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Teaching Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

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1 Teaching Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders
Overhead Slides

2 Questions I have about teaching students with autism spectrum disorders

3 Focus Questions Part One
What are the general areas of delays and concerns that characterize individuals with autistic spectrum disorders? How do the characteristics of autism spectrum disorders impact teaching and learning?

4 Autism Spectrum Disorders
are complex, neurological disorders that affect the functioning of the brain can be present in a variety of combinations and may accompany other disabilities

5 Autism Spectrum Disorders
Autistic Disorder Asperger’s Disorder Rett’s Disorder Childhood Disintegrative Disorder Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified Impairments in social behaviour Communication difficulties Stereotypic or unusual behaviours

6 Social Impairments Multiple nonverbal behaviours Peer relationships
eye-to-eye gazes facial expressions body postures gestures Peer relationships Spontaneous seeking of others Social or emotional reciprocity

7 Communication Impairments
Delay in language development Difficulty initiating or sustaining a conversation Repetitive or idiosyncratic language Lack of varied spontaneous imaginative play

8 Repetitive Patterns of Behaviour
Preoccupation with patterns of interest Inflexible adherence to routines Repetitive motor mannerisms Preoccupation with parts of objects

9 Other Autism Spectrum Disorders
Asperger’s Disorder social impairments and unusual behaviours average or above cognitive abilities communication and anxiety are issues language development not significantly delayed Rett’s Disorder occurs only in females, very rare Childhood Disintegrative Disorder regression in multiple areas after normal development Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified does not meet diagnostic criteria for autism

10 General Characteristics of ASD
Communication difficulties Social interaction difficulties Unusual behaviours Unusual patterns of attention Unusual sensory responses Anxiety Learning difficulties

11 Communication Nonverbal communication difficulties
Expressive language delays Oral language differences Language use not for social purposes Echolalia speech Perseveration on a topic Restricted vocabulary Difficulty with conversations Comprehension difficulties

12 Social Interaction Establishing and maintaining relationships
playing with others taking turns and sharing Theory of mind understanding other perspectives making sense of social behaviour making sense of feelings and emotions making sense of communication

13 Implications for Instruction Ideas and Examples
Communication Social interaction Have each table come up with these and share

14 Implications for Instruction Ideas and Examples
Communication Instruction based on assessment results Instruction should emphasize: paying attention imitating comprehending words and instruction using language for social reasons developing functional communication Have each table come up with these and share

15 Implications for Instruction Ideas and Examples
Social Interaction Social Skill Development Tolerating others in own space Imitating the actions/vocalizations of others Engaging in parallel activities Taking turns Using eye contact Explicitly teach theory of mind concepts Have each table come up with these and share

16 Unusual Behaviours Diagnostic criteria
preoccupation with patterns of interest inflexible adherence to routines repetitive motor mannerisms preoccupation with parts of objects Unusual response to sensory stimuli Challenging aggressive destructive behaviours Behaviours are the tip of the iceberg. It is essential to delve below the surface to identify the message of the behaviour.

17 Unusual Patterns of Attention
Stimulus overselectivity Impairment in joint attention Difficulty disengaging and shifting attention Short attention span

18 Sensory Characteristics
Often hypersensitive or hyposensitive to tactile auditory visual and olfactory olfactory gustatory vestibular and proprioceptive

19 Anxiety Characteristics
Difficulty regulating emotions Inability to express oneself clearly Sensory processing needs High need for predictability Difficulty understanding social situations

20 Implications for Instruction Ideas and Examples
Unusual behaviours Attention Sensory responses Anxiety

21 Implications for Instruction Ideas and Examples
Unusual or Challenging Behaviours Teaching students new skills and interests Understanding responses to sensory stimuli Preparing the student for planned changes Developing calming strategies Assisting the student to monitor level of arousal or anxiety Adapting the learning environment Have each table come up with these and share

