in conversation and writing.Ø reconsider the dilemma: to lie or not to lie.
147Text I The Real Truth About Lies Topics for pre-reading discussionØ Have you ever been lying to others with a seemingly good intention? How’s the consequence?Ø If somebody lies to you for your own good, how would you feel?
148HighlightsThis text is of journalistic style. From the very beginning the writer shows us that most people lie in their daily lives, and then he goes on to explain that telling white lies is a common practice. In the end, after dealing with the grave consequence of telling lies, the writer discusses how to decide which lies are to be avoided.
149The passage can be divided into four parts: Part One: (Paragraphs 1-6) Reporting two survey results, the writer introduces the topic that telling lies is common.Part Two: (Paragraphs 7-11) people are lying with a familiar reason: they don’t want to hurt others.
150Part Three: (Para ) in this part the writer deals with the consequences of telling lies – the ubiquity of lies may cause people to be distrustful of each other, thus leading to the collapse of the whole society.Part Four: (Para ) as a conclusion, the writer discusses whether lies should be avoided at all costs and argues that most acceptable lies are based on what moralists call the principle of love and care rather than that of trust.
151LANGUAGE POINTS1. volunteer: give or offer willingly of without being paide.g.: Many people volunteered for relief work there right after the earthwake.Jenny volunteered to clear up afterwards.2. profess: to make a claim; to state openly that one hase.g.: She professed total ignorance of the matter.3. earth-shattering: earthshaking; of the greatest importance to the whole worlde.g.: The president’s assassination was an event of earth-shattering importance.
1524. feign: to pretend to have or be e.g.: He feigned death to escape capture.5. spare one’s feelings: avoid hurting sb’s feelingse.g.: He spared her feelings by not criticizing her husband in front of her.No trouble was spared to make sure the guests enjoyed themselves.6. preoccupation: the state of constantly thinking or worrying about sth.e.g.: Such an excessive preoccupation with your health can’t be normal.
1537. prevarication: the state of avoiding giving a direct answer or making a firm decision e.g.: The report was full of lies and prevarications.No prevarications! Just tell us exactly what happened.8. devote: to give completely toe.g.: He has devoted his life to helping blind people.Several pages of the paper were devoted to an account of the election.9. ethics: moral rules or principlese.g.: Whether a country should have nuclear weapons or not should be a question of ethics, not of politics.10. pundit: (sometimes humorous) an expect; an authoritye.g.: The pundits disagree on the best way of dealing with the problem.
15411. white lie: harmless or trivial lie 12. ubiquitous: present everywheree.g.: Is there no escape from the ubiquitous cigarette smoke in bus?13. suppose: take sth as a facte.g.: Suppose that you have a million pounds – how would you spend it?I don’t suppose that you would gibe me a lift to the station, would you?You are supposed to return the book by Friday.14. blurt out: say sth. suddenly and tactlesslye.g.: He blurted out the bad news before I could stop him.
15515. compliment: praisee.g.: I must compliment you on the way you handled the meeting.16. the slippery slope: course of action that can easily lead to disaster, failure, etc.e.g.: Extreme nationalism can be the start of the slippery slope towards fascism.Once you’ve given in to temptation for the first time you are on the slippery slope.17. wear down: to lessen the strength or determination ofe.g.: We wore down their opposition after several hours’ argument.
15618. perception: quality of understanding; insight e.g.: His analysis of the problem showed great perception.19. warp: to turn or twist out of shapee.g.: Her views of man had been warped by several bad experiences.20. proliferation: rapid growth or increasee.g.: A non-proliferation treaty was called upon to stop the spread of nuclear weapons.21. cynical: (sometimes derogative) like or typical of a cynice.g.: She was very cynical about the peace conference and said the president was only there to boost his popularity.
15722. falter: to lose strength or effectiveness; weaken e.g.: The business faltered badly last year but it seems to be recovering now.23. paraphrase: “The most understandable and forgivable lies are an exchange of what ethicists refer to as the principle of trust for the principle of caring.” (para.16)=> The rule of honesty is most acceptably violated so as to establish the principle of showing love and care.
