Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Chapter 4: Middle.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Chapter 4: Middle."— Presentation transcript:

1 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Chapter 4: Middle Childhood Module 4.3 Social and Personality Development in Middle Childhood

2 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. THE DEVELOPING SELF

3 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Who Am I? During middle childhood, children begin to view themselves: –Less in terms of external physical attributes –More in terms of psychological traits 237

4 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Psychosocial Development in Middle Childhood Industry Versus Inferiority Industry = feelings of mastery and proficiency and a growing sense of competence Inferiority = feelings of failure and inadequacy 237

5 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Erik Erikson’s middle childhood Encompasses the INDUSTRY-VERSUS­ INFERIORITY STAGE Period from ages 6 to 12 years of age Characterized by a focus on efforts to attain competence in meeting the challenges related to: –Parents –Peers –School –Other complexities of the modern world 237

6 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. How do school-agers change? Children realize they are good at some things and not so good at others Self-concept and self-esteem continue to develop 238

7 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Children look to others who are similar to themselves

8 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. SELF-ESTEEM Develops in important ways during middle childhood Children increasingly compare themselves to others Children are developing their own standards 238

9 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. For most children… Self-esteem increases during middle childhood 238

10 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Breaking the Cycle of Failure Promoting development of self-esteem Using authoritative child-rearing style Why do you think this style is recommended? 239

11 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Race and Self-Esteem Early research found that African Americans had lower self-esteem than whites More recent research shows these early assumptions to be overstated –African Americans –Hispanic Americans –Asian Americans 239

12 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Why does this occur? Social Identity Theory Members of a minority group accept negative views held by majority group only if they perceive little realistic possibility of changing power and status differences between groups 239

13 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Developmental Diversity Are Children of Immigrant Families Well Adjusted ? Tend to have equal or better grades than children with US born parents Often more highly motivated to succeed and place greater value on education than do children in nonimmigrant families Show similar levels of self-esteem to nonimmigrant children Report feeling less popular and less in control of their lives 240

14 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Moral Development: Kohlberg Proposes series of fixed stages in development of moral reasoning Uses moral dilemmas to assess moral reasoning Provides good account of moral judgment but not adequate at predicting moral behavior 241

15 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Kohlberg Stages Preconventional Morality (stages 1 & 2): people follow unvarying rules based on rewards and punishments Conventional Morality (stages 3 & 4) is where people approach problems in terms of their own position as good, responsible members of society Postconventional Morality (stages 5 & 6) is where universal moral principles are invoked and considered broader than a particular society 241

16 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Moral Development— Kohlberg’s Levels and Stages PRECONVENTIONAL LEVEL Stage 1: punishment-obedience orientation Stage 2: instrumental-exchange orientation CONVENTIONAL LEVEL Stage 3: good child orientation Stage 4: law-and-order orientation POSTCONVENTIONAL LEVEL Stage 5: social-contract orientation Stage 6: universal ethics orientation 16

17 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. 17

18 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. 18 Moral Development Lawrence Kohlberg contended that moral thinking likewise proceeds through a series of stages –from a preconventional morality of self-interest (gains rewards, avoids punishment) –to a conventional morality that cares for others and upholds laws and rules (gains approval, does duty; obeys because rules exist) –to (in some people) a postconventional morality of agreed-upon rights or basic ethical principles.

19 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Preconventional (birth to adolescence) Stage 1- punishment and obedience orientation –Self-centered –Rewards, punishment –Will not admit intentionality Stage 2- instrumental-exchange orientation –Aware of perspective of others –Reciprocal-exchange of favors 19

20 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Conventional (adolescence to young adulthood)- other focussed Stage 3- good child orientation –Being nice to gain approval –People judged by intentions of their behavior Stage 4- law-and-order orientation –Takes into account larger perspective- society –One’s duty to respect law and order 20

21 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Postconventional (adulthood)- develop own standards of right and wrong/abstract Stage 5- social-contract orientation –Appreciate underlying purposes of laws –Interests in majority versus individual –OK to steal drug to save a life Stage 6- universal ethics orientation –“right” is determined by universal ethics –Human dignity, nonviolence, freedom, equality –Regardless of whether agree, will conform 21

22 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Kohlberg Criticisms Based solely on observations of members of Western cultures Theory initially based largely on data from males 241

23 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. MORAL DEVELOPMENT IN GIRLS

24 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Carol Gilligan Way boys and girls raised leads to differences in moral reasoning Suggests Kohlberg’s theory inadequate and places girls’ moral reasoning at lower level than boys’ 243

25 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Gilligan’s Stages of Morality in Girls 243

26 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Review and Apply REVIEW According to Erikson, children at this time are in the industry-versus-inferiority stage. In the middle childhood years, children begin to use social comparison and self-concepts based on psychological rather than physical characteristics. 244

27 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Review and Apply REVIEW According to Kohlberg, moral development proceeds from a concern with rewards and punishments, through a focus on social conventions and rules, toward a sense of universal moral principles. Gilligan has suggested, however, that girls may follow a somewhat different progression of moral development. 244