22 Implications for Instruction Ideas and Examples
Patterns of Attention Information and instructional activities should be provided in a format that: is clear and concise is consistent with comprehension level focuses their attention emphasizes the most relevant information Have each table come up with these and share

23 Implications for Instruction Ideas and Examples
Sensory Responses Assess sensory responses. Be aware of different experiences of sensory stimulation. Use alerting strategies to help enhance students when hyposensitive. Implement strategies to calm students when hypersensitive. Have each table come up with these and share

24 Implications for Instruction Ideas and Examples
Anxiety Provide warnings about transitions and changes. Provide daily and weekly schedules. Use social scripts to encourage calming and teach coping skills. Provide facts about anxiety-arousing situations. Establish a calming area. Have each table come up with these and share

25 Focus Questions Part Two
Who should be involved in the development of an individualized program plan (IPP)? What are the roles and responsibilities of each participant? How can the collaborative team best communicate, problem-solve and plan for transitions?

26 Individualized Program Plan Process
Gathering information Setting the direction for the IPP Developing the IPP Implementing the IPP Reviewing the IPP

27 Components of Effective IPPs
Personal and educational data Strengths and needs Long-term goals Short-term objectives Strategies and accommodations Transition plans Resources How progress will be evaluated Assignment of responsibility Process for review and evaluation

28 Learning Characteristics
Uneven cognitive profile Deficits in attending to relevant cues Language impairments Difficulties with abstract reasoning Planning, organizing and problem solving Strong rote memory and visual spatial skills

29 Implications for Instruction Ideas and Examples
Learning Instruction should be based on assessment results and emphasize: organization skills problem-solving skills visual cues and reminders concrete language Have each table come up with these and share

30 Collaboration What are the elements that lead to successful home and school collaboration?

31 Collaborating with Parents
Gathering relevant background information Maintaining communication Planning problem-solving and decision-making goals and objectives placement transition plans Coordinating resources

32 Planning a Collaborative Meeting
What information needs to be gathered? What planning, problem-solving and/or decision-making needs to take place at this time? How will goals and objectives be addressed? Is placement an issue at this time? What transition plans are necessary? Which resources and professionals should be involved? Who should be invited to participate in the meeting?

33 Develop an Agenda Introduction of participants Purpose of the meeting
Sharing new information What’s working Concerns/issues Brainstorming Planning Who What When Review date

34 Conducting a Successful Collaboration Meeting
Set a positive tone, introductions, logistics. Give each participant the opportunity to share. Brainstorm possible options. Summarize the discussion and review plans. Establish plans and times for follow-up.

35 IPP – Part One Group Activity
Group Number: Name of student Strengths and needs Long-term goals Short-term objectives

36 Collaboration Meeting Role-play
What worked well? What would you change for next time?

37 Transition Strategies Starting Off on the Right Foot
Teacher preparation Preparing the student Preparing the classroom Promoting understanding

38 Transition Strategies Preparing the Teacher and Staff
Visit student in current setting to observe: behaviour classroom routine and organization structure successful adaptations and modifications visual systems used to support the student effective instructional strategies student’s level of participation

39 Transition Strategies Preparing the Teacher and Staff
Meet with sending staff to exchange information about: effective ways to motivate student student’s likes and dislikes sensory-related issues effective behaviour management strategies and/or Behaviour Support Plan relevant health issues Meet with parents

40 Understanding Your Student
Date of birth/age: Family situation (e.g., parents, siblings, involvement of extended family, how does the child relate to his family, etc.) Diagnosis (how did the diagnosis come about, who diagnosed the child, concerns about the diagnosis): Parent concerns and expectations: Interventions (e.g., Early Intervention Programming, therapies, etc.): What types of supports and therapies are currently in place? What type of involvement does the child have in the community (e.g., sports, religious school, other outside activities)? What works at home and in other settings? What worked at previous school setting? Specific concerns or issues to be aware of.

