Presentation on theme: "Routine memos and messages"— Presentation transcript:
1Routine memos and e-mail messages Chapter 8Routine memos and messages
2What’s the difference between routine letters and memos? Background information and explanation.Goodwill messages
3Part I Memos and e-mails Subject,opening, body, closing The organizationof memosand sThe benefits ofdeveloping skillsin writing memosand sMemos andsThe characteristicsof successfulmemos andmessagesSmartpractices
4An example--email From : D.M.Sidwell To : A.J.Coleman Cc : C.F.Lindsay Subject : meetingAndrew ,The meeting will now be at on Monday in Mike’s office. I hope you can make it. Please let me know if this is OK.ThanksDuncan
5An example -- memo To: Kobi Marsh, Marketing Manager From : Isabelle Hutton, Managing DirectorSubject : Market ShareDate: 11 July
6An example – memoYou’ve seen the sales forecast for the next twelve months. The worrying aspect is that our market share is going to fall slightly, although overall sales are likely to remain steady. We must carry out a new market survey to see how we should appraise our product range in order to maintain our market position. To do this, we may have to modify our existing products or launch a completely new product. Please let me have your views on this as soon as possible.Isabelle
7The benefits of developing skill in writing memos and e-mail messages 1. Well-written documents are likely to achieve their goals2. Well-written documents enhance your image within the organization (these person will be noticed, rewarded, and promoted )
8Characteristics of successful memos and e-mail messages 1. Guideword headings:To, from, date, subject headings2. Single topic:discuss only one topic3. Conversational tone:the tone of memos and messages should be conversational, professional.(not emotional)4. Conciseness:the messages contain only what’s necessary to convey meaning and be courteous.(to eliminate wordiness)
9Characteristics of successful memos and e-mail messages 5. Graphic highlighting:to make important ideas stand out and to improve readability, memo and writers make liberal use of graphic highlighting techniques.(numbered and bulleted lists and headings )
10QuestionsWhat are five characteristics of successful memos and messages?What’s graphic highlighting, and why is it particularly useful in memos and messages ?
11Revise the paragraph by using graphic highlighting techniques A recent survey of car buyers uncovered some very interesting information about what electronic options they really wanted in new cars. Some technology visionaries have been saying that car buyers wanted a lot of fancy electronic gadgets, but the survey showed that only 5.1 percent , for example, wanted a trip computer. Most car buyers mentioned cruise control ( 79.1 percent) . A total of 61.1 percent said that they wanted antilock brakes. A smaller percentage (50.5 percent )wanted keyless entry. Farther down the list we found that buyers wanted CD players ( 34.1 percent)(P274)
12The improved oneThe following table is about what electronic options customers wanted in new cars:Electronic optionsPercentage of customersTrip computer5.1%Cruise control79.1%Antilock brakes61.1%Keyless entry50.5%CD players34.1%
13Organization of memos and e-mail messages 1. Subject line :summarize the central idea.e.g. SUBJECT: Staff Meeting to Discuss Summer Vacation Schedule2. Opening:most direct memos convey non-sensitive information and thus frontload the main idea in the opening .
14Organization of memos and e-mail messages e.g. please review the following proposal regarding employees’ benefits, and let me know by May 20 if you approve these changes.
15Revise the opener(I)At the meeting of the management council last Thursday, you mentioned a very interesting study that you conducted last year. It reported data regarding employee turnover, and you said that it revealed some intriguing findings. Please send me a copy of your study. (8.1 A)
16The improved one SUBJECT: Data Regarding Employee Turnover please send me a copy of your study regarding employee turnover
17Revise the opener (II)I have before me your memo of the 16th in which you request permission to attend the Web Site Design Seminar sponsored by Presentation Planners. As I understand it, this is a two-day seminar scheduled for February 25 and 26. Your reasons for attending were well stated and convincing. You have my permission to attend. (8.1 C)
18The improved one SUBJECT: Web Site Design Seminar Welcome to the Web Site Design Seminar sponsored by Presentation Planners scheduled for February 25 and 26.
19Organization of memos and e-mail messages 3. Body:provides more information about the reason for writing. It explains and discusses the subject logically-- to explain more clearly, what techniques can you use ?
20Organization of memos and e-mail messages 4. Closing:I.action information including dates and deadlinese.g. So that we can prepare the necessary paperwork, please let me know your answers to these questions by Wednesday, August 18.II. A summarye.g. These are cost-reduction steps we’ve taken thus far.III. A closing thoughte.g. I sincerely appreciate your cooperation.
