Presentation on theme: "Unit Chinese Food Part I Reading Comprehension and Language Activities"— Presentation transcript:
1Unit Chinese FoodPart I Reading Comprehension and Language ActivitiesPart II Extended Activities
2Part I Reading Comprehension and Language Activities Pre-reading TasksNotesTranslationComprehension workLanguage work (A, B, C)
3Part I Reading Comprehension and Language Activities Pre-reading TasksDiscussion1. Do you prefer Chinese food or Western food?What is your favourite dish?2. Do you think cuisine reflects the culturalcharacteristics of a people?
4Chinese FoodTurn to p. 161"Few things in life are as positive as food, or are taken as intimately and completely by the individual. One can listen to music, but the sound may enter in one ear and go out through the other; one may listen to a lecture or conversation, and day-dream about many other things; one may attend to matters of business, and one's heart or interest may be altogether elsewhere... In the matter of food and eating however one can hardly remain completely indifferent to what one is doing for long. How can one remain entirely indifferent to something which is going to enter one's body and become part of oneself? How can one remain indifferent to something which will determine one's physical strength and ultimately one's spiritual and moral fibre and well-being?”- Kenneth Lo
5Chinese FoodThis is an easy question for a Chinese to ask, but a Westerner might find it difficult to answer. Many people in the West are gourmets and others are gluttons, but scattered among them also is a large number of people who are apparently pretty indifferent to what goes into their stomachs, and do not regard food as having any ultimate moral effect on them. How, they might ask, could eating a hamburger or drinking Coca Cola contribute anything to making you a saint or a sinner? For them, food is quite simply a fuel.Kenneth Lo, however, expresses a point of view that is profoundly different and typically Chinese, deriving from thousands of years of tradition. The London restaurateur Fu Tong, for example, quotes no less an authority than Confucius (the ancient Sage known in Chinese as K'ung-Fu-Tzu) with regard to the primal importance of food. Food, said the sage, is the first happiness. Fu Tong adds: "Food to my countrymen is one of the ecstasies of life, to be thought about in advance; to be smothered with loving care throughout its preparation; and to have time lavished on it in the final pleasure of eating."
6Chinese FoodLo observes that when Westerners go to a restaurant they ask for a good table, which means a good position from which to see and be seen. They are usually there to be entertained socially -- and also, incidentally, to eat. When the Chinese go to a restaurant, however, they ask for a small room with plain walls where they cannot be seen except by the members of their own party, where jackets can come off and they can proceed with the serious business which brought them there. The Chinese intentions "are both honourable and whole-hearted: to eat with a capital E."Despite such a marked difference in attitudes towards what one consumes, there is no doubt that people in the West have come to regard the cuisine of China as something special. In fact, one can assert with some justice that Chinese food is, nowadays, the only truly international food. It is ubiquitous. Restaurants bedecked with dragons and delicate landscapes -- serving Such exotic as Dim Sin Gai (sweet and sour chicken), and Shao Shing soup, Chiao-Tzu and Kuo-Tioh (northern style), and Ging Ai Kwar (steamed aubergines) -- have sprung up everywhere from Hong Kong to Honolulu to Hoboken to Huddersfield.
7Chinese FoodHow did this come about? Certainly, a kind of Chinese food was exported to North America when many thousands of Chinese went there in the 19th century to work on such things as the U.S. railways. They settled on or near the west coast, where the famous or infamous "chop suey joints" grew up, with their rather inferior brand of Chinese cooking. The standard of the restaurants improved steadily in the United States, but Lo considers that the crucial factor in spreading this kind of food throughout the Western world was population pressure in the British colony of Hong Kong, especially after 1950, which sent families out all over the world to seek their fortunes in the opening of restaurants. He adds, however, that this could not have happened if the world had not been interested in what the Hong Kong Chinese had to cook and sell. He detects an increased interest in sensuality in the Western world: "Colour, texture, movement, food, drink, and rock music---- all these have become much more part and parcel of the average person's life than they have ever been. It is this increased sensuality and the desire for greater freedom from age-bound habits in the West, combined with the inherent sensual concept of Chinese food, always quick to satisfy the taste buds, that is at the root of the sudden and phenomenal spread of Chinese food throughout the length and breadth of the Western World."
8Chinese FoodThere is no doubt that the traditional high-quality Chinese meal is a serious matter, fastidiously prepared and fastidiously enjoyed. Indeed, the bringing together and initial cutting up and organising of the materials is about 90% of the actual preparation, the cooking itself being only about 10%. This 10% is not, however a simple matter. There are many possibilities to choose from; Kenneth Lo, for example, lists forty methods available for the heating of food, from chu or the art of boiling to such others as ts 'ang, a kind of stir-frying and braising, t'a, deep-frying in batter, and wei, burying food in hot solids such as charcoal, heated stones, sand, salt and lime.The preparation is detailed, and the enjoyment must therefore match it. Thus a proper Chinese meal can last for hours and proceed almost like a religious ceremony. It is a shared experience for the participants, not a lonely chore, with its procession of planned and carefully contrived dishes, some elements designed to blend, others to contrast. Meat and fish, solids and soups, sweet and sour sauces, crisp and smooth textures, fresh and dried vegetables -- all these and more challenge the palate with their appropriate charms.
