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2007 by The Education Trust-West Building A Movement: Closing Achievement and Opportunity Gaps in California. What, Why, and How? Claremont Graduate University.

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Presentation on theme: "2007 by The Education Trust-West Building A Movement: Closing Achievement and Opportunity Gaps in California. What, Why, and How? Claremont Graduate University."— Presentation transcript:

1 2007 by The Education Trust-West Building A Movement: Closing Achievement and Opportunity Gaps in California. What, Why, and How? Claremont Graduate University Phyllis Hart The Education Trust-West

2 2007 by The Education Trust-West The Gap Between California’s Young People and Their Peers in across the nation.

3 2007 by The Education Trust-West California’s NAEP Scores for 4 th Grade Reading Lag Behind Other States Source: National Center for Education Statistics,

4 2007 by The Education Trust-West Latino 4th Grade Students – NAEP READING Source: National Center for Education Statistics,

5 2007 by The Education Trust-West African American 4th Grade Students – NAEP READING Source: National Center for Education Statistics,

6 2007 by The Education Trust-West California’s NAEP Scores for 8 th Grade Reading Lag Behind Most States Source: National Center for Education Statistics,

7 2007 by The Education Trust-West Latino 8th Grade Students – NAEP READING Source: National Center for Education Statistics,

8 2007 by The Education Trust-West African American 8th Grade Students – NAEP READING Source: National Center for Education Statistics,

9 2007 by The Education Trust-West And Let’s Be Clear. It’s Not Our Demographics.

10 2007 by The Education Trust-West California’s White 8th Grade Students Trail Behind Their Peers in Most States Source: National Center for Education Statistics,

11 2007 by The Education Trust-West California’s Asian 8 th Grade Students Also Lag Behind Many States Source: National Center for Education Statistics,

12 2007 by The Education Trust-West On Our Own Assessments?

13 2007 by The Education Trust-West English Language Arts CST 2007 All Students Source: California Department of Education, 2007

14 2007 by The Education Trust-West MATH CST 2007 All Students *General Math – Tests Grades 6 & 7 Standards Source: California Department of Education, 2007

15 2007 by The Education Trust-West But underneath those averages...

16 2007 by The Education Trust-West ELA 4 th Grade, By Ethnicity CST 2007 Source: California Department of Education, 2007

17 2007 by The Education Trust-West ELA 4 th Grade, By Economic Status CST 2007 Source: California Department of Education, 2007

18 2007 by The Education Trust-West Math 4 th Grade, By Ethnicity CST 2007 Source: California Department of Education, 2007

19 2007 by The Education Trust-West Math 4 th Grade, By Economic Status CST 2007 Source: California Department of Education, 2007

20 2007 by The Education Trust-West These gaps begin before children arrive at the schoolhouse door. But, rather than organizing our educational system to ameliorate this problem, we organize it to exacerbate the problem.

21 2007 by The Education Trust-West But by Middle and High School Gaps Grow Increasingly Wider. In both Reading and Math. By the end of high school, even for those students that stay in our school, the gaps are staggering.

22 2007 by The Education Trust-West CA: African American and Latino 7 th graders read at about the level of White 3 rd graders CAT/ Source: California Department of Education, 2007

23 2007 by The Education Trust-West Low-Income 7 th graders read at about the level of Non Low-Income 3 rd graders CAT/ Source: California Department of Education, 2007

24 2007 by The Education Trust-West ELA 8 th Grade, By Ethnicity CST 2007 Source: California Department of Education, 2007

25 2007 by The Education Trust-West ELA 8 th Grade, By Economic Status CST 2007 Source: California Department of Education, 2007

26 2007 by The Education Trust-West Math 8 th Grade (General Math) By Ethnicity CST 2007 Source: California Department of Education, 2007

27 2007 by The Education Trust-West Math 8 th Grade (General Math) By Economic Status, CST 2007 Source: California Department of Education, 2007

