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 Feedback on Speakers?  Amplified Youth T-Shirts  New Grades Posted!  Quiz Questions?  Fitness Unit (Shorter)  4 Days Left!  Computer Lab Today.

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Presentation on theme: " Feedback on Speakers?  Amplified Youth T-Shirts  New Grades Posted!  Quiz Questions?  Fitness Unit (Shorter)  4 Days Left!  Computer Lab Today."— Presentation transcript:

1  Feedback on Speakers?  Amplified Youth T-Shirts  New Grades Posted!  Quiz Questions?  Fitness Unit (Shorter)  4 Days Left!  Computer Lab Today

2 Exercise, Fitness & Weight Maintenance Health Education

3 Since you’ve been placed on this earth…..

4 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1985 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14%

5 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1986 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14%

6 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1987 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14%

7 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1988 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14%

8 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1989 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14%

9 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1990 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14%

10 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1991 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19%

11 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1992 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19%

12 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1993 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19%

13 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1994 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19%

14 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1995 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19%

15 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1996 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19%

16 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1997 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% ≥20%

17 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1998 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% ≥20%

18 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1999 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% ≥20%

19 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2000 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% ≥20%

20 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2001 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% ≥25%

21 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2002 No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% ≥25%

22 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2003 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% ≥25%

23 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2004 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% ≥25%

24 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2005 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 25%–29% ≥30%

25 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2006 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 25%–29% ≥30%

26 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2007 (*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs. overweight for 5’ 4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 25%–29% ≥30%

27 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 2007

28 1999 Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1990, 1999, 2008 (*BMI 30, or about 30 lbs. overweight for 5’4” person) No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 25%–29% ≥30%

29 Even our pets…..  ¼ of our pets are overweight ¼ of our pets are overweight

30

31 The Problem Misinformation  Media (Jared)  Products (Ab Energizer)  Supplements (TrimSpa, Ephdra, etc.) Current State of Health  Obesity Stats!!!! X-C FATTEST STATE…..  Mortality Stats  Lack of Physical Fitness  Poor Nutrition  No Physical Education

32 Why the Drastic Increase

33 How vs. Why Causes of DeathRisk Factors

34 The Effect on Society & the Facts  ~400,000 deaths per year  ( K deaths a year)  66% (or 2/3) of Pop. Inactive  Predominantly Sedentary  2/3 of pop overweight/obese  $70 Billion Health Costs  $30 Billion Trying to Lose Weight  Grand Total of 100 BILLION!

35 Computer Lab Reminder Tomorrow

36 Quick Review  % Overweight / Obese  % Sedentary  Top 5 Reasons  Top 3 – C.O.D.  How versus Why  Picture  Benefits

37 Teens and media: a full-time job  72  Americans aged 13 to 18 spend more than _____ hours a week using electronic media defined as the:  Internet,  cell phones,  television,  music and  video games

38 Where Does Your Age Group Rank? ¼ >4 Hours or more watching TV ½ Young People Participate in Vigorous Physical Activity <30% Daily P.E. OBESITY RATES DOUBLED OVER LAST DECADE!

39 Should you pay more….  If you weigh more?  That’s what Alabama’s State Employees’ Insurance Board thinks. In 2011 the board will start charging overweight state workers— those with a body mass index greater than 35—$25 a month for health insurance, which is currently free for all state employees.body mass index  Being the second fattest state in the US costs up to $1.32 billion a year in estimated medical charges, according to a 2004 study.