28 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Review and Apply APPLY Kohlberg and Gilligan each suggest there are three major levels of moral development. Are any of their levels comparable? In which level of either theory do you think that the largest discrepancy between males and females would be observed? 244

29 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. RELATIONSHIPS: BUILDING FRIENDSHIP IN MIDDLE CHILDHOOD

30 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Friends in Middle Childhood Provide emotional support and help kids to handle stress Teach children how to manage and control their emotions Teach about communication with others Foster intellectual growth Allow children to practice relationship skills 244

31 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Damon’s Stages of Friendship Stage 1 (ages 4-7 years) Children see friends as like themselves Children see friends as people to share toys and activities with Children do not take into account personal traits 245

32 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Damon’s Stages of Friendship Stage 2 (ages 8-10 years) Children now begin to take other’s personal qualities and traits into consideration Friends are viewed in terms of kinds of rewards they provide Friendships are based on mutual trust 245

33 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Damon’s Stages of Friendship Stage 3 (ages years) Friendships become based on intimacy and loyalty Friendships involve mutual disclosure and exclusivity 245

34 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN CHILDREN’S FRIENDSHIP

35 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. King or Queen of the Hill…Status Hierarchies Children’s friendships show clear hierarchies in terms of STATUS STATUS is the evaluation of a role or person by other relevant members of a group 246

36 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. High Status Children Form friendships with high status children More likely to form exclusive and desirable cliques Tend to play with a greater number of children Have greater access to resources such as games, toys, books, and information 246

37 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Low Status Children Form friendships with other lower status children Tend to play with a lower number of children than higher status children Are more likely to play with younger or less popular children Tend to follow the lead of higher status children 246

38 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. What Personal Characteristics Lead to Popularity?

39 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Popular Children Helpful and cooperative Good sense of humor Good emotional understanding Ask for help when necessary Not overly reliant on others Adaptive to social situations Social problem-solving skill competence 246

40 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Unpopular Children Lack social competence Immature or inappropriately silly Overly aggressive and overbearing Withdrawn or shy Unattractive, handicapped, obese, or slow academically 246

41 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Unpopular Children Lack of popularity may take two forms: NEGLECTED CHILDREN receive relatively little attention from their peers in the form of either positive or negative interaction REJECTED CHILDREN are actively disliked and their peers may react to them in an obviously negative manner 246

42 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Teaching Social Competence Several programs teach children set of social skills that underlie general social competence 247

43 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Bullying SCHOOL- THE BULLY 160,000 U.S. schoolchildren stay home from school each day because they are afraid of being bullied About 10 to 15 percent of students bully others at one time or another. About half of all bullies come from abusive homes. 247

44 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Bully SCHOOL – BULLIED Some 90 percent of middle-school students report being bullied at some point in their time at school, beginning as early as the preschool years Characteristics –Loners who are fairly passive –Often cry easily –Lack the social skills that might otherwise defuse a bullying situation 248

45 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. When the Pink Princess Becomes a Bully! Relational Aggression Among Girls Odd Girl Speaks Out: Girls Write about Bullies, Cliques, Popularity, and Jealousy Rachel Simmons Mean Chicks, Cliques, and Dirty Tricks: A Real Girl's Guide to Getting Through the Day With Smarts and Style Erika V Shearin Karres GirlWise: How to Be Confident, Capable, Cool, and in Control Julia Devillers The Bully, the Bullied, and the Bystander: From Preschool to High School--How Parents and Teachers Can Help Break the Cycle of Violence Barbara Coloroso 248

46 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Do bystanders contribute to bullying?

47 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Sex Segregation of Middle Childhood

48 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Boyfriend, girlfriend…any friend? Avoidance of opposite sex becomes very pronounced during middle childhood Children’s friendships are almost entirely sex-segregated When sexes interact it is called “border work”, is often romantic, and helps emphasize clear boundaries between sexes 248

49 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Boys and Friendship Larger networks of friends than girls do Strict DOMINANCE HIERARCHY Attempt to maintain and improve status in hierarchy –Restrictive play 248

50 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Girls and Friendships Focus on one or two “best friends” of relatively equal status Conflicts solved by compromise, ignoring situation, or giving in Can be confrontational with other girls not their friends Language is less confrontational and direct than boys’ 248

51 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Are friendships color-blind?

52 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Cross-Race Friendships: Integration In and Out of the Classroom Closest friendships largely with others of same race Decline with age in number and depth of friendships outside own racial group 249

53 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Reducing Prejudice through Contact Between Groups CONTACT Must occur in equal status settings Enhanced through cooperative activities that are important to children Must promote equality and disconfirm negative stereotypes 249

54 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Becoming an Informed Consumer of Development Increasing Children’s Social Competence Encourage social interaction Teach listening skills to children Make children aware that people display emotions and moods nonverbally Teach conversational skills, including the importance of asking questions and self- disclosure Don’t ask children to choose teams or groups publicly 250

55 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Review and Apply REVIEW Children’s understanding of friendship changes from the sharing of enjoyable activities, through the consideration of personal traits that can meet their needs, to a focus on intimacy and loyalty. Friendships in childhood display status hierarchies. Improvements in social problem-solving and social information processing can lead to better interpersonal skills and greater popularity. Boys and girls engage increasingly in same-sex friendships, with boys’ friendships involving group relationships and girls’ friendships characterized by pairings of girls with equal status. 250