28 2007 by The Education Trust-West ELA 11 th Grade, By Ethnicity CST 2007 Source: California Department of Education, 2007

29 2007 by The Education Trust-West ELA 11 th Grade, By Economic Status CST 2007 Source: California Department of Education, 2007

30 2007 by The Education Trust-West Algebra I (Grades 8-11), By Ethnicity CST 2007 Source: California Department of Education, 2007

31 2007 by The Education Trust-West Algebra I (Grades 8-11), By Economic Status CST 2007 Source: California Department of Education, 2007

32 2007 by The Education Trust-West Geometry (Grades 8-11), By Ethnicity CST 2007 Source: California Department of Education, 2007

33 2007 by The Education Trust-West Geometry (Grades 8-11) CST 2007, By Economic Status Source: California Department of Education, 2007

34 2007 by The Education Trust-West Algebra II (Grades 8-11), By Ethnicity CST 2007 Source: California Department of Education, 2007

35 2007 by The Education Trust-West Algebra II (Grades 8-11) CST 2007, By Economic Status Source: California Department of Education, 2007

36 2007 by The Education Trust-West CAHSEE First Time Test-Takers (Class of 2007 as 10 th graders) ELA Pass Rates Source: California Department of Education, 2007

37 2007 by The Education Trust-West CAHSEE First Time Test-Takers (Class of 2007 as 10 th Graders) Math Pass Rates Source: California Department of Education, 2007

38 2007 by The Education Trust-West …at the end of their senior year, CAHSEE Class of 2007 Source: California Department of Education, 2007

39 2007 by The Education Trust-West And these are for the students that are left. Drop Out Rates Staggering, Even if Unclear. We lose most kids between 9 th and 10 th grades.

40 2007 by The Education Trust-West Too Few Graduate. California Class of 2005 Source: Education Trust-West Analysis of CDE data, using the Manhattan Institute methodology. *Includes 9 th graders who graduated four years later.

41 2007 by The Education Trust-West The Gaps Don’t End At High School.

42 2007 by The Education Trust-West Graduation Rates at CSU Schools Latino vs. White Source: CollegeResults.org (www.edtrust.org)

43 2007 by The Education Trust-West Graduation Rates at CSU Schools African-American vs. White Source: CollegeResults.org (www.edtrust.org)

44 2007 by The Education Trust-West Graduation Rates at UC Schools African American vs. White Source: CollegeResults.org (www.edtrust.org)

45 2007 by The Education Trust-West Graduation Rates at UC Schools Latino vs. White

46 2007 by The Education Trust-West How? By giving students who arrive with less, less in school, too.

47 2007 by The Education Trust-West When we focus on changing those patterns, we get results.

48 2007 by The Education Trust-West Sustainable Improvement is Possible. A Model: Ralph Bunche Elementary - Compton Unified 48% African- American 50% Latino 93% Low-income Outperforming District and State 2 nd, 3 rd, 4 th, and 5 th grade Math Source: California Department of Education, 2007

49 2007 by The Education Trust-West 64% 51% 27% Source: California Department of Education, 2007

50 2007 by The Education Trust-West 76% 56% 38% Source: California Department of Education, 2007

51 2007 by The Education Trust-West Hughes Middle – Long Beach Unified 55% African- American and Latino 48% Low- income Outperforming District and State 8 th grade ELA Source: California Department of Education, 2007

52 2007 by The Education Trust-West A Tale of Two High Schools in California Garfield High School Over 4000 students Over 80% low-income El Monte High Over 2000 students Over 75% low-income Source: California Department of Education, 2007

53 2007 by The Education Trust-West A Tale of Two High Schools in California Source: California Department of Education, 2007

54 2007 by The Education Trust-West A Tale of Two High Schools in California Source: California Department of Education, 2007

55 2007 by The Education Trust-West A Tale of Two High Schools in California Source: California Department of Education, 2007

56 2007 by The Education Trust-West A Tale of Two High Schools in California Source: California Department of Education, 2007

57 2007 by The Education Trust-West A Tale of Two High Schools in California Source: California Department of Education, 2007

58 2007 by The Education Trust-West A Tale of Two High Schools in California Source: California Department of Education, 2007

59 2007 by The Education Trust-West How?