21Revise the body(I)Our employee leasing program has proven to be an efficient management tool for business owners because we take care of everything. Our program will handle your payroll preparation. Moreover, benefits for employees are covered. We also know what a chore calculating worker’s compensation premiums can be, so we do that for you. And we make all the necessary state and federal reports that are required today. (8.3 B)
22The improved oneour employee leasing program will take care of the following items for you:1. Handle the payroll preparation2. Cover benefits for employees3. Calculate worker’s compensation premiums4. Make all the necessary state and federal reports
23Revise the body (II)We are concerned about your safety in using our automated teller machines (ATMs) at night, so we think you should consider the following tips. Users of ATMs are encouraged to look around—especially at night—before using the service. If you notice anything suspicious, the use of another ATM is recommended. Or you could come back later. Another suggestion that we give our customers involves counting your cash. Be sure that the cash you receive is put away quickly. Don’t count it as soon as you get it. It’s better to check it in the safety of your car or at home. Also, why not take a friend with you if you must use an ATM at night? We also suggest that you park in a well-lighted area as close to the actual location of the ATM as possible. (8.3 c)
24The improved oneFor your safety in using our ATMS at night, please follow the next tips:Look around before using the service. If you notice anything suspicious, try another one.Put away the cash quickly and check it in the safety of your car or at home.Take a friend with you if possible.Park in a well-lighted area as close to the actual location of the ATM as possible.
25Questions Name three ways to close a memo or e-mail message? Action informationSummaryClosing thought
26Smart E-mail practices Get the address right;--a wrong address would make your message bounceavoid misleading subject lines;--make sure your subject line is relevant and helpfulbe concise;--don’t burden readers with unnecessary informationdon’t send anything you wouldn’t want published;-- creates a permanent record , and every message can be used against you or your employer.don’t use to avoid contact;-- is inappropriate for breaking bad news or for resolving arguments.
27Smart E-mail practices never respond when you are angry;--you can produce better alternatives after thinking about what was said.care about correctness;--sloppy messages make readers work too hardresist humor and tongue-in-cheek comments;--humor can easily be misunderstood without the nonverbal cueslimit any tendency to send blanket copies;--send copies only to people who really need to see a message.
28Smart E-mail practices use design to improve readability of longer messages;--use headings, bulleted listings, side headings, and introductory summary to shorten reading timeconsider cultural differences;double check before hitting the send button;--avoid the necessity of sending a second message which makes you look pretty carelessprotect against break-ins.--don’t give your password to anyone else
29QuestionsSuggest at least ten pointers that you could give to a first-time user?
30Information and procedure Part IIFormat of memosand sInformation and procedurememos and sMemos andsRequest and replymemos and sThree kinds ofmemos and sConfirmation memoand s
31Formatting e-mail messages Guide words: to, from, date, subject, cc, Bcc,attached.After TO, type the receiver’s electronic address. If you include the receiver’s name, enclose the address in angle brackets.After FROM, type your name and electronic address, if your program does not insert it automatically.After Subject, provide a clear description of your message.
32Formatting e-mail messages Salutation: I. To company insiders, salutations were omitted. II. To outsiders, salutation should be included, such as dear linlee.( or put it in the first sentence )Body: cover just one topic, and try to keep the total message under three screens in length.Closing lines: the writer’s name, title, address, and organization.
35Three kinds of memos and e-mail messages 1. Information and procedure memos and messages----- deliver information or outlining procedures2. Request and reply memos and messages----- requesting action or information; reply to requests3. Confirmation memos and messages----- create a permanent record of oral decisions, directives, and discussions
36Procedure and information memos and e-mail messages It includes :-- clear subject line, direct opening, concise explanation, and action closinge.g. Opening:-- to improve budget planning and to control costs, please follow the new procedures listed below …Explanation:-- printing is a necessary expenditure, however, our bill seems very high lately,particularly those from Printmasters….( clear idea)
37Revise the following information memo Date : currentTo : all employeesFrom : mark grist, employee benefits divisionSubject: Retirement
38Revise the following information memo We are aware that many employees do not have sufficient information that relates to the prospect of their retirement. Many employees who are approaching retirement age have come to this office with specific questions about their retirement. It would be much easier for us to answer all these questions at once, and that is what we will try to do.(8.10)
39Revise the following information memo We would like to answer your questions at a series of retirement planning sessions in the company conference room. The first meeting is September 6. We will start at 4 p.m., which means that the company is giving you one hour of released time to attend this important session. We will meet from 4 to 6 p.m. when we will stop for dinner. We will begin again at 7 p.m. and finish at 8 p.m.
40Revise the following information memo We have arranged for three speakers. They are : our company benefits supervisor, a financial planner, and a psychologist who treats retirees who have mental problems. The three sessions are planned for : September 6, October 4, and November 1.
41The improved one Place for the meeting : company conference room We will answer all retirement questions in the following three sessions:The first sessionThe second sessionThe third sessionDateSeptember 6October 4November 1Time4 to 6 p.m.Dinner7 to 8 p.m.SpeakerOur company benefits supervisorFinancial plannerPsychologistPlace for the meeting : company conference room
42Request and reply memos and e-mail messages It follows the direct pattern in seeking or providing informationRequest memos:Opening : I. Ask the most important question first, followed by an explanation and then the other questions II. Use a polite command, such as please answer the following questions regarding …Body: explain and justify your requestClosing : include an end date to promote a quick response
43An example MEMO TO :Department Managers Please answer the questions listed below about the use of temporary help in your department.(a polite command )With your ideas we plan to develop a policy that will help us improve the process of budgeting, selecting , and hiring temporaries.( explain the purpose concisely )
44An example ( include end date, along with reason and reader benefit) 1. What’s the average number of temporary office workers you employ each month?2. What is the average length of a temporary worker’s assignment in your department?3. What specific job skills are you generally seeking in your temporaries?4. What temporary agencies are you now using?( list parallel questions to improve readability)by replying before January 20, you will have direct input into the new policy, which we will be developing at the end of the month. This improved policy will help you fill your temporary employment needs more quickly and more efficiently.( include end date, along with reason and reader benefit)
45QuestionsShould a request memo or message open immediately with the request or with an explanation? Why?-- with the request,-- readers can understand the explanation better once they know the request first.