41 Transition Strategies Preparing the Student
Use videotapes or pictures of new teacher and classroom. Prepare scrapbook or social story. Plan visit or visits to future classroom with familiar person. Plan preferred activities for student in new setting. Prepare a calendar for student.

42 Transition Strategies – Preparing the Student for Junior and Senior High
Identify key people for student. Assign an adult mentor. Provide training in how to use lock and lockers. Enlist the assistance of peers. Develop a plan/script for handling teasing. Create a homework plan. Teach specific skills necessary for new setting.

43 Transition Strategies Classroom Accommodations
Consider desk positioning to facilitate attention to ensure that teacher assistant is unobtrusive. Consider sensory issues. Consider possible distractions. Define specific spaces for specific purposes such as calming area individual learning area.

44 Transition Strategies – Junior and Senior High Accommodations
Provide an in-school mentor Organizational support Modified academic demands Allow more time for cognitive processing Homework support and modification Accommodate for sensory needs Identify safe, calming area for student

45 Transition Strategies Preparing Classmates
Remember that students mirror the teacher’s attitude. Address concerns, questions and misconceptions. Invite guest speakers. Use activities to foster awareness and understanding. Coach peers to be effective partners.

46 Transition to Adult Life
Collaborate with parents, community agencies, support services and student. Develop transition goals. Teach specific skills necessary for new setting.

47 Instructional Approaches and Accommodations
Visual support Structuring the environment

48 Visual Supports Schedules (no surprises)
Visual rules (what are the rules today) Visual tools to organize (materials) Social experiences (solving problems) Independence (theme boards and cues) Visual bridges (communicating about life) Behaviour tools (anxiety and relaxation)

49 Visual Schedules Example of a group schedule
Example of a weekly schedule Example of a simple visual schedule to support arrival routine Example of a daily schedule Example of a visual chore chart

50 Visual Schedules Desk Strip

51 Visual Schedules Written Reminders

52 Visual Rules Walking in the hall Hands to yourself Walk Don’t run

53 Visual Rules Asking for help When I don’t know what to do.
Asking for help When I don’t know what to do. I can raise my hand. I get help, then I practice. I can do it. I feel good!

54 Visuals to Organize Independent Work

55 Visuals to Organize Class Discussions

56 Visuals to Organize Reading
RAP Strategy Read a paragraph. Ask yourself questions – What did I just read? Paraphrase – Put it in your own words.

57 Visuals to Organize Writing Linear Outline
From Alberta Learning, Make School Work for You: A Resource for Junior and Senior High Students Who Want to be More Successful Learners (Edmonton, AB: Alberta Learning, 2001), p. 94.

58 Visuals to Aid Social Experiences
When someone says “Hi” to me, I say “Hi” back.

59 Visuals to Aid Socialization
When I Want to Tell a Joke I look at the other person. I ask, “Do you want to hear a joke?” If they say, “Yes,” I start. If it’s a riddle, I ask the question. I wait for the other person to find an answer. When the other person says, “I don’t know,” or doesn’t answer, I tell them the answer.

60 Visuals to Support Independence
Getting Ready for Math You Need Pencils Math notebook Ruler Math book

61 What to do Before Class is Over
Independence What to do Before Class is Over Check agenda. Write down new assignments. Get materials for homework. Ask for help if you don’t understand or can’t find the materials.

62 Visual Bridges

63 Visual Bridges School/Home

64 Visual Bridges Home/School

65 Behaviour Tools When It’s Too Noisy It’s too noisy!
I can put on headphones. I’m happy! It’s quiet now.

66 Visual Tool When I’m Stressed I’m stressed !! I take 5 deep breaths.

67 Behaviour Tool When I am Upset I need to relax! Relax
Take deep breaths Don’t kick Don’t hit Don’t yell

68 Structuring the Environment
Structure the classroom Attend to sensory issues Organize materials Provide routines Use schedules Use First/Then cards Introduce changes gradually

69 Structure for Carpet Time

70 Structuring a Work Station

71 IPP – Part Two Group Number: Name of Student: Transition Plan