60 2007 by The Education Trust-West Hold the Line on the End Goal: College and Work Readiness for All.

61 2007 by The Education Trust-West STUDENTS AND PARENTS ARE CLEAR: THEIR GOAL IS COLLEGE Source: U.S. DOE, NCES, Getting Ready to Pay for College: What Students and Their Parents Know About the Cost of College Tuition and What They Are Doing to Find Out, September 2003.

62 2007 by The Education Trust-West CA Parents who expect their kids to attain at least a four year degree Source: New American Media Poll, Great Expectations, Survey of Latino, Asian, and African American Parents on Education. Aug. 23, 2006 Available at:

63 2007 by The Education Trust-West That’s Good, Because Education Pays. California: 2005 Median Income, Adults Over Age 25 Source:

64 2007 by The Education Trust-West Even in Jobs We Don’t Expect Requirements for Tool and Die Makers Four or five years of apprenticeship and/or postsecondary training; Algebra, geometry, trigonometry and statistics; Average earnings: $40,000 per year. Requirements for Sheet Metal Workers Four or five years of apprenticeship; Algebra, geometry, trigonometry and technical reading; Requirements for Auto Technicians A solid grounding in physics is necessary to understand force, hydraulics, friction and electrical circuits.

65 2007 by The Education Trust-West Even in Jobs We Don’t Expect… Plumbing-Heating-Air Conditioning Four or five years of apprenticeship and/or post- secondary training; Algebra, plane geometry, trigonometry and statistics; Physics, chemistry, biology, engineering economics. ALL of these jobs require a strong foundation of reading, writing and speaking the English language in order to comprehend instructions and technical manuals Construction and Engineering Four or five years of apprenticeship and/or post- secondary training; Algebra, plane geometry Critical thinking, problem solving, reading and writing Sources: Plumbing : Shapiro, D., and Nichols, J. Constructing Your Future: Consider a Career in Plumbing, Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning (HVAC) PHCC Auxiliary 2005 downloaded March 13, Construction: California Apprenticeship Council Division of Apprenticeship Standards 2001 Annual Legislative Report Downloaded March 15, truction%2C%20engineering%20%28ace%20pathway%29%20course%20outline'

66 2007 by The Education Trust-West All Kids College and Work Ready Focusing on Course Quality, Redesign. But Don’t Forget Here Too, Access (To The Right Courses) Is Still A Huge Problem.

67 2007 by The Education Trust-West Few Graduate College Ready. * California: Class of Source: Education Trust-West Analysis of CDE data, using the Manhattan Institute methodology *Includes 9 th graders who have completed the A-G course sequence with a “C” or better in each class four years later.

68 2007 by The Education Trust-West Even though most students want to go to college, the truth is, many low income students and students of color aren’t getting the classes in the first place.

69 2007 by The Education Trust-West Gompers HS: 1543 Students 87.1% Latino & African- American 81.1% low-income 17% of graduates successfully completed A- G in 2004 La Jolla HS: 1688 students 25% Latino & African- American 17.8% low-income 56.7% of graduates successfully completed A- G in 2004 San Diego City Schools: Two High Schools Source: CA Dept of Education, 2005

70 2007 by The Education Trust-West Number of classes offered in Opportunities to take higher level math classes are much more limited at the high-poverty, high-minority high school: Gompers HS vs. La Jolla HS, San Diego City Schools Source: Ed Trust-West Analysis of CA Dept of Education Data, 2005

71 2007 by The Education Trust-West A-G as the Default Curriculum Is A Necessary Step.

