27 Characteristics of Assessment Learner-centered (to improve learning, not teaching)Teacher-directed (own own skill, experience)Mutually beneficial (both students & faculty)Formative (not for grading or evaluating)Context-specific (discipline)
3Characteristics continued Ongoing (creation & maintenance of classroom)Rooted in good teaching practice (builds on this by making it more systematic, flexible and more effective)
4Need for Classroom Assessment Faculty monitor and react to student questions, comments, body language and facial expressions – more subconscious and implicitRarely check these implicit impressions against student’s impressions or ability to perform
57 Basic AssumptionsThe quality of student learning is directly, although not exclusively, related to the quality of teaching. Therefore, one of the most promising ways to improve learning is to improve teaching.
6Assumptions continued To improve their effectiveness, teachers need first to make their goals and objectives explicit and then to get specific, comprehensible feedback on the extent to which they are achieving those goals and objectives.
7Assumptions continued To improve their learning, students need to receive appropriate and focused feedback early and often; they also need to learn how to assess their own learning.
8Assumptions continued The type of assessment most likely to improve teaching and learning is that conducted by faculty to answer questions they themselves have formulated in response to issues or problems in their own teaching.
9Assumptions continued Systematic inquiry and intellectual challenge are powerful sources of motivation, growth, and renewal for college teachers, and Classroom Assessment can provide such challenge.
10Assumptions continued Classroom Assessment does not require specialized training; it can be carried out by dedicated teachers from all disciplines.By collaborating with colleagues and actively involving students in Classroom Assessment efforts, faculty (and students) enhance learning and personal satisfaction.
11Classroom Assessment & Evaluation Classroom Assessment Techniques are NOT meant to take the place of more traditional forms of classroom evaluation. These formative assessment tools are meant to give teachers and students information on learning before and between tests and other evaluations – they supplement and complement formal evaluation of learning.
12Getting Started Start out Small Try 1 or 2 of the Classroom Assessment Techniques that don’t require much planning or preparation – you don’t risk your own and your student’s time and energyAfter trying a couple of these you can “assess” whether this is worth the time and effort
133 Step Getting Started Process PlanningSelect one and only one of your classes in which to try the assessmentIt is best to use this on a course you are most familiar withDecide on the date/time you want to do this assessment
143 Steps continued Implementing Let students know beforehand (at beginning of class period) what you are going to doTell the students “why” you are asking them for the informationAssure them that you will be assessing their learning in order to help them improve, and NOT to grade themGive clear directions, give assessment, collect responsesRead through responses and do your own analysis
153 Steps continued Responding Close the feedback loop by letting the students know what you learned from the assessment exercise and what difference that information will takeYou might need to go over a point again, create a handout, etc.
165 Suggestions for a Successful Start If a Classroom Assessment Technique does not appeal to your intuition and professional judgment as a teacher, don’t use itDon’t make Classroom Assessment into a self-inflicted chore or burdenDon’t ask your students to use any Classroom Assessment Technique you haven’t previously tried on yourself
17Suggestions continued Allow for more time than you think you will need to carry out and respond to the assessmentMake sure to “close the loop”. Let students know what you learn from their feedback and how you and they can use that information to improve learning.
19Focused Listening #1Focuses student’s attention on a single important term, name or conceptPurpose – tool for quickly determining what learners recall as the most important points related to a particular topicCan be used before, during or after relevant lesson
20Procedure #1Select topic or concept that class has just studied or is about to study and describe it in a word or brief phraseWrite that word or phrase at the top of a sheet of paper as headingSet a time limit or a limit on number of items to write (2-3 minutes or 5-10 items)
21Procedure #1 continuedAdhere to limits – have students make a list of important words and phrases they can recall related to headingCollect list and studyCompare their list with your ownRelated, unrelated, etc.Come back to students with information
22#1 continued Other ideas Give students focus topic along with homework Allow students to work in small groupsGive your list out to student for their comparisonHave students keep a journal of focused lists
23#1 continued Pros Cons Simple, flexible See what students recall easily or notIf used before instruction, see what students already know about a topicConsRequires only recallMay not really understand concept
24Minute Paper #2Purpose – having students see what most significant things they are learning and what major questions are for facultyMost useful in lecture/discussion coursesGood for courses that present a great deal of new informationEasy to do and analyze
25Procedure #2Decide what to focus on and when to do paper (beginning or end – homework vs lecture)Write out your question either on a handout, transparency or prepare to write it on the boardHand out sheets of paper or handout itselfLeave off student names (usually)
26Procedure #2Let students know how much time they have to write responses to question and when will get feedbackCollect and analyze resultsCome back to students with results and any corrections (additional lecture, handouts, homework, etc.)