46Request and reply memos and e-mail messages Opening : start directly by responding to the writer’s request(we are happy to assist you in …)Body: provide the information requested in a logical and coherent order ; in providing additional data, use familiar words, short sentences , short paragraphs and active-voice verbs; if further action is required, be specific in spelling it out.Closing : provides deadline and reason.
47Revise the request memo Date : CurrentTo : All EmployeesFrom: Elizabeth Mendoza, Human ResourcesSubject: New Holiday Plan(8.5)
48Revise the request memo In the past we’ve offered all employees 11 holidays ( starting with New Year’s Day in January and proceeding through Christmas Day the following December). Other companies offer similar holiday schedules.
49Revise the request memo In addition, we’ve given all employees one floating holiday. As you know, we’ve determined that day by a companywide vote. As a result, all employees had the same day off. Now, however, management is considering a new plan that we feel would be better. This new plan involves a floating holiday that each individual employee may decide for herself or himself. We’ve given it considerable thought and decided that such a plan could definitely work.
50Revise the request memo We would allow each employee to choose a day that he or she wants. Of course, we would have to issue certain restrictions. Selections would have to be subject to our staffing needs within individual departments. For example, if everyone wanted the same day, we could not allow everyone to take it. In that case, we would allow the employee with the most seniority to have the day off.
51Revise the request memo Before we institute the new plan, though, we wanted to see what employees thought about it. Is it better to continue our current companywide uniform floating holiday? Or should we try an individual floating holiday?please let us know what you think as soon as possible.
52The improved oneWe are considering a new floating holiday plan. Please make a choice between the next two plans.The uniform floating holiday: all employees had the same day offThe individual floating holiday: each individual employee may decide for herself or himself, but selections would have to be subject to our staff needs within individual departmentsPlease reply before December 20. You will have direct input into the new plan so we can decide it at the end of this month. This new plan can help you enjoy your holiday.
53Confirmation memos and e-mail messages I. Confirm an oral agreement :1. Include names and titles of involved individuals2. Itemize major issues or points concisely3. Request feedback regarding unclear or inaccurate pointsII. Verify receipt of materials or a change of schedule .
54The four necessary points in a confirmation memo Individual involvedDateBeing lawfulfacts
55An exampleTo confirm the call from Carla Ramos who tells you that her portion of the report will be a week later.---- this message verifies our telephone conversation of November 5 in which you said that your portion of the budget report will be submitted November 14 instead of November 7.
56Revise the confirmation E-mail To :From:Subject: commercials(8.6)
57Revise the confirmation E-mail It was good o talk to you on the telephone yesterday after exchanging letters with you an dafter reading so much about Bermuda. I was very interested in learning about the commercials you want me to write. As I understand it. Mr. Morrison, you want a total of 240 one-minute radio commercials. These commercials are intended to rejuvenate the slumping tourist industry in Bermuda. You said that these commercials would be broadcast from March 30 through June 30. You said these commercials would be played on three radio stations. These stations are in five major cities on the East Coast. The commercials would be aimed at morning and evening drive time, for drivers who are listening to their radios, and the campaign would be called” radio Bermuda”
58Revise the confirmation E-mail I am sure I can do as you suggested in reminding listeners that Bermuda is less than two hours away. You expect me to bring to these commercials the color and character of the island. You want me to highlight the attractions and the civility of Bermuda, at least as much as can be done in one-minute radio commercials. In my notes I wrote that you also mentioned that I should include references to tree frogs and royal palm trees. Another item you suggested that I include in some of the commercials was special Bermuda food, such as delicacies like shark on toast, conch fritters, and mussel stew.
59Revise the confirmation E-mail I wanted to be sure to write these points down so that we both agreed on what we said in our telephone conversation. I am eager to begin working on these commercials immediately, but I would feel better if you looked over these points to see if I have it right. I look forward to working with you.
60The improved oneThis message confirms our conversation and the points we’ve agreed on the phone Feb 2:1.The length: a total of 240 one-minute radio commercial2.The purpose: to rejuvenate the slumping tourist industry in Bermuda.3.Radio stations: three radio stations in five major cities on the East Coast.4.Lasting time: from March 30 to June 305.Broadcasting times: morning and evening drive time
61The improved one6. The commercials should contain the following items:The distance from Bermuda: less than two hours awayThe color and character of the the islandAttractions and the civility of BermudaSpecial Bermuda foodTree frogs and royal palm trees.If you agree that this message accurately reflects our conversation, please reply with your agreement before March 1.
62Homework 1 8.15 or 8.14 Pay attention to the following aspects: Format Graphic highlightingConversational and professional