72 2007 by The Education Trust-West Ultimately, why does good teaching matter?

73 2007 by The Education Trust-West What does it look like? Equity in Rigor? What is Rigor?

74 2007 by The Education Trust-West Students can do no better than the assignments they are given.

75 2007 by The Education Trust-West Grade 7 Standards Based, Rigorous Writing Assignment Source: Unnamed school district in California, school year. Essay on Anne Frank Your essay will consist of an opening paragraph which introduced the title, author and general background of the novel. Your thesis will state specifically what Anne's overall personality is, and what general psychological and intellectual changes she exhibits over the course of the book You might organize your essay by grouping psychological and intellectual changes OR you might choose 3 or 4 characteristics (like friendliness, patience, optimism, self doubt) and show how she changes in this area.

76 2007 by The Education Trust-West Grade 7 Low-Level Writing Assignment Source: Unnamed school district in California, school year. My Best Friend:My Best Friend: A chore I hate:A chore I hate: A car I want:A car I want: My heartthrob:My heartthrob: 2004 by The Education Trust-West

77 2007 by The Education Trust-West Middle School Example 7 th Grade Assignment Explain the difference between the systems of the body affected by an allergy to pollen and those affected by an allergy to food as well as the process by which different medicines reduce the symptoms of each allergy.

78 2007 by The Education Trust-West Middle School Example: 7 th Grade Assignment Name and describe functions of the five body systems.

79 2007 by The Education Trust-West The Odyssey Ninth Grade High-level Assignment Comparison/Contrast Paper Between Homer's Epic Poem, The Odyssey and the Movie "0 Brother Where Art Thou" By nature, humans compare and contrast all elements of their world. Why? Because in the juxtaposition of two different things, one can learn more about each individual thing as well as something about the universal nature of the things being compared. For this 2-3 page paper you will want to ask yourself the following questions: what larger ideas do you see working in The Odyssey and "0 Brother Where Art Thou"? Do both works treat these issues in the same way? What do the similarities and differences between the works reveal about the underlying nature of the larger idea?

80 2007 by The Education Trust-West The Odyssey Ninth Grade Low-level Assignment Divide class into 3 groups: Group 1 designs a brochure titled "Odyssey Cruises". The students listen to the story and write down all the places Odysseus visited in his adventures, and list the cost to travel from place to place. Group 2 draws pictures of each adventure. Group 3 takes the names of the characters in the story and gods and goddesses in the story and designs a crossword puzzle.

81 2007 by The Education Trust-West Grade 10 Writing Assignment A frequent theme in literature is the conflict between the individual and society. From literature you have read, select a character who struggled with society. In a well-developed essay, identify the character and explain why this character’s conflict with society is important.

82 2007 by The Education Trust-West Grade 10 Writing Assignment Write a composition of at least 4 paragraphs on Martin Luther King’s most important contribution to this society. Illustrate your work with a neat cover page. Neatness counts.

83 2007 by The Education Trust-West Using the SAME TEXT BOOK College-prep assignments from: School A, District A, California 1467 students enrolled in % White 6% Asian 4% Latino 2% Black 2% Low-Income School B, District B, California 2001 students enrolled in % White 4% Asian 48% Latino 1% Black 27% Low-Income

84 2007 by The Education Trust-West Same Text Book: High-Level college-prep assignment. Describe the fundamental problems in the economy that helped cause the Great Depression. Consider agriculture, consumer spending and debt, distribution of wealth, the stock market Describe how people struggled to survive during the Depression How did Hoover’s belief in “rugged individualism” shape his policies during the depression?

85 2007 by The Education Trust-West Same Text Book: Low Level college-prep assignment. Role play (Meet the Press) & interview key people of the era Draw a political cartoon highlighting a major event of the time Share excerpts from noted literary authors-Lewis, Fitzgerald, Hemingway, Hughes Listen to jazz artists of the 20’s Construct a collage depicting new inventions

86 2007 by The Education Trust-West Use Time Differently. Break out of the 6 hour a day, 180 days a school year, mode of thinking.