15824. set sb. up:a. make sb. healthier, stronger, etc.e.g.: A week in the country will set her up nicely after her operation.b. to cause to seem guiltye.g.: The criminals claimed that they had been set up by the police.25. associate:a. n. partner, colleague, companione.g.: He is not a friend, but a business associate.b. to combine or to connecte.g.: I’ve never associated myself with political extremism.
159QUESTIONS1．What is the writer’s purpose of reporting two survey results first? (para.6)2．What does this sentence mean: “What a tangled web we weave, when first we practice to deceive?” (para.11)3．What is the grave consequence of telling lies? (para.15)4. Question open for discussion: Do you think the lies will be well received once they are exposed?
160MAIN IDEAS 0F TEXT IIThis text is about the question of whether patients should be told the truth about their illnesses.Many physicians may slip into deceptive practices in the belief that this may benefit them psychologically and help them recover.But new studies show that most patients want to know the truth even in the case of grave illnesses.The writer argues that lying makes it difficult for the patients to make choices for their own health, and can also cause doctors to lose their integrity and credibility.
161Paraphrase the following sentences from the text II 1.Ours is a profession which traditionally has been guided by a precept that transcends the virtue of uttering the truth for truth’s sake, and that is “as far as possible do no harm”. (para.4)2.But the illusory nature of the benefits such deception is meant to produce is now coming to be documented. (para.6)
1623.The suspicion of deceit undercuts the work of many doctors who are scrupulously honest with their patients. (para.94.Yet even in hospitals with the most eloquent bill of rights, believers in benevolent deception continue their age-old practices. (para.10)5.Neither in medicine, nor in law, government, or the social sciences can there be comfort in the old saying, “What you don’t know can’t hurt you.”. (para.11)
163Question for consideration If you were a patient, would you like to know the truth that you would have only a few months to live? And if you were a doctor, how would you break the news to your patient?
165LEARNING OBJECTIVES By the end of this unit, you are supposed to Ø grasp the author’s purpose of writing and make clear the structure of the whole passage.Ø comprehend and paraphrase the useful or important expressions/sentences.Ø learn the new words and structures, and use them freely in conversation and writing.Ø have a good idea of the meaning and importance of walking to health.
166Text I Out of Steps Topics for pre-reading discussion How will you interpret the title Out of Steps before reading the text?It is said that the United States is a nation on the wheel. What is your view on this? Do you think people will become over-reliant on cars in the future?When do you prefer to walk, and when to drive or take a bus/taxi?
167Highlights“Out of Steps” is taken from Bryson’s book I’m a Stranger Here Myself published in 1999, which presents the absurdity of the American’s dependence on cars.In the text we may find the Americans, being so accustomed to using cars, have almost forgotten the existence of their legs. Wherever they go, they go in their cars. As a result, pedestrian facilities are much neglected in city planning or even ridiculously rejected by the inhabitants.The writer is appealing people to walk, instead drive, as much as possible, which will be beneficial to health.
168The passage can be divided into three parts. Part One: (Paragraphs 1-6) This is the introductory part of the whole text, beginning with an anecdote.Part Two: (Paragraphs 7-12) in this part, the author employs two typical examples to present the fact that the Americans are accustomed to using cars for everything.Part Three: (Para ): in the last part, the author explains that pedestrian facilities are neglected or even discarded.
169LANGUAGE POINTS1. sedate: (of a person or his behavior) calm and dignifiede.g.: She does care but never talks much: she is a sedate old lady.2. venerable: deserving respect because of age, character, associations, etc.e.g.: a venerable scholar; the venerable walls of the cathedral3. residential:a. consisting of private houses, without offices or factories: a quiet residential streetb. for which one must live or stay in a place for a certain periode.g.: You can’t vote in this country unless you’ve got residential qualifications.
1704. debonair: (usu. of men) cheerful and self-assured e.g.: He strolled about, looking very debonair in his elegant new suit.5. not dream of: not do under any circumstancese.g.: I should never have dreamt of saying such a thing.6. eccentric: peculiar, not conventionale.g.: If you go to the palace in tennis shoes, they will think you’re rather eccentric.The club seemed to be full of eccentrics.