40 Obesity Health Risks

41 What is Physical Fitness? What is Exercise?  A physical activity that is performed for the purpose of either improving, maintaining, or expressing a particular type(s) of physical fitness.  eg: training for or performing athletics, sports, or recreational activities such as jogging, roller blading, ice skating, swimming, etc. What is Physical fitness?  Ability of body to adapt to demands of physical effort-that is to maintain mod. to vig. Levels of physical activity w/o becoming overly tired.  eg: activities of daily living such as shopping, gardening, house keeping, child rearing, work-related activities, etc  ACHIEVED BY THE REGULAR MOVEMENT OF MUSCLES THROUGH A VARIETY OF EXERCISES

42 Your Body is A Work of Art….  The Training Effect…  “If you build it…they will come!”

43 The Training Effect

44 BENEFITS OF EXERCISE: STRENGTHENS HEART AND LUNGS DECREASES BLOOD PRESSURE STRENGTHENS MUSCLES AND BONES INCREASES ENERGY REDUCES STRESS AND TENSION ENHANCES FEELING OF WELL-BEING IMPROVES APPEARANCE IMPROVES SLEEP HELPS WEIGHT CONTROL AND BODY COMPOSITION IMPROVES COORDINATION PREVENTS INJURY LOWERS CHOLESTEROL REDUCES RISK OF HEART DISEASE AND DIABETES IMPROVES RANGE OF MOTION IMPROVES CONFIDENCE Reduces stress, depression and anxiety

45 What About Social Benefits?

46 Benefits Cont.  Cardiac output -volume of blood being pumped by the heart, in particular a ventricle in a minute (SV.)  RHR-# of contractions (heart beats) of the heart in 1 min and expressed as "beats per minute" (bpm).  Blood Pressure -the pressure exerted by the blood at right angles to the walls of the blood vessels.  Osteoporosis-a disease of bone in which the bone mineral density (BMD) is reduced, bone microarchitecture is disrupted, and the amount and variety of non-collagenous proteins in bone is altered. Osteoporotic bones are more susceptible to fracture.  Osteoarthritis-characterized by the breakdown of joint cartilage and may affect any joint in your body, including those in your fingers, hips, knees, lower back Endorphins-are endogenous opioid biochemical pain relieving compounds.

47 The Heart  The heart of a normal individual beats re-flexively about 40 million times a year. During this time, over 4000 gallons, or 10 tons, of blood are circulated each day, and every night the heart's workload is equivalent to a person carrying a thirty-pound pack to the top of the 100 -story Empire State Building.  Resting heart rate averages 60 to 80 beats per minute.  In middle-aged, unconditioned, sedentary individuals the resting rate can exceed 100 beats per minute.  In highly conditioned endurance-trained athletes, such as Olympic cross-country skiers, resting rates in the range of 28 to 40 beats per minute have been reported.

48 Basic Exercise Prescriptions

49

50 Common Goals-What’s Yours  Weight Loss  “In-shape”  Toned  Ripped  “Buff”  Benchmarks  Events

51 Basics of a Physical Activity Program Warm-Up  A warm-up may help prevent injuries and maximize performance.  The warm-up increases the body's internal temperature and the heart rate.  The chance of getting injuries decreases when the heart, muscles, ligaments, and tendons are properly prepared for exertion.  A warm-up should include some running- in-place or slow jogging, stretching, and calisthenics. It should last five to seven minutes

52 Cool-Down  One should cool down properly after each exercise period, regardless of the type of workout.  Serves to gradually slow the heart rate and helps prevent pooling of the blood in the legs and feet.  One should walk and stretch until their heart rates return to less than 100 BPM and heavy sweating stops.  This usually happens five to seven minutes after the conditioning session.

53 Overload  In order to produce a training effect, the human body must be stressed into a state of overload.  By exercising at a level above normal, a variety of adaptations take place that cause the body to function more efficiently. NOT TOO MUCH!-10%

54 Progression  The intensity and duration of the workouts must increase in a logical and gradual manner.  Once the body has become accustomed to a certain weight or intensity level, it is time to increase the demand to stress the muscles again.