9Chinese FoodIn a Chinese meal that has not been altered to conform to Western ideas of eating, everything is presented as a kind of buffet, the guest eating a little of this. a little of that. Individual portions as such are not provided. A properly planned dinner will include at least one fowl, one fish and one meat dish, and their presentation with appropriate vegetables is not just a matter of taste but also a question of harmonious colours. The eye must be pleased as well as the palate; if not, then a certain essentially Chinese element is missing, an element that links this cuisine with that most typical and yet elusive concept Tao. Emily Hahn, an American who has lived and worked in China, 'has a great appreciation both of Chinese cooking and the "way" that leads to morality and harmony. She insists that "there is moral excellence in good cooking", and adds that to the Chinese, traditionally, all life. all action and all knowledge are one. They may be chopped up and given parts with labels, such as "Cooking". "Health", "Character" and the like. but none is in reality separate from the other. The smooth harmonies and piquant contrasts in Chinese food are more than just the products of recipes and personal enterprise. They are an expression of basic assumptions about life itself.
10Keenth Le is a Chinese British, well-known gourmet and successful restaurant owner. He is the author of a number of books on food.attend to matters of business: take care of business matters.and ultimately one's spiritual and moral fiber and well-being: Food can determine whether a person is spiritually and morally strong and sound.
11e.g. I paid no less than $ 25for the book. quotes no less an authority than Confucius … : cites as important an authority as Confucius.No less than: as much as.e.g. I paid no less than $ 25for the book.with regard to the primal importance of food: in relation to the supreme importance of food.to be smothered ... through its preparation: Great love and care are to be given to the preparation of food. to smother... with ...: to give an excessive amount of something (such as love / attention / care etc) to ...to have time lavished on it ... pleasure of eating: to spend plenty of time enjoying the food
12plain walls: walls unadorned with paintings, picture, etc proceed with the serious business: go on with the serious business of eating.to eat with a capital E: to perform the ceremonious act of eating, i.e., to eat really seriously.Hoboken: a city in the eastern part of the USA.Huddersfield: a town near Leeds. Bradford and Manchester in the UK.
13e.g. He can not buy it because of his lack of money. 他因缺钱买不起这个。 Certainly, a kind of Chinese food... as the US railways: Many Chinese emigrated to America (especially to the western part of the USA) in the 19th century to work on railway construction jobs and they brought with them some kind of Chinese food.chop suey joints: small restaurants serving a Chinese-style dish of meat stewed and fried with bean sprouts, bamboo shoots, onions, and served with rice. Joint: an informal term for a cheap restaurant or night club (usually in poor condition).…all these have become much more part and parcel of the average person s life: Sensual pleasures (color, texture, movement, food, drink, rock music) have become an important pan, of people’s lives in the West.e.g. He can not buy it because of his lack of money.他因缺钱买不起这个。
14quick to satisfy the taste buds: (Chinese cooks are always) ready to satisfy people’s desire for tasty food. taste buds: small points on the surface of one’s tongue, sensitive to the flavor of food or drinkphenomenal spread: incredibly widespread, spread to a very large area.The length and breadth of : in or through every part of
15It is a shared experience …others to contrast: eating a Chinese meal in a restaurant is a communal experience of sharing many different kinds of dishes, painstakingly designed to create special effects.…all these and more challenge the palate: the rich variety of Chinese food will never fail to attract people
16In a Chinese meal that has …as a kind of buffet: The Chinese have not changed their way of eating to follow the Western practice. In a Chinese meal, food is presented as a kind of buffet, with each person helping himself to the individual dishes.The eye must be pleased as well as the palate: Chinese food is pleasant to see as well as to taste.… there is moral excellence in good cooking: there is a spiritual dimension to Chinese cooking in that when eating one participates in the ultimate unity and interconnectedness of all life (food, animals, plants, fruits, human beings, water, etc.) that is, participates in Tao– the ultimate oneness and harmony of the universe.
21Comprehension work （P 164) (Discuss the following questions.) 1. What is Kenneth Lo’s view of food and eating?2. How does Lo's view contrast with the approach common among the Westerners?3. What authority is cited to support Lo's view?
22Comprehension work (Discuss the following questions) 4. What difference is there between typical Westerners and Chinese in their behaviour in a restaurant?5. How has Chinese food fared in the world at large? How has this come about?6. What is a "proper Chinese meal" like? And how does it reflect the basic cultural characteristics of the Chinese?