1717. habituate sb. to sth.: to allow (oneself) to get used to sth. e.g.: Over centuries, these animals have become habituated to living in such a dry environment.8. contortion: movement of the body or face into an unusual shape or positione.g.: The spectators cannot but admire the contortions of he gymnasts.9. ludicrous: causing laughter, ridiculous, absurde.g.: Granddad looks absolutely ludicrous in mum’s old sunhat.10. pop out: come out suddenlye.g.: His eyes nearly popped out of his head when he saw what he had won.
17211. extravagant:a. using of spending too muche.g.: Don’t be so extravagant; spend your money more carefully.b. going beyond what is reasonablee.g.: He makes the most extravagant claims for his new system.12. treadmill: (fig.) tiring or monotonous routine worke.g.: I can’t get off the office treadmill.13. in this/that/one regard: in this/that connectione.g.: We have succeeded in one crucial regard: making this scandal public.
17314. paraphrase: “I’m surprised it was that much.” (para.14) 15. bring/drive sth. home to sb.: sth comes home to sb.; sth. becomes clear to sb.e.g.: At last it has been brought home to us that they have been tricking us all the time.16. dodge: to avoid (by moving suddenly aside)e.g.: He always manages to dodge doing the housework.17. exasperate: irritate or annoy greatlye.g.: It’s exasperating to run for a train and then miss it by half a minute.
17418. negotiate:a. get over or past successfullye.g.: The horse negotiated the fence with ease.b. to talk with another person or group in order to try to settle an argument or meet in agreemente.g.: The government says it will never negotiate with the terrorists.19. aesthetic: pleasing to look ate.g.: Their furniture was more aesthetic than practical.20. anew: again, esp. in a different waye.g.: The scientists had to start the experiment anew.
175QUESTIONS1．What do you think makes the author sad at the end of the passage?2．What is the tone of the author in the passage?3．Question open for discussion: Do you think the author’s attitude towards cars together with his preference for walking at times is a bit eccentric?
176MAIN IDEAS 0F TEXT IIIn this text, the writer is trying to argue that the skyline as a whole evokes the universal feeling of exaltation and aspiration out of the seemingly irrational, unplanned, and often infuriating chaos.There actually exists an unforeseen unity which is fluid and ever-changing. Such a unity is achieved mainly by means of two elements, namely the gridiron ground plan and the vertical grid of steel cage construction.So far as the first element is concerned, the artificial geometric grid imposed upon the land without regard to contours has one important quality of rational simplicity. The second element is, in effect, only a three-dimensional variant of the gridiron street plan.
177Paraphrase the following sentences from the text II 1.No building ever built in New York was placed where it was, or shaped as it was, because it would contribute to the aesthetic effect of the skyline lifting it here, giving it mass there, or lending a needed emphasis. (para.3)2.And it is this simple gridiron street pattern which, horizontally, controls the spacing and arrangement of the rectangular shafts which go to make up the skyline. (para.5)
1783.Nut there is nothing inherent in cage construction which would invite such judgments. (para.7) 4.His lesser contemporaries worked for years on the blind assumption that the proportion and asymmetry of masonry architecture must be preserved in the new technique. (para.8)5.Many of us remember with affection that admirably simple mechanism, forever susceptible to added gadgets or improved parts, each of which was interchangeable with what you already had. (para.9)
179Question for consideration Do you agree with the writer’s view on modern construction?=>(This question is open for discussion)
181LEARNING OBJECTIVES By the end of this unit, you are supposed to Ø grasp the author’s purpose of writing and make clear the structure of the whole passage.Ø comprehend and paraphrase the useful or important expressions/sentences.Ø learn the new words and structures, and use them freely in conversation and writing.Ø have a good understanding of the benefits of having friends.
182Text I A Magic Circle of Friends Topics for pre-reading discussionØ What is your understanding of “friends”?Ø Do all your friends mean the same to you? Can you describe the relationship between you and your friends?
183HighlightsIt is believed that friends are indispensable in our life, for friends can always offer us the kind of help which we need badly when we are experiencing great difficulty.The author of this text provides us with an example from her own experience when she returned to school as an elderly student: the cheering her friends offered her; the joy they found in each other’s company; the enjoyment and happiness they felt when they agreed or disagreed on a certain issue.Finally they made it: they graduated and made a big difference.The article is meticulously calculated and finely constructed to show us what the magic circle of friends has done for them.