55 Specificity  The physiological effects resulting from overload training are specific to the type of overload.  This specificity is related to:  Muscular strength  The energy system  The specific muscles involved.  By isolating these areas when training, you can specifically work them without the training effect carrying over to other areas. (Spot Reduction Myth)

56 Reversibility  The “Use it or Lose it” principle.  If you don’t use your muscles they will atrophy (shrink!)  Murphy’s Law related to muscular development

57 Week in Overview  Debrief Speaker  Overview Week  M- Start Health Related Components  T- Finish HRC/Start Wt. Maint & Metabolism  W- Finish Wt. Maint / Words Wisdom  R/F- Presentation or Speaker

58 Your Task Basic Principles of Training  Definition or explanation of each Training Principle in your own words.  Provide at least 2 examples of each Principle.  Draw a picture to explain each.  Be creative….  Groups of 2-3 max, may work individually.  Must turn in 1 finished product.  It may be a combination of different people’s work (ie. Different papers stapled together).

59 The FITT Formula: When planning for fitness, the FITT formula is a useful tool for determining how often, how hard, and how long you should be active. -Frequency of Activity -Intensity of Activity - Time Spent in Activity -Type of Movement in Activity F requency F requency I ntensity I ntensity T ime T ime T ype T ype

60 muscle strength and endurance cardiovascular enduranceflexibility FREQ- UENCY 2 – 3 days per week 3– 6 days per week 3 or more times/week INTENSITY moderate weight heart rate in target zone to the point of mild discomfort TIME 2-4 sets, 6-18 reps. 20 – 60 minutes15 – 30 seconds TYPE Resistance training Aerobic exercise (run, swim, bike, skate, dance, etc) Static stretching

61 Physical Activity Pyramid

62

63 Computer Lab Reminder Thurs or Friday

64 Who’s the Fittest? ABCD

65

66 Skill-Related Components of Fitness  Agility  Power  Speed  Balance  RX Time  Coordination

67 Health Related Components of Fitness  Aerobic/cardiovascular endurance  Muscular strength and endurance  Flexibility  Body composition

68 Cardiovascular/Aerobic Workout CARDIORESPIRATORY ENDURANCE - ABILITY TO PERFORM PROLONGED, LARGE MUSCLE, DYNAMIC EXERCISE AT MODERATE TO HIGH INTENSITY.  To get cardiovascular benefits from training: Target Heart Rate  60%-80% of maximum heart rate  MAX HR: 220-(AGE)  Formulas: MHR x.60 = THR

69 Which is Better: Longer Duration and Lower Intensity or Shorter Duration with Higher Intensity?

70 Three Energy Systems

71 Aerobic vs. Anaerobic  Oxygen Debt…. “The Talk Test”  Aerobic : amount of oxygen intake exceeds the amount of oxygen used  Anaerobic : amount of oxygen used exceeds the amount of oxygen intake

72 Monitoring Your Heart Rate  Carotid artery in the neck  Radial artery in the wrist  Count beats for 10 seconds and multiply the result by 6 to get rate in beats per minute

73

74 Karvonen Formula  The Karvonen formula is considered more accurate than the Maximal heart- rate formula, because the resting heart- rate is used in the calculation  THR = % intensity X heart-rate reserve + resting heart-rate  What is heart-rate reserve?  (age predicted MHR)-(resting heart-rate)

75 THR - Example  Here's how it would be calculated for a 14 year old with a resting heart-rate of 80 and an age-predicted maximal heart-rate of 175 at an 80% intensity level of maximum heart-rate reserve:  205 (age predicted MHR) - 60 (resting heart-rate) 145 (heart rate reserve) X.70 (intensity level)  (resting heart-rate) (target heart rate)  What is your THR using both:  Maximal heart-rate formula  Karvonen Formula

76 The TRAINING EFFECT  Changes that take place in the body as a result of increased cardiorespiratory endurance.  Lower resting heart rate  Increased cardiac output  Increased metabolism  Increased maximal oxygen consumption  Increased weight maintenance

77 Muscular Strength and Endurance  Develop muscle by overloading  High sets-low reps  Strength - few reps and heavy load “LIFT MORE” Maximal Effort  Endurance - many reps and lighter load “LIFT LONGER” Sustained Contraction

78 Muscles and Exercise  Isometric – push or pull against an immovable object, creating intervals of fixed muscle contractions  Isotonic – muscle moves a moderate load several times  Isokinetic - machine provides resistance through entire range of motion

79 Flexibility  Ability to go through the full range of motion in a comfortable, fluid fashion.  Point of mild discomfort  Stretching elongates the muscles and makes them more flexible.  Ballistic vs. Static?  When?