87 2007 by The Education Trust-West The Full Year Calendar Most Administrators Don’t Realize How Little Time They Have For Teaching And Learning. Analysis of One California Urban Middle School Calendar Source: Ed Trust – West analysis of the master schedule of an unnamed school in CA

88 2007 by The Education Trust-West Less Summer Vacation Source: Ed Trust – West analysis of the master schedule of an unnamed school in CA

89 2007 by The Education Trust-West Less Weekends, Holidays, & Summer Vacation Source: Ed Trust – West analysis of the master schedule of an unnamed school in CA

90 2007 by The Education Trust-West Less Professional Development Days & Early Dismissal/Parent Conferences Source: Ed Trust – West analysis of the master schedule of an unnamed school in CA

91 2007 by The Education Trust-West Less Class Picnic, Class Trip, Thanksgiving Feast, Christmas, Kwanzaa, Hanukkah, Awards, Assembles, & Concerts Source: Ed Trust – West analysis of the master schedule of an unnamed school in CA

92 2007 by The Education Trust-West Less State and District Testing and Other Non- Instructional Time Source: Ed Trust – West analysis of the master schedule of an unnamed school in CA

93 2007 by The Education Trust-West BOTTOM LINE? Teachers are left with about 18 Eight Hour Days Per Subject Per Year

94 2007 by The Education Trust-West Hold the line on high standards, and at the same time, ensure proper supports. An example: CAHSEE

95 2007 by The Education Trust-West CAHSEE Passage Rates California Class of 2006 as of July 2006 Source: Wise, L., et al., Independent Evaluation of the CAHSEE, 2006 HumRRO

96 2007 by The Education Trust-West Has the CAHSEE requirement changed anything? What principals say: Source: Wise, L., et al., Independent Evaluation of the CAHSEE, HumRRO October, 31, 2006.

97 2007 by The Education Trust-West Has the CAHSEE requirement changed anything? What students say: 89% of 11 th graders who took the CAHSEE ELA in 2006 reported ‘working harder,’ either by: taking additional courses (15%) Working harder in current courses (50%) Getting outside help (14%) Repeating courses (10%) Source: Wise, L., et al., Independent Evaluation of the CAHSEE, HumRRO October, 31, 2006.

98 2007 by The Education Trust-West What about alternative assessments?

99 2007 by The Education Trust-West Source: EdTrust-West analysis of NJ Department of Education and schoolmatters.com data, 2005 If we don’t hold the line on standards, we run the risk of creating devastating unintended consequences… Alternatives to the High School Exit Exam? Example: New Jersey

100 2007 by The Education Trust-West Source: EdTrust-West analysis of NJ Department of Education and schoolmatters.com data, 2005 In New Jersey’s large urban high schools…

101 2007 by The Education Trust-West We can’t be serious about closing the Achievement Gap while allowing the Teacher Quality Gap to persist, and grow.

102 2007 by The Education Trust-West Students Who Start 2nd Grade at About the Same Level of Math Achievement… Source: Heather Jordan, Robert Mendro, and Dash Weerasinghe, The Effects of Teachers on Longitudinal Student Achievement, 1997.

103 2007 by The Education Trust-West …Finish 5 th Grade Math at Dramatically Different Levels Depending on the Quality of Their Teachers Source: Heather Jordan, Robert Mendro, and Dash Weerasinghe, The Effects of Teachers on Longitudinal Student Achievement, 1997.

104 2007 by The Education Trust-West Closing California’s Achievement Gaps is the Most Important Issue Facing Our Public Schools. The real question But do we have the will to educate all children?

105 2007 by The Education Trust-West Call for Proposals Now Open. Registration Begins in the Fall. SAVE THE DATE! The Education Trust – West


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