184The passage can be divided into three parts. Part One: (Paragraphs 1) This is the opening remarks in which the author reveals to us her opinion of herself. She thinks herself as a unique item, i.e., quite different from others.Part Two: (Paragraphs 2-14) this is the body of this article in which the author elaborates on the kinds of friends she has, the effect of their friendship on her life, her attitude toward people, and her world-view.Part Three: (Para. 15): in the closing remarks the author reiterates the effects of having friends, that is, you become really different from other people even when you are old.
185LANGUAGE POINTS1. start from scratch: at the beginning, not using anything already donee.g.: It’s completely ruined, so we’ll have to start from scratch.2. peek: to take a quick look at sth. esp. when one should note.g.: They caught him peeking through the keyhole at what was going on in the room.3. out of one’s shell: becoming less shy, reserved, etc.e.g.: She used to be so quiet, but now she’s coming out of her shell and chatting to everybody.4. paraphrase: “We share a fear that sits in the back of the mind like a spider ready to pounce” (para.2)
1865. pounce: jump suddenly in order to take hold of sth. firmly e.g.: Policemen were hiding in the bank, ready to pounce on the thieves.6. paraphrase: “We reach over the phone lines for that word of comfort, the encouragement we need to go on when our own store of will power has become depleted.” (para.3)7. deplete: reduce greatlye.g.: This expense has depleted our funds.8. paraphrase: “For years, in a locked-up corner of our minds, we had held the unspoken fear that we might actually be brain-dead.”
1879. exhilarating: exciting e.g.: Our first parachute jump was an exhilarating experience.10. paraphrase: “We delved in this newly found camaraderie with an intensity we did not know we could achieve outside of love and pregnancies.” (para.7)11. delve: to search deeplye.g.: He delved into the family archives looking for the facts.12. brash: confident in an annoying waye.g.: His brash answer annoyed the interviewers.
18813. end up: to finally be in a particular place or situation e.g.: She’ll end up penniless if she goes on spending like that.14. pick up the slack: to do the work which sb. else has stopped doing but which still needs to be done.e.g.: If Sue gets a job, Mick will have to pick up the slack at home.15. bonus: a pleasing additional thinge.g.: The warm weather in winter has been a real bonus to the tourists.
18916. shot (at): an attempt to do or achieve sth 16. shot (at): an attempt to do or achieve sth. that you have never done beforee.g.: I’ve never tried bowling before, but I thought I’d give it a shot.17. paraphrase: “time has also brought us a sense of flexibility and an appreciation for the serendipitous properties of practically any action.” (para.11)18. turn out: to be known or discovered finally and surprisinglye.g.: It turned out that she had known him when they were children.19. envision: envisage, foreseee.g.: Nobody can envision the consequences of total nuclear war.
19020. late bloomer: sb. who becomes good at sth. after people usu 20. late bloomer: sb. who becomes good at sth. after people usu. become good at ite.g.: At school she was a late bloomer, and it wasn’t until she went to university that her talents became apparent.21. paraphrase: “We are sought by schools, thanks to the sheer numbers we represent…” (para.12)22. sheer: nothing bute.g.: The sheer size of the country (= the simple fact that it is so big) causes tremendous communication problems.
19123. not to mention: in addition, esp. sth. for emphasis e.g.: He has a big house and an expensive car, not to mention a villa in France.24. bolster: to support, strengthen, or increasee.g.: These price cuts are sure to bolster demand for their products.25. trepidation: a state of anxiety about sth. bad that might happene.g.: I waited for the results in a state of some trepidation.26. souvenir: an object kept as a reminder of sth.e.g.: He bought a little model of the Eiffel Tower as a souvenir of his holiday in Paris.27. cajole: persuade sb. by flattery or deceit; coax sb.e.g.: She’s always cajoling people into doing things for her.28. make a difference (to): have an effect (on)
192QUESTIONS1．Why does the writer say her friends were her best fans? (para.4)2．What does the author mean by saying “The process is in itself an achievement”? (para.11)3．Question open for discussion: What kinds of people will you choose as your friends?