80 Body Composition  Relative amounts of fat to lean muscle mass  Essential: 3-7% (M), 13-15% (F)  Healthy: 12-15% (M), 18-21% (F)  How to Measure?  Obesity:  Men: if greater than 25%  Women if greater than 32%

81 Obesity Defined  Obesity means that you have an unhealthy amount of body fat.  Everyone needs some body fat, but too much fat increases your risk of developing lifestyle diseases.  Defined by BMI Body Mass Index  BMI is a way of estimating total body fat for most people.

82 Should you pay more….  If you weigh more?  That’s what Alabama’s State Employees’ Insurance Board thinks. In 2011 the board will start charging overweight state workers— those with a body mass index greater than 35—$25 a month for health insurance, which is currently free for all state employees.body mass index  Being the second fattest state in the US costs up to $1.32 billion a year in estimated medical charges, according to a 2004 study.

83

84 Note: BMI chart is for adults  <18 Underweight  “Healthy”  , “Overweight"  30 or above “Obese"

85 BMI For Teens?  Write down your weight in pounds.  Divide your weight by your height in inches.  Divide the answer from step 2 by your height in inches.  Then multiply the answer from step 3 by 703.  The resulting answer is your BMI.

86 Public schools send home weight reports  Starting this year, public schools across Massachusetts will send reports home to parents alerting them if their child weighs too much or too little.  Students in the 1, 4, 7, 10 measured and weighed so school health officials can calculate BMI.

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88 Essential Questions  How do you know THR? Why is THR helpful?  More important-more weight/less reps or VV?  If BMI charts are not 100% accurate why are they used?  How are the 5 Components of Health-Related Fitness Related?

89  Body Comp Muscular Muscular Strength Endurance Flexibility Cardio

90 Where We’re At……  Reminders: 1. Grades Updated 2. Projects: See R/F- !  3. Start Thinking Quiz Options  Mon: Health Related Components  Tues: Metabolism & Weight Maintenance  Wed: Finish Wt. Maintenance/Article Words of Wisdom/Fitness 101 Due: Eat Less Exercise More  Thur: 2 nd -Lab 7/8, 9-Presentation  Friday: 7/8, 9-Lab, 2 nd Presentation Next Monday-3 Quiz Options

91 WEIGHT MAINTENANCE & METABOLISM The Least You Need to Know:  Occam’s Razor  Caveat Emptor  Energy Equation  Metabolism Basics  Counting Calories vs. Being Reasonable  Going to Extremes: Eating Disorders

92 Occam’s Razor “One should not increase, beyond what is necessary, the number of entities required to explain anything.”.…….OR……… The Simplest Answer is the Best Solution!

93 ENERGY EQUATION (ENERGY BALANCE) ENERGY IN = ENERGY OUT = NO CHANGE ENERGY IN > ENERGY OUT = GAIN WEIGHT ENERGY IN < ENERGY OUT = LOSE WEIGHT Units of Energy refer to Calories

94 There is no Magic Pill

95 Supplements…  1) "If it sounds too good to be true, it probably is not true.“  there is no standard for the acceptability of the supporting science.  Therefore, claims may be based on single studies having inadequate or flawed science.  Among dietary supplements, less is known about herbals and botanicals than about vitamins and minerals. There are no federal standards for herbals and botanicals to ensure their safety, purity or quality.  Natural" is not synonymous with "safe."  Multivitamins in moderation may help some people.  High doses of some supplements can be harmful  (more is not better). vitamin A, niacin, vitamin B6, vitamin D, iron and folic acid. 4) For good health, eat a variety of foods. While supplements may help in some cases, they are not the total answer.

