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American History Chapter 10 5/3/2015John 3:161. Overview  Americans had overthrown King George III and the Articles of Confederation  Basic distrust.

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Presentation on theme: "American History Chapter 10 5/3/2015John 3:161. Overview  Americans had overthrown King George III and the Articles of Confederation  Basic distrust."— Presentation transcript:

1 American History Chapter 10 5/3/2015John 3:161

2 Overview  Americans had overthrown King George III and the Articles of Confederation  Basic distrust of central authority--but saw it as a necessary evil  In debt and revenues limited  Skeptical world doubted the upstart United States 5/3/2015John 3:162

3 Growing Pains  Constitution launched in 1789 amid growth Population doubling each 25 years Population about 90% rural All but 5% lived east of Appalachian Mountains Foreign visitors looked down their noses at the roughness of pioneering life Further west were Spanish and British agents moved freely among the settlers 5/3/2015John 3:163

4 Growing Pains  America had done something no other nation in history had ever done—free its people from tyranny, told its people they were all equal, and gave the people the power to govern themselves  The Virginia constitution was the first constitution adopted by the people’s representatives in the history of the world  The rest of the world looked with awe upon America 5/3/2015John 3:164

5 Washington for President  George Washington unanimously drafted as first president by Electoral College Only nominee in history so honored 6’ 2”, 175 pounds, broad sloping shoulder, strongly pointed chin, pockmarks (from smallpox) on nose and checks Didn’t seek the office—preferred Mount Vernon Balanced, not brilliant Strength of character, but not politically artful 5/3/2015John 3:165

6 Washington for President  Temporary capital was New York City  Took oath of office April 30, 1789  Washington’s first cabinet Secretary of State: Thomas Jefferson Secretary of the Treasury: Alexander Hamilton Secretary of War: Henry Knox 5/3/2015John 3:166

7 The Bill of Rights  Unfinished of Bill of Rights Promised when states were ratifying constitution Particular concern of anti-federalists Would be amendments to constitution Two ways to amend ○ Constitutional convention requested by two- thirds of states, or by ○ Two-thirds of both houses 5/3/2015John 3:167

8 The Bill of Rights  First 10 amendments are the Bill of Rights Freedom of religion, speech, and the press Right to bear arms Right to be tried by a jury Right to assemble Right to petition government to redress grievances Freedom from cruel and unusual punishments Freedom from arbitrary government seizure of private property 5/3/2015John 3:168

9 The Bill of Rights  Madison inserted two more—the 9 th and 10 th 9 th : Certain rights “shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people 10 th : All rights not explicitly delegated or prohibited by the federal Constitution “to the States respectively, or to the people” Brought the constitution back to more anti- federalist stance 5/3/2015John 3:169

10 The Bill of Rights  First congress also created Federal courts under the Judiciary Act of 1789 ○ Organized the Supreme Court ○ Federal district and circuit courts ○ Established Office of Attorney General  John Jay became first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court 5/3/2015John 3:1610

11 Hamilton Revives the Corpse of Public Credit  Alexander Hamilton First Secretary of the Treasury Big central government Native of West Indies Doubts about his character and loyalty to republican government—thought that British government was the “best in the world” Financial wizard Archrival of Thomas Jefferson 5/3/2015John 3:1611

12 Hamilton Revives the Corpse of Public Credit  How to shape fiscal policies to get America credit Favor wealthier groups Wealthy would lend monetary and political support to the government Money would trickle down from wealthy classes 5/3/2015John 3:1612 Alexander Hamilton

13 Hamilton Revives the Corpse of Public Credit  The was little confidence in the government Hamilton could not secure funds to support his risky schemes Urged congress to “fund” the entire national debt “at par”—face value of debt, plus interest ○ At that time: $54 million ○ People didn’t think the government capable of the funding 5/3/2015John 3:1613

14 Hamilton Revives the Corpse of Public Credit  Hamilton’s plan was to have the federal government assume the debts for all the country—even the debts of the states He would tie together the states more closely under the federal government He got Jefferson to buy in—Virginia was promised the District of Columbia would be on the Potomac River 5/3/2015John 3:1614

15 Customs Duties and Excise Taxes  Behind Hamilton’s plan, the United States owed $75 million Hamilton: “Father of the National Debt” Hamilton believed national debt was uniting for a nation and a “national blessing” The more creditors of the nation, the more to support the national enterprise Making debt an asset, not a liability 5/3/2015John 3:1615