23Language work (A, p. 165)1. The manager of the indebted company was elusive. He could not be reached by phone. So finally, we had to ask the police for help. ( hard to find/catch)2. On National Day the city’s main streets are bedecked with flags and colourful balloons. ( decorated )3. To cater to public curiosity, the media often lavish their attention on the private lives of some movie stars. (spend too much)4. The audience cheered in ecstasy when their football team scored a decisive goal in the last minute of the match. (great joy)
24Language work (A, p.165)5. We have to consider the inherent risk of investing in that country because of its political situation. (innate/in-built)6. Hardly can you be free from the assault of those ubiquitous garish advertisements that aim to lure you into buying this or that. (be present everywhere )7. The young man’s father, whose foresight had saved the country from plunging into war, was regarded as a sage in the kingdom. ( an old and wise man)8. If human beings are to survive, they must live in harmony with Nature.( a state of peaceful agreement )
25Language work (B, p.166)1. Beautiful packages can create a dream, and that is the at the root of their appeal.2. The pop singer’s fame has dramatically dropped, but he does not know how this has come about.3. In English there are many loaned words that are derived from Latin and Greek.4. With regard to food supply, our logistics division will attend to everything.5. Every hotel must install a fire warning system which conforms to the requirements of the local government.
26Language work (B, p.166)6. As soon as war was over, the administration began to attend to the reconstruction of the local economy.7. The closing down of unprofitable overseas branches is part and parcel of the company’s plan to save money.8. After answering a question from someone in the audience, the lecturer proceeded with his speech.9. Children would fail to make progress, if their teachers and parents remain indifferent to their success.10. The peaceful settlement of the ethnic clash in the region was welcomed through out the lengthen and breadth of the continent.
27Language work (C, p.166)1. a. He looked as if he was attending to his work, but actually he was thinking about the football match he saw the night before.b. She was apparently attending closely to her school work, yet her thoughts were altogether elsewhere.c. You never seem to attend to what I say, so there’s no point in your coming to my classes.
28Language work (C, p.167)a. In the matter of a job interview, your success largely depends on your own confidence.b. In the matter of family planning, people have to understand why it is important to stop population from growing too fast.c. In the matter of life and death, very few of us can remain as calm as he did.
29Language work (C, p.167)3. a. Matha observed philosophically, “life is full of problems.”b. In his speech, the President observed that the economy would improve in the following year.c. The manager observed that the company would need restructuring to enhance its market performance.
30Language work (C, p.167)4. a. Being recognized in the street is part and parcel of being famous.b. These things happen to be part and parcel of my everyday reality.c. Keeping accounts is part and parcel of my job.
31Language work (C, p.167)5. a. I have nothing to say with regard to your complaints.b. I am writing to you with regard to your letter on March 15th.c. He wants to speak to you with regard to your personal financial situation.
32Language work (C, p.167)6. a. Sam has no appreciation of the finer things in life.b. She has little or no appreciation of good music.c. Charlie has a great appreciation of both classical architecture and Chinese calligraphy.
33Part III Extended Activities DictationGrammar workTranslation
34Dictation Script of the Dictation There may come a time when you feel you want to give a dinner-party. It is a pleasant way of offering hospitality to friends or business associates. Operate within your capabilities and allow time to prepare. You don’t have to clean the house first, but be sure it is tidy and welcoming with no heaps of newspapers in the corners or dead flowers in vases. Strangers don’t usually notice details, so ignore them yourself and relax once your guests have arrived. There are several vital ingredients in a successful dinner-party: the food and drinks are important, your house should be warm and delightful and, if possible, bedecked with flowers. And you should be in command of yourself, your family, and for the time being, your guests.
35Grammar work Answers a. 1. to be fooled 2. to let 3. to blame 4. to be invited5. to be hold6. to come7. to win8. to be found9. to do10. to be sold
36Grammar work Answers b . 1.They are to have their wedding next month. 2. He is to be congratulated on his brilliant discovery.3. If it were to rain tomorrow, the match would be postponed.4. Don’t despair. The best is yet to come.5. That was in He was to sail to the New World of America in the following year.6. You are not to talk in the reading-room.7. The new traffic regulations are to be observed.8. The route is to be planned before the expedition.
37Translation1. The landlady told me that the rent must be paid in advance.2. Although this company boasts that its products are superior to those of other companies, they are actually inferior in quality.3. What lies at the root of the problem is their lack of interest.4. The police interviewed several witnesses, but none of them could tell how the accident came about.5. The new building of the department store does not conform to the safety regulations.6. She derived great satisfaction from her stamp collection.7. Colorful balloons and flags added to the festival atmosphere of the small town.8. Money is very important, but happiness is not always associated with wealth.