193MAIN IDEAS 0F TEXT IIIn this text, the writer presents us a detailed elaboration focused on “peer pressure”, i.e. the influence from your friends or acquaintances who are about the same age as you.After defining “peer pressure”, the author goes on to discuss the reason why people give in to “peer pressure”, and then he gives us some acceptable and practical suggestions to get away from “peer pressure”.Finally the author emphasizes that “peer pressure” is not always a bad thing: it can be quite positive and helpful in shaping people’s behaviors.
194Paraphrase the following sentences from the text II 1.It’s only human nature to listen to and learn from other people in your age group. (para.4)2.The idea that “everyone’s doing it” may influence some kids to leave their better judgment, or their common sense, behind. (para.7)
1953.all it takes for someone to stand her ground on what she knows is right is for one other peer to join her. That principle holds ture for people of any age in peer pressure situation. (para.8)4.Sometimes it takes adult guidance to help with such a big plan, but the power of the peer group for positive change is a major force. (para.16)
196Question for consideration How can your friends influence you? What is your idea about “peer pressure”?=>(This question is open for discussion)
198LEARNING OBJECTIVES By the end of this unit, you are supposed to Ø grasp the author’s purpose of writing and make clear the structure of the whole passage.Ø comprehend and paraphrase the useful or important expressions/sentences.Ø learn the new words and structures, and use them freely in conversation and writing.Ø have a good understanding of the true relationship between parents and children.
199Text I Father Forgets Topics for pre-reading discussion Ø What kind of father do you have? And what relationship between your father and you?Ø How do you think parents should treat their children?
200HighlightsIn this text, the writer, narrating in the chronological order, tries to elucidate that love is the essence between parents and children.He in the story has come to his son’s bedside making confession. He is feeling remorse for his rudeness toward his son.As he has been measuring his child by the yardstick of his own years, he has always been unhappy with his son and formed a habit of complaining, of finding fault, of reprimanding.But his son never fails to show sincere love for him, which has made him feel much guilty.Now he realizes that the full joy of parenthood lies in mutual respect and love between them and their child.
201The passage can be divided into three parts. Part One: (Paragraphs 1) this is the introductory part of the whole text: an affectionate father filled with remorse comes to his son who is in sound sleep and is ready to make a confession.
202Part Two: (Paragraphs 2-8) in this part, the father recalls his harsh and inappropriate behavior towards his son.Part Three: (Para. 9-15): in the last part, the father, with his deep regrets and self-examination, made a confession of his own selfishness and also a resolution to be a real daddy.
203LANGUAGE POINTS 1. crumple: to become full of irregular folds e.g.: He crumpled the paper (up) into a ball.(fig.: collapse) Her resistance to the proposal has crumpled.Compare “crumble”: be broken or rubbed into very small pieces, and (fig.) gradually deteriorate or come to an ende.g.: The great empire began to crumble.2. stifling: causing a feeling of repression, uneasye.g.: It is stifling in the classroom with all its restrictive rules.
2043. remorse: a strong feeling of guilt and regret e.g.: He was filled with remorse for having refused to visit his dying father.4. cross (with sb.) (about sth.)e.g.: I was cross with him for being so late.5. take sb. to task for/about/over sth.: criticizee.g.: He has been taken to task for his habitual lack of punctuality.6. find fault with sb./sth.: look for and discover mistakee.g.: I have no fault to find with your work.
2057. gulp: swallow greedily or rapidly 8. make for sb./sth.a. move in the direction ofe.g.: It’s getting late; we’d better turn and make for home.b. help to make sth. possiblee.g.: Constant arguing doesn’t make for a happy marriage.9. humiliate: to cause to feel ashamed or to lose one’s facee.g.: It was so humiliating to be corrected by the teacher in front of so many schoolmates.
20610. snap: speak or say in a sharp (usu. angry) voice e.g.: He never speaks calmly – just snaps all the time.11. tempestuous: stormy; very strong and passionatee.g.: For decades, the Hollywood couple’s tempestuous relationship made the headline.12. wither: to become or cause to become reducede.g.: Their hopes gradually withered away.13. reprimand ab. For sth.: to express strong official disapproval ofe.g.: The military court ordered him to be reprimanded for failing to do his duty.