56 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Review and Apply APPLY Do you think the stages of friendship are a childhood phenomenon, or do adults’ friendships display similar stages? 250

57 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. FAMILY LIFE IN MIDDLE CHILDHOOD

58 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Middle Childhood in the 21 st Century In addition to other changes, children experience: Increasing independence Coregulation with parents Sibling relationships and rivalry 251

59 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. What happens when sibs don’t want to be alike? De-identification –Enhances desire to be different from older sibling –Influences gender-role behavior –improves cross-gender relations later in life 251

60 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. What about children who have no siblings? Only children are well-adjusted as children with brothers and sisters In some ways, only children are better- adjusted, often having higher self-esteem and stronger motivation to achieve 251

61 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. When Both Parents Work Outside the Home: How Do Children Fare? In most cases, children fare quite well When parents –Are loving –Are sensitive to their children’s needs –Provide appropriate substitute care Good adjustment of children relates to psychological adjustment of parents, especially mothers 251

62 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Self-Care Children Youngsters who let themselves into their homes after school and wait alone until their parents return from work 251

63 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Good or bad? Consequences of being a latchkey child are not all harmful Some children report being lonely Some children develop a sense of independence and competence Some research shows latchkey children have higher self-esteem because they are helping family 252

64 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. The Consequences of Divorce Only half of children in the U.S. will pass through childhood living with both parents each of whom has been married only once School-age children tend to blame themselves for the breakup 252

65 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. After the break… Both children and parents may show several types of psychological maladjustments for 6 months to 2 years –Anxiety –Depression –Sleep disturbances –Phobias 252

66 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Rediscovering the Status Quo After 18 months to 2 years, most children return to their predivorce psychological adjustment Twice as many children of divorced parents require psychological counseling as do children from intact families For some children, living in a home with unhappy marriage and which is high in conflict has stronger negative consequences than divorce 252

67 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Single Parent Families

68 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Single Parents Almost one-quarter of all children under 18 in the U.S. live with only one parent Numbers are higher for minority children 60% of African-American children live in single parent homes 35% of Hispanic children live in single parent homes 253

69 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Single Parents In majority of cases, single parent is mother Consequences of living in single parent home depend on: Whether other parent ever lived at home Economic status 253

70 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Multigenerational Families Opportunity for rich experiences and conflicts Greater among African Americans than among Caucasians In some families, cultural norms tend to be highly supportive of grandparents taking an active role 253

71 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Grandparents Raising Grandchildren In 1980, 2.3 million (4%) children under 18 were living in a grandparent(s)' home Now around 4 million (6%) living with grandparents Age: –48% of grandparent caregivers range between 50 and 64 years –33% under the age of 50 and 19% over the age of

72 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Yours, mine…ours BLENDED FAMILIES include remarried couple that has at least one stepchild living with them Experts predict that by 2000, over 50 percent of children born in the last decade will be stepchildren Living in blended family involves role ambiguity, in which roles and expectations are unclear 253

73 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Not all the news is bad!! School-age children often adjust relatively smoothly to a blended family Financial status of family improves More people to share household chore More social interaction and attention But…not all children adjust well, especially if the new relationship is threatening 253

74 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Families with Gay and Lesbian Parents Between one and five million US families headed by two lesbians or two gay parents Most studies find children: –Develop similarly to children of heterosexual families –Have sexual orientation unrelated to their parents –Have no more or less gender-typed behavior –Seem equally well adjusted –Have similar relationships with their peers and adults –Have romantic relationships and sexual behavior that are no different from those of adolescents living with opposite-sex parents 254

75 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Race and Family Life What do you know about…? –African-American families –Hispanic families –Asian-American families 254

76 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Poverty and Family Life Poor families –Fewer basic everyday resources –More disruptions in children’s lives –Higher likelihood of stress 254

77 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Group Homes… Term “orphanage” replaced by group home or residential treatment center –Group homes used for youngsters whose parents are no longer able to care for them adequately 255

78 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Anybody home? The number of children in group care has growth over 50 percent About three-quarters of children in group homes are victims of abuse and neglect Most will eventually return home, however, one- fourth will be in group care throughout childhood 255

79 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Good or Bad? Experts disagree on advantages and disadvantages of group care Some see them as solution to unwed mothers who become dependent on welfare Many who work in these homes say they cannot provide adequate love and support as family could Group homes cost ten times as much as foster care or welfare 255

80 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Review and Apply REVIEW Self-care children may develop independence and enhanced self-esteem from their experience. How divorce affects children depends on such factors as financial circumstances and the comparative levels of tension in the family before and after the divorce. The effects of being raised in a single-parent household depend on financial circumstances, the amount of parent–child interaction, and the level of tension in the family. 255

81 Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. Review and Apply APPLY Politicians often speak of “family values.” How does this term relate to the diverse family situations covered in this chapter, including divorced parents, single parents, blended families, working parents, self- care children, abusive families, and group care? 255


Download ppt "Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Chapter 4: Middle."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google