16 Customs Duties and Excise Taxes  Hamilton—as part of the plan—would use tariffs to help pay the debt To pay for the debt To build a protection wall around American goods  Hamilton started a tax on domestic items, most notably whiskey 5/3/2015John 3:1616

17 Hamilton Battles Jefferson for a Bank  Hamilton argued that America needed a national bank to conduct business and have a location to keep its assets Federal would help business Paper money would be printed 5/3/2015John 3:1617

18 Hamilton Battles Jefferson for a Bank  Jefferson disagreed with Hamilton Believed that banks were a state’s responsibility The constitution didn’t authorize banks 5/3/2015John 3:1618

19 Hamilton Battles Jefferson for a Bank  Washington asked Jefferson for a written opinion—Jefferson responded No constitutional authority All powers not granted to the federal government were reserved for the states ○ The states, not congress, could charter banks 5/3/2015John 3:1619

20 Hamilton Battles Jefferson for a Bank  Jefferson believed the constitution should be interpreted literally Very strictly Based on concern for states’ rights Theory of “strict construction” 5/3/2015John 3:1620 Thomas Jefferson

21 Hamilton Battles Jefferson for a Bank  Hamilton replied What the constitution did not forbid, it permitted Hamilton invoked Art I, Sec VIII, para 18— Congress may pass laws “necessary and proper” to carry out the powers vested in the various government agencies 5/3/2015John 3:1621

22 Hamilton Battles Jefferson for a Bank  Hamilton continues his argument Government must collect taxes and regulate trade Basic national functions require a bank By virtue of “inference”—implied powers— congress is justified in establishing a bank A “loose” or “broad” interpretation of the Constitution is necessary “Loose construction”—through the “elastic clause” 5/3/2015John 3:1622

23 Hamilton Battles Jefferson for a Bank  Washington accepted Hamilton’s arguments and signed the banking bill into law The commercial north had been for the bill The agricultural south had been against it 5/3/2015John 3:1623

24 Hamilton Battles Jefferson for a Bank  The Bank of the United States Created by congress in 1791 Chartered for 25 years Capital of $10 million Stock sale to the public was sold out in two hours 5/3/2015John 3:1624

25 Mutinous Moonshiners in Pennsylvania  The Whiskey Rebellion in 1794 Southwestern Pennsylvania Rebellion against Hamilton’s whiskey tax Tax collectors tarred and feathered Washington sent troops “Whiskey Boys” dispersed Administration criticized for sending a sledgehammer to crush a gnat 5/3/2015John 3:1625

26 The Emergence of political Parties  Hamilton had established good credit rating in America Netherlands loaned America at low rates  The tax, the bank, the Whiskey Rebellion suppression, etc. created some states rights enemies The central government was “mistreating” states 5/3/2015John 3:1626

27 The Emergence of Political Parties  The Hamilton-Jefferson feud became bitter political rivalry  Founders had not envisioned political parties Democratic government based on popular consent shouldn’t need opposition voices ○ Seemed disloyal and an affront to the revolutionary effort 5/3/2015John 3:1627

28 The Emergence of political Parties  Jefferson/Madison face Hamilton Voices grew louder Political messages were publicized Jefferson and Madison formed the Democratic-Republican party in 1792 Hamilton led the Federalists The two-party system has worked ever since ○ The party out of power is the “loyal opposition” ○ Ensures politics never drifts too far one way 5/3/2015John 3:1628

29 The Impact of the French Revolution  Foreign policy issues bring Jefferson’s Democratic –Republicans and Hamilton’s Federalists to a pitch Jeffersonians watched the bloody French Revolution with interest Hamilton’s Federalists feared it Jefferson: can’t expect “despotism to liberty in a feather bed” 5/3/2015John 3:1629

30 Washington’s Neutrality Proclamation  Britain had entered the conflict against France  Many Jeffersonians wanted to help France and live up to America’s alliance  Washington had different thoughts, even though America owed France 5/3/2015John 3:1630

31 Washington’s Neutrality Proclamation  The Founding Fathers were in agreement that America needed a generation to grow its population  Washington issued his Neutrality Proclamation in 1793 Claimed America’s neutrality in the European war Warned Americans to remain neutral 5/3/2015John 3:1631

32 Washington’s Neutrality Proclamation  Washington’s proclamation Started a history of isolationist tradition Became controversial Angered pro-Jeffersonians Had been announced without consulting congress 5/3/2015John 3:1632