20714. paraphrase: “I was measuring you by the yardstick of my own years 14. paraphrase: “I was measuring you by the yardstick of my own years.” (para.9)15. yardstick: standarde.g.: Is profit the only yardstick of success?16. spontaneous: happening as a result of natural feelings or causese.g.: Her successful jump brought a spontaneous cheer from the crowd.17. atone: to make repaymente.g.: He tried to atone for his rudeness by sending her some flowers.18. resolve: resolution; a firm decisione.g.: He made a resolve to give up smoking and drinking.
20819. chum up (with sb.): become friendly to sb. e.g.: She’s chummed up with the boy in the next room.20. paraphrase: “I will bite my tongue when impatient words come.” (para.12)21. weary: very tirede.g.: You must be weary after so long a trip by train.22. shrine: holly placee.g.: He built a chapel as a shrine to the memory of his dead wife.
209QUESTIONS 1．What is the tone of the father throughout the passage? 2．What made the father so repent?3．Why is the father so cross with his son?4．Question open for discussion: compare Chinese parents with western parents in their child-rearing styles.
210MAIN IDEAS 0F TEXT IIAs a letter from father to son, this text gives us many helpful suggestions for our initiation in the great society of the world:1. One should possess the art of pleasing: do as you would be done by, i.e., observe carefully what pleases you in others, and probably the same thing in you will please others;2. Banish the egotism out of your conversation: never think of entertaining people with your own personal concerns or private affairs;
2113. Remember there is a local property to be observed in all companies: what is extremely proper in one company may be, and often is, highly improper in another;4. Try to discover every man and woman’s prevailing vanity by observing his or her favorite topic of conversation;5. Little attentions are very pleasant. So observe the little habits, the likings, the antipathies and the tastes of those whom you would win favor from.
212Paraphrase the following sentences from the text II 1.It can hardly be reduced to rules; and your own good sense and observation will teach you more of it than I can. (para.1)2.Remember that there is a local property to be observed in all companies. (para.3)3.You will easily discover every man’s prevailing vanity by observing his favorite topic of conversation. (para.5)
2134.It was his favorite and frequent subject of conversation, which proved to those who had any penetration that it was his prevailing weakness, and they applied to it with success. (para.5)5.Women have, in general, but one object. Which is their beauty; upon which scarce any flattery is too gross for them to swallow. (para.6)
2146.But there is no living in the world without a complaisant indulgence for people’s weaknesses, and innocent, though ridiculous vanities. (para.7)7.Such attention to such trifles flatters self-love much more than greater things, as it makes people think themselves almost the only objects of your thoughts and care. (para.8)
215Question for consideration What is your personal understanding of all these “necessary arcanums”?＝> (for open discussion)
217LEARNING OBJECTIVES By the end of this unit, you are supposed to grasp the author’s purpose of writing and make clear the structure of the whole passage through an intensive reading of Text 1 The Roots of Happiness: An Empirical Analysiscomprehend Text 1 thoroughly and be able to paraphrase them some sentences.
218Text 1. The Roots of Happiness: An Empirical Analysis What is happiness? List some popularsayings on the definition of happiness.Happiness is the meaning and the purpose of life, the whole aim and end of human existence By AristotleTrue happiness is not attained through self-gratification, but through fidelity to a worthy purpose By Helen Keller
219Hope is itself a species of happiness, and, perhaps, the chief happiness which this world affords By Samuel JohnsonThousands of candles can be lighted from a single candle, And the life of the candle will not be shortened. Happiness never decreases by being shared.--This happy thought by Buddha
220Such as : Health; Culture; Love and what do you think are the ingredients of happiness? Make a list of the determinants of happiness.Such as : Health; Culture; Love andMarriage; Work; Personality
221The passage can be divided into three parts. Part One: (Paragraphs 1) ANALYSISThe passage can be divided into three parts. Part One: (Paragraphs 1)The first paragraph serves as an introduction. The following questions could be asked:1) Why does the author say that the question of the roots of happiness has been much of speculation?2) How many questions are raised in the first paragraph?3) Why does the author ask so many questions in the first paragraph?