96 Energy Equation Components Energy In Energy Out

97 ENERGY EQUATION (ENERGY BALANCE) ENERGY IN = ENERGY OUT = NO CHANGE ENERGY IN > ENERGY OUT = GAIN WEIGHT ENERGY IN < ENERGY OUT = LOSE WEIGHT Units of Energy refer to Calories

98

99 FACTORS INFLUENCING “ENERGY OUT”  METABOLISM-Process by which body gets energy from food (Calories).  Basal Metabolism -absolute minimum amount of energy required. or  Resting Metabolic Rate -The energy required to maintain vital body functions, including respiration, heart rate, body temp., and blood pressure, while body is at rest.-(70%)  Thermic Effect of Feeding >10%  Thermic Effect of Activity 10-30% IT IS JUST AS DANGEROUS TO YOUR HEALTH TO BE UNDERFAT AS IT IS TO BE OVERFAT

100 Feed ME! USE ME! What would your body say if it could talk?

101 What is your Basal Metabolism?  Or how many calories do you need? General….!!!!!!  Weight x 14= Sedentary  Weight x 17 = Moderate  Weight x 20 = Active  Activity is the limiting factor

102 Quick Review  Occam’s Razor  Energy Equation  Magic Pills……  Caveat Emptor  Metabolism  Eat Less or Exercise More?

103 What is easier or healthier? Eat less or Exercise more …

104 How to view the Question….. HealthierEasier Eat Less Exercise More

105 Questions to Consider?  What is the difference between easier and healthier?  Is the answer the same for everybody?  Is the only benefit of exercise burning calories?  *Is it easier to consume calories or expend calories?

106 This will vary with physical fitness and body composition Caloric expenditure with 30 minutes of walking/running at 3.0mph and 6.0mph Body weight Calories burned 200 lbs158/ lbs118/ lbs198/610 Energy Expenditure - Examples 1 lb. of fat tissue stores 3,500 calories or energy

107 Are Exercises are not Created =!

108 Muscle is 70X more metabolically active than Fat: What does this mean?

109 Aging and Health

110 A combination of regular exercise and good nutrition is the best way to maintain a healthy lifestyle.

111 Energy Equation & Weight Maintenance Tips for Healthy Weight Loss  Exercise increases the amount of energy the body expends, helping to manage both body weight and composition.  Longer duration and more intense exercise burns more calories.  Balance with a reasonable diet (M, V & B)  Exercise is essential for weight management because it is a major part of the energy equation.

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113 Words of Wisdom  “Exercise shouldn’t be a CHORE!”  “It doesn’t matter what you do….as long as you DO SOMETHING!”  “If something is important to you, you will MAKE TIME FOR IT!”

114 Physical Fitness 101  Any exercise you take part in is going to be good for your body/mind.  The more MUSCLES & JOINTS you incorporate the better.  The important concept is to add VARIETY into your exercise routine..  Cross-Training

115 Conclusions  MODERATION  VARIETY  BALANCE

116 Quick Review  Occam’s Razor  Energy Equation  Caveat Emptor/  Magic Pills……  Metabolism  Eat Less or Exercise More?

117 Peer Teaching Option Assignment Assignment Objectives Topics  Definition Compulsive Overeating  Audiovisuals Bulimia  Desired Effects Anorexia  Health Consequences Female Athlete Triad  Warning Signs Related E.D.  Interesting Facts Compulsive Exercising

118 When weight maintenance moves to irrational and compulsive behaviors….. Behaviors Discussed:  Eating Disorders  Female Athlete Triad  Compulsive Exercising

119

120 General Background  Psychological in nature but problems cause Physical Effects.  Best characterized as ‘Addictions’  It’s not just about disordered eating…it’s about relationships w/ others and oneself…

121 At a certain point, an eating disorder ceases to be "about" any one thing. It stops being about your family or your culture. Very simply, it becomes an addiction... - Wasted, Marya Hornbacher (p. 64)

122 Basic Stats  ~3% of women during lifetime.  Estimated 5 million  Girls more than guys (~9/10).  High risk of other mental and physical illnesses that can lead to death.  Since 87’, hospitalizations increased:  34% among women under 15  29% among year olds.