27#2 continued Other ideas Only have student write 1 important point Close concepts – “most powerful image”, “most convincing argument”, “most surprising information”, “most memorable character”, “most disturbing idea”Have student discuss what they wrote in small groups
28#2 continuedProsImmediate mid-course feedback that allow quick response to studentsResponses can be read, tabulated and analyzed quicklyFaculty demonstrate respect for and interest in student feedbackAllows students to compare their responses to class as a whole
29#2 continuedConsIf overused or poorly used, students will begin to view technique as a gimmickIt is more difficult than it may seem to prepare questions that can be immediately and clearly comprehended and quickly answered
30Muddiest Point #3 Simplest technique and very effective Purpose – provides feedback on what students find least clear or most confusingHelps faculty learn what students are most difficult for students to learnWell suited to lower-division and even large classes
31#3 ProcedureDecide what you want feedback on – the entire class lecture, one module, discussion, presentationDo this at the end of the class periodPass out slips of paper or index cardsAsk students for the “muddiest point” – “most confusing point”, etc.
32#3 procedure continued Collect responses on the way out Analyze responsesCome back to students with corrective action – maybe a bit more lecture, handouts, etc.
33#3 continued Other ideas Have this done with a homework assignment at beginning of classAsk students to read each other’s drafts and point out muddiest point in draftLet students know that some of your exam questions will concern the muddy points you have responded to in class
34#3 continued Pros Quick, simple and easy to do Students will respond if even shy in classGive faculty a “snapshot” diagnosis of what students are finding difficult to learnFaculty can see material through student’s eyesStudents can internalize this and help with self-assessment
35#3 continued Cons Focusing only on what students DON’T understand Best prepared lecture will be misunderstoodStudents can have difficulty naming what they don’t understand
36One Sentence Summary #4Challenges students to answer “Who does what to whom, when, where, how and why”Purpose – to have students concisely, completely, and creatively summarize a large amount of information on a given topicCan be used for historical events, plots of stories, political processes, chemical reactions, and mechanical processes, etc.
37#4 ProcedureSelect important topic or work students have recently studied and that you expect them to learn to summarizeWrite out yourself the question “Who Did/Does What to whom, When, Where, How and Why”Rewrite this into a grammatical question for students
38#4 procedure continuedPass out question to students – allow them more time to answer than you did – 1 sentence onlyCollect and analyze – separate responses into the various questions (who, what, etc.)Do the Zero, check mark or plus when looking at responsesPut into a matrix and see where weaknesses and strengths are for students
39#4 continued Other ideas Work in pairs or small groups to critique and improve each other’s summariesUse to summarize different chapters
40#4 continuedProsQuick and easy way to assess students’ ability to summarize a topicPowerful technique for helping students grasp complex processesStudents must organize their thoughts into one sentenceConsSome material can’t be easily summarizedOne sentence can oversimplify the material
41Directed Paraphrasing #5 Translate complicated, technical material into more simplistic languagePurpose – ability to summarize and restate important information in their own wordsUseful in topics students will be expected to later explain to others
42#5 ProcedureSelect important theory, concept or argument that students have studied in some depthDetermine an audience that would be realistic yet challenging for a paraphrase of this topicDecide on time limit for what you are asking for
43#5 procedure continuedGive students paper, topic, time limits and who intended audience isCollect responsesAnalyze – might do 4 piles – confused, minimal, adequate, excellentLook for 3 things – accuracy of paraphrase, suitability for audience, effectiveness in fulfilling assigned purpose
44#5 continued Other ideas Paraphrase for 2 different audiences and explain difference in paraphrasesStudents keep journal as summary of important topics in classHave different students paraphrase different reading assignments or lectures and shareGive handouts with useful paraphrases
45#5 continuedProsBuilds on and up students’ skills in actively and purposefully comprehending and communicating materialFocuses on wider relevance of the subjectConsNeed strict time limits – burdensomeQualitative criteria hard to explain to studentsNeed individualized feedback –time consuming
46Application Cards #6Taking what they learned and coming up with real work applicationPurpose – see how students understand the possible application of what they learnedUsed with a variety of classes and class sizes
47#6 ProcedureIdentify an important and applicable principle, theory, generalization, or procedureDecide how many applications you will ask for and time limit (one is often enough – no more than 3 and 3-5 minutes)Hand out index cards or paper, give students what they are to respond to; tell them to come up with “new” applications
48#6 procedure continued Collect cards and analyze Might sort into great, acceptable, marginal or not acceptableShare with class some of each so they can see valid applications
49#6 continued Other ideas Work in small groups Complete as part of homework assignmentKeep applications journal
50#6 continuedProsVery simple and quick to see how students think about potential uses of learningTie theory to real work applicationsStudents can hear best examples from feedbackConsShift from theory to applicationSome are not interested in applicationStudents in introductory courses may have trouble
51Reference “Classroom Assessment Techniques” Thomas A. Angelo & K. Patricia Cross2nd editionJossey-BassISBN –