222Part Two: (Paragraphs 2-18) In this part the author discusses the determinants of happiness. This part can be further divided into three subdivisions.Para. 2-9: displaying the findings of those unimportant factors.Para : discussing those factors that are of moderate importance to happinessPara : dealing with the factors that are very important .
223Here are some questions for the students to consider: 1) What is IQ? 2) what is the middle class?3) Why does health have moderate impact on happiness?4) Name the factors that are not important to happiness, somewhat important to happiness and that are very important to happiness. Compare the number in each list. What sights have you gained from the difference?
224Part Three: (Para ):In this part, the author draws conclusions from his research. Here are some questions for the students to consider.1) Are most of the determinants of happiness subjective or objective?2) How does the author explain the fact that age, health, job are not very important to one’s subjective well-being?3) why, according to the author, affluent people may still not be happy?
225mostly a conjecture without firm evidence LANGUAGE WORKmuch of speculationmostly a conjecture without firm evidencespeculation: the act of guessing without knowing allthe facts about something, or the guesses that you makeE.g.Their speculations are still far from the truth.hypothesisan idea that is suggested as a possible way of explaining a situation, proving an idea etc., which has not yet been shown to be trueThe hypothesis will be tested.
226abound highlight to exist in very large numbers or quantities E.g. These essays abound in wit.highlightTo make a problem or subject easy to notice so that people pay attention to itE.g. The rime minister’s speech highlighted the importance of military defense.
227voracious consumption the state of using in large amounts determinant :something that strongly influences what you do or how you behaveE.g. The windows and the views beyond them are major determinants of a room’s character.influentialHaving a lot of influence and therefore changing the way people think and behave.E.g. He has been influential in shaping economic policy.voracious consumptionthe state of using in large amountsE.g. He has a voracious appetite.
228E.g. they have a relatively affluent way of life. shift some : Come out shortTo end up lacking in moneyaffluent:having plenty of moneyE.g. they have a relatively affluent way of life.shift some :to change by a small degreeHassle:Something that is annoying, because it causes problems or is difficult to do .E.g. It was worth all the hassle to have the room redecorated.
229too slight or unimportant to have any effect stereotype balance… out: to become equalnegligibletoo slight or unimportant to have any effectstereotypea fixed idea or image of what a particular type of person or thing is likeE.g. She believes that she is not a good mother because she does not fit the stereotype of a woman who spends all her time with the children.
230Spectrum:a complete range of opinion, ideas, situations etc. , going from one extreme to its oppositeE.g. The proposal has been supported by people on all sides of the political spectrum.religiosity’ :the state of being excessively religiousfoster: to help an idea to develop over a period oftimeplace a priority on : to deal with… first and give it preferential treatment
231The state of being outgoing and socially confident Disparity:a difference between two or more things, especially an unfair one.quadriplegic:a person who is permanently unable to move any part of their body below their neck.extraversion:The state of being outgoing and socially confident
232Text II Of Happiness Back ground information About the author Aristotle ( B.C.)Aristotle was born in 384 BC. at Stagirus, a Greek colony and seaport. While he was still a boy his father died. At age 17 his guardian, Proxenus, sent him to Athens, the intellectual center of the world, to complete his education.He joined the Academy and studied under Plato, attending his lectures for a period of twenty years. In the later years of his association with Plato and the Academy he began to lecture on his own account, especially on the subject of rhetoric.
233At the death of Plato in 347, the pre-eminent ability of Aristotle would seem to have designated him to succeed to the leadership of the Academy. But his divergence from Plato's teaching was too great to make this possible.The works of Aristotle fall under three headings:dialogues and other works of a popular character;(2) collections of facts and material from scientific treatment(3) systematic works.Aristotle's systematic treatises may be grouped in several division: Logic , Physical works , Psychological works , Works on natural history , Philosophical works
234MAIN IDEA 0F TEXT II Of Happiness Human efforts, the gift of God and chance are three major possibilities of how happiness is acquired . Happiness is a kind of energy of soul according to virtue. That is why beast devoid of soul and virtue can not be happy. Therefore, Virtuous energies are the essential constituents of happiness and the contrary energy are the negation of happiness.