33 Washington’s Neutrality Proclamation  A representative from the French Republic, Edmond Genet, tried to recruit an American army to help France—he was replaced  As it turns out, American neutrality helped France anyway 5/3/2015John 3:1633

34 Washington’s Neutrality Proclamation  France never ask America to live up to its alliance  The alliance favored France, not America  In helping America, both France and America were helped  In helping France now, only France would be helped  America helped with foodstuffs to West Indies 5/3/2015John 3:1634

35 Embroilments with Britain  Britain had kept outposts in Great Lakes Region Had alliance with Miami Confederation, 8 tribes Little Turtle, Miami chief, warned that the Ohio River was the border His braves defeated American forces, killing hundreds— /3/2015John 3:1635

36 Embroilments with Britain  General “Mad Anthony” Wayne’s America forces defeat the Miami Confederacy The British refuse to help their Indian friends The Treaty of Greenville gave up vast tracts of land—most of Ohio and Indiana The Indians believed the treaty put limits on control over the Indians 5/3/2015John 3:1636

37 Embroilments with Britain  Britain’s navy attacked hundreds of American merchant ships and placed navy personnel into service for the Brits  Still, Hamilton wanted trade with Britain and thus America didn’t respond by getting into the war Hamilton’s financial system depended on trade with the British 5/3/2015John 3:1637

38 Jay’s Treaty and Washington’s Farewell  Washington dispatched John Jay to Britain to try to avoid war Jay’s negotiations were weak and angered many Jeffersonians British promised to evacuate outposts, but they had promised that before 5/3/2015John 3:1638

39 Jay’s Treaty and Washington’s Farewell  Spain moved to chore-up relations— fearing an Anglo-American alliance Pinckney’s Treaty of 1795 ○ Free navigation of the Mississippi ○ Land in north Florida 5/3/2015John 3:1639

40 Jay’s treaty and Washington’s Farewell  Washington had served two terms Decided to retire Started a trend In farewell address, advised against permanent alliances Did not oppose all alliances Favored temporary alliances for specific purposes 5/3/2015John 3:1640

41 Jay’s Treaty and Washington’s Farewell  Washington’s contributions enormous Good economic foundation (Hamilton) Expanding nation International trade Kept out of foreign wars  Some still threw “brick bats” at him for the weak “Jay’s Treaty” and not helping France 5/3/2015John 3:1641

42 John Adams Becomes President  The presidential campaign of 1796 featured Jefferson and Adams Jefferson: Democratic-Republican Adams: Federalist Followers of each refused to drink in the same tavern 5/3/2015John 3:1642

43 John Adams becomes President  John Adams beats Jefferson in Electoral College 71 to 68 Jefferson becomes vice president Adams was intellectual, but tough and had a prickly manner about him—”respectful irritation” Hamilton and Adams hated each other 5/3/2015John 3:1643

44 John Adams Become President  Adams had problems Hamilton as an enemy France—who had a grudge against the America for not helping when needed 5/3/2015John 3:1644

45 Unofficial fighting with France  France angry about Jay’s Treaty Refused to received the American minister Saw it as moving toward Britain Violation of Franco-American Treaty of 1778 Seized American ships Adams sent diplomats who were bribed— John Marshall, future Chief Justice, refused—the XYZ Affair War preparations against France began Unofficial war confined to the sea 5/3/2015John 3:1645

46 Adams Puts Patriotism Above Party  France, wanting to avoid war with America (it was fighting others on the continent) suddenly permitted the American minister to be received  Adams won much acclaim—remained cool Had avoided war while nation was weak Could have won popularity through war by seizing Florida and Louisiana outright 5/3/2015John 3:1646

47 Adams Puts Patriotism Above Party  France received American envoys and signed a new treaty with America The Convention of 1800 Deleted the old treaty—alliance America agreed to pay damage claims on shippers Last of “foreign entanglements” for a long time 5/3/2015John 3:1647

48 Adams puts patriotism Above Party  Adams given much credit Kept peace with France Led to Napoleon selling Louisiana Purchase to America while Jefferson was president (1803) 5/3/2015John 3:1648

49 The Federalist Witch Hunt  Federalists wrote laws to muffle Jeffersonians—riding high on anti- French feelings New aliens from Europe were poor ○ Scorned by Federalists ○ Welcomed by Jeffersonians Laws written to require 14 year wait verses the usual 5 to citizenship 5/3/2015John 3:1649