123 Eating Disorders Defined  anorexia nervosa  refuse to maintain a minimally normal body weight  intense fear of gaining weight (Starvation, <1600 cal/day)  distorted perception of the shape or size of their bodies.  bulimia nervosa  binge eating followed compensatory methods (2 X W, >3 M)  Excessive importance on body shape and weight. binge eating disorder (BED)  binge eating not followed by compensatory behavior

124 Methods of Abuse  Diuretics  Laxatives  Self-induced vomiting  Diet pills  Serious over exercising

125 Eating Continuum

126 “It's disgusting but [my eating disorder] was my safeguard, my sure thing, my life for all those years... It was something I knew for sure, no question, I was good at.” - Wasted, Marya Hornbacher (p. 121)

127  Dizziness; fainting  Involuntary vomiting; vomiting blood  Dehydration and low electrolytes  Ulcers; bleeding throat  Slower emptying of food from the stomach  Chronic bloating  Constipation; bloody stools  Chronic diarrhea  Anemia; reduced energy  Facial hair  Hair loss; skin sores  Joint pain; cold extremities  Gum disease; tooth decay  Bone loss  Modified sense of taste; changes in appetite  Pneumonia; immune deficiency  Infertility; absence of menses  Liver, kidney and pancreas failure  High cholesterol levels (do not signify a cholesterol problem  and do not warrant a low-cholesterol diet)  Enlarged heart; irregular heartbeat; cardiac compromise  Sudden death

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130 These evil thoughts, from where are they born? -Verde's Macbeth-

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132  SPAIN just enforced ruling that ordered every runway model on show must have a body mass index (BMI) of at least 18.  Models who are 5 ft 9 in tall must weigh a minimum of 125lbs.  Esther Cañadas (right), Spain’s best-known model, does not qualify under the new rules as she is said to have a BMI of only 14.

133 “In one national survey of over 6,700 adolescents in grades 5-12, half of girls and 1/5 of boys reported dieting to lose weight.”

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136 She was afraid to eat.She lost 25% of her body weight. She strove for perfection.Her desires and passions disappeared. She had angry outbursts.She stopped having her periods. She felt isolated.She was always cold. She desired control.She felt weak. She denied her hunger.Fine hairs grew on her entire body. She was depressed.She suffered from insomnia. She had a distorted body image.Her heartbeat was irregular. She craved attention.She almost died.

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139 Where does dedication cross over to obsession?  Compulsive Exercise  "purging?”  Repeatedly exercising beyond what is considered safe.  Tremendous guilt when they cannot exercise (almost never do it for fun)  Sense of temporary power, control and/or self-respect

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143 Body Types Ectomorph tall thin lightly muscled Mesomorph muscular broad shoulder gains/loses weight easily Endomorph round shape soft body has trouble losing weight

144 What Can We Do to Prevent?  Personal attitudes, mindsets, perceptions  Peer interactions- compliments and comments  How to help a friend

145 Personal Attitudes & Perceptions  Don’t have to be dangerously thin to be attractive. You can be your worst critic.  Pictures in magazines are altered- don’t represent reality  Accept body type  Appreciate body for capabilities  Body need to last a lifetime!  Surround yourself with people who like you for your personality, not physical appearance.  Find self-worth in areas like academic, athletic, personality, friendship, hobbies  Focus on how body feels, not how it looks.  Exercise to be fit and feel good, not to obsession.

146 How to Help a Friend  Tell them you like them for who they are.  Listen actively.  Tell them you’re concerned about what you’ve seen and heard. Be specific & nonjudgmental.  Do NOT monitor food intake. May cause further isolation and control.  Tell trusted adult if concerned about safety.  Ultimately person has to realize they need & want help before treatment will be successful.  Be patient with friend and try not to let her completely isolate herself.  Provide information about treatment resources and offer to go with them and wait during therapy.