236LEARNING OBJECTIVES By the end of this unit, you are supposed to grasp the author’s purpose of writing and make clear the structure of the whole passage through an intensive reading of Text 1 “Take Over, Bos’n!”comprehend Text 1 thoroughly
237Topics for discussion1.Can you imagine the feeling of the survivors of a shipwreck who are drifting on the sea waiting to be rescued? What menace do you think they have to face?2.What do you think is the relationship between crewmen on a ship? Is there any difference between their relationship and that of “land” people?
238An integrated Analysis of Text 1 “Take Over, Bos’n!” Structural analysis of the text and language pointsThe passage can be divided into three parts.Part One: (Paragraphs 1-2) This is the introductory part of the story. The following questions can be asked:1).How does the author begin the story?2).Do you suppose Snyder pointed the gun at the other nine men?
239Part Two: (Paragraphs 3-23) In this part, the author narrates and describes in detail the desperate situation they were in and the responsibility Snyder shouldered. The following questions can be asked:1).What was the cause of the confrontation?2).What kind of man was Jeff Barrett?3).Why did Snyder insist that they wait till night for the last few drops of water?4).What did Snyder imagine would happen when he wasasleep?
240Part Three: (Paragraphs 24-28) This is the end of the story Part Three: (Paragraphs 24-28) This is the end of the story. The following questions can be asked:1).What happened while Snyder was asleep?2).What made Barrett give up his chance of drinking the water?
241Language points Stern n. the rear end of a ship or boat go and stand in/at the stern of the boata. a. hard, grim, or severe n manner or characterSterner measures must be taken to combat drug trafficking.
242Guts1) the internal organs of the abdomenOh, I have a terrible pain in the guts. It feels like food poisoning.2) courage or determinationMichael was well-known at college, for he had the guts to challenge any professor.Pounceto spring or fly down suddenly in order to seize somethingThe falcon pounced on /upon the rabbit.
243There is little water left in the canteen. 1)a small, usually leather container in which water or other drink is carriedThere is little water left in the canteen.2)a place serving food and drink in a factory, an office, a school, etc.Students prefer to eat in the school canteen because there is a wide variety of foods on the menu, which changes every day.Rationto limit the amount of something that each person is allowed to haveThe government had to ration the food during the war.
244Compare: gaze, stare, gape, glare, peer, ogle These verbs all mean to look long and intently.Gaze refers to prolonged looking that is often indicative of wonder, fascination, awe, or admiration:To gaze at the moon; to gaze into his eyesTo stare is to gaze fixedly; the word can indicate curiosity, boldness, insolence, or stupidity;The old couple stared at them in disbeliefGape suggests a prolonged open-mouthed look reflecting amazement, awe, or lack of intelligence:Tourists are gaping at the sights.
245To glare is to fix another with a hard, piercing stare; She glared furiously at him when he contradicted her.To peer is to look narrowly, searchingly, and seemingly with difficulty;He peered through his spectacles at the contract.To ogle is to stare in an amorous, usually impertinent manner;She resented the way that the construction workers on their lunch hour ogled passing women.
246Rhetorical Features of the Text 1).“A constant threat” (Paragraph 9), which serves as a sort of appositive.2). “The rest watched me as Barrett did, ready to spring the instant I relaxed” (Paragraph 7). The underlined part of the sentence is employed to indicate the state in which they were.
2473). “The bos’n’s mate was a heavy man, bald, with a scarred and brutal face” (Paragraph 9). The underlined part is a prepositional phrase which further describes the man (the subject of the sentence).
248Text II War Back ground information About the author : George Santayana (1863?-1952) lived eight years in Spain, forty years in Boston, and forty years in Europe. Philosopher, poet, literary and cultural critic, George Santayana is a principal figure in Classical American Philosophy. His naturalism and emphasis on creative imagination were harbingers of important intellectual turns on both sides of the Atlantic.
249He was a naturalist before naturalism grew popular; he appreciated multiple perfections before multiculturalism became an issue; he thought of philosophy as literature before it became a theme in American and European scholarly circles; and he managed to naturalize Platonism, update Aristotle, fight off idealisms, and provide a striking and sensitive account of the spiritual life without being a religious believer.
250Questions for discussion 1. Why is it that to fight is a radical instinct?2. What is the original sin from which flows every other wrong?