50 The Federalist Witch Hunt  The Federalists also enacted the Sedition Act Anyone impeding the policies of government or defaming its officials could be tried on court Very anti-free speech Many Jeffersonians put in jail Federalists felt the law was justified due to the “verbal violence of the day 5/3/2015John 3:1650

51 The Federalist Witch Hunt  Though the Federalist-written Sedition Act seemed unconstitutional The Supreme Court was packed with Federalists Despite all this, the Federalists win the next election The Federalists wrote the law to expire in 1801 so it wouldn’t be used against them if they lost the election 5/3/2015John 3:1651

52 The Virginia (Madison) and Kentucky (Jefferson) Resolutions  Jefferson would not ignore the Sedition and Alien acts Free speech was at stake His party might be eliminated Secretly wrote resolutions approved by Kentucky Madison did the same in Virginia 5/3/2015John 3:1652

53 The Virginia (Madison) and Kentucky (Jefferson) Resolutions  The logic behind the resolutions The 13 sovereign states created the federal government ○ The states had created a contract in forming the federal government ○ The federal government was the agent (or creation) of the states ○ Since water goes no high than its source, the states were the final judges of whether the federal government had broke this pact 5/3/2015John 3:1653

54 The Virginia (Madison) and Kentucky (Jefferson) Resolutions  The Kentucky resolution determined that the federal government had exceeded its powers with reference to the Alien and sedition acts Nullification—a refusal to accept them—was the rightful remedy But no other states would follow Many debated Jefferson saying the people not the states had created the federal government 5/3/2015John 3:1654

55 The Virginia (Madison) and Kentucky (Jefferson) Resolutions  The determination was made that it was the Supreme Court which must nullify legislation passed by the federal government  Nullification resolutions were later used by southern states to secede from the Union 5/3/2015John 3:1655

56 The Virginia (Madison) and Kentucky (Jefferson) Resolutions  The efforts by Jefferson and Madison were not to break up the union but to preserve it They were trying to crystallize their opposition to the Federalist Party and unseat it in the upcoming election Jefferson was trying to nullify Federalist abuses 5/3/2015John 3:1656

57 Federalists Versus Democratic- Republicans  The Federalists believed the few should run the country Hamilton said only the “best people” should be in control John Jay: ”Those who won the country ought to govern it” Intellectual arrogance and Tory tastes Feared the “swayability” of the untutored common folk 5/3/2015John 3:1657

58 Federalists Versus Democratic- Republicans  Hamiltonian Federalists Strong central government Power to crush rebellions like “Shays” Protect the property of the wealthy Support private enterprise—no interference 5/3/2015John 3:1658

59 Federalists Versus Democratic- Republican  Jefferson’s Democratic-Republicans, often referred to as “Republicans” Hinterland was anti-federalist territory  Jefferson and Hamilton had different theories of society, politics, and diplomacy 5/3/2015John 3:1659

60 Federalists Versus Democratic- Republicans  Thomas Jefferson Weak-voiced Not able to deliver rabble-rousing speech Great organizer Able to lead people—not drive them Appealed to the middle class and under privileged—”dirt” farmers, laborers, artisans, small shopkeepers 5/3/2015John 3:1660

61 Federalists Versus Democratic- Republicans  Thomas Jefferson A contradiction An aristocrat with sympathy for the downtrodden “I have sworn upon the altar of God eternal hostility against every form of tyranny over the mind of man” Best government was the one that governed least 5/3/2015John 3:1661

62 Federalists Versus Democratic- Republicans  Thomas Jefferson Bulk of power to the states—people, in intimate contact with local affairs, could keep an eye on the public servants Leery of a dictatorship developing Strict interpretation of the constitution National debt, bequeathed to later generations, should be paid off 5/3/2015John 3:1662

63 Federalists Versus Democratic- Republicans  Thomas Jefferson No special privileges for upper class Most support came from farming community “Those who labor in the earth are the chosen people of God” Favored government by the people Not by all the people—only literate white men who could inform themselves and wear the mantle of American citizenship worthily 5/3/2015John 3:1663

64 Federalists Versus Democratic- Republicans  Jefferson had profound respect for the ability of the masses, in their collective wisdom, when taught  Feared landless dependents would be political pawns in the hand of their landowning supervisors  Tortuously reconciled slavery by offering that cheap labor would free poor farmer to learn and vote 5/3/2015John 3:1664

65 Federalists Versus Democratic- Republicans  Jefferson once said that he would rather have “newspapers without government than government without newspapers  Hamilton respected the British, Jefferson the French 5/3/2015John 3:1665


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