147 Dietary Supplements “Caveat Emptor”  Diet pills  Appetite suppressants  Laxatives  Vitamins and Minerals  Diet Combinations  Dietary Supplements

148 Steroids The Least You Need to Know:  What are Anabolic Steroids?  Why and How Steroids are Used?  The Difference Between Medical and Anabolic Steroids?  How Body Dysmorphia Applies to Men and Women  Health consequences: Female/Male

149 Anabolic Steroids Defined  Anabolic Steroids are the synthetic derivatives of the naturally occurring male anabolic hormones testosterone.  The hormone’s anabolic effect helps the body retain dietary protein, which aids in the development of muscles. They're also known as roids, juice, hype, or pump

150 Types of Steroids  Steroids are natural substances with many different effects in the body,  In health care used to reduce inflam- mation and other disease symptoms.  Steroid inhalers have an important role in reducing deaths from asthma  Local steroid injections are useful in treating painful joints and ligaments.  Steroid creams are used extensively to treat eczema and other inflammatory skin conditions.  However steroid use in medicine is limited by very serious side effects in the body as a whole. That is why steroids tend to be used sparingly in local preparations such as sprays and creams, which ensure maximum steroid dose where it is needed, and minimum levels in the blood stream.

151 Steroid Administration  Oral – tablets or pills  Injectable – directly into the muscle, usually buttocks  Water-based – enter blood sooner, leave sooner  Oil-based – enter slower, remain longer  Oral form more dangerous (liver dysfunction)  Stacking – 2 or more steroids simultaneously Abusers have been known to take doses 10 to 100 times higher than the amount prescribed for medical reasons by a doctor.

152 ? Why Steroids are Used?  Accelerated recovery  Increased endurance  Increased muscle size  Increased muscle development  Increased strength Bhasin et al. (1996) – 1 lb of lean muscle gain per week by testosterone treatment group over 10 week period. (600 mg of enanthate weekly). No increase in body fat

153 Why Steroids Continued  Body Dysmorphia

154 Myth of Steroids Steroids can make an average athlete into one of the best.

155 Side Effects Males  Testicular atrophy  Reduced sperm concentration/Infertility  Gynecomastia (resulting from higher estradiol concentration)  Increased prostate size  Baldness FEMINIZATION

156 Side Effects Females  Voice deepening  Reduced breast size  Growth of facial and body hair  Acne  Altered menstrual function MASCULINIZATION

157 Side Effects of Steroid Use Both Sexes  Steroids' Disfiguring Effects Acne, greasy hair, and baldness  Premature closure of growth plate in youths  Lowered HDL cholesterol  Higher LDL cholesterol  Lower HDL/LDL ratio creates higher risk of coronary artery disease  Blood-filled cysts (peliosis hepatis)  Liver dysfunction  Connective tissue damage  Addiction  HIV, Hepatitis

158

159 Roid Rage  Steroids act on the limbic system  Research shows that high doses of steroids can cause extreme fluctuations in emotions, from euphoria to rage.  Eventually, steroids can cause mania, delusions, and violent aggression or "roid rage."

160 Steroid Use is Illegal It is Illegal to:  prescribe, distribute, or possess anabolic steroids for any purpose other than treatment of disease or other medical conditions.  First offence: up to 5 years in prison and a fine up to $250,000.

161 Very Few Teens Use Steroids Most teens are smart and stay away from steroids. As part of a NIDA-funded study, teens were asked if they ever tried steroids—even once. Only 2.5% of 8th graders ever tried steroids; only 3.5% of 10th graders; and 4% of 12th graders.

162 ACSM Position Statement: Anabolic Steroids  Acknowledge that steroids work  Caution users about the serious side effects  Use is contrary to rules and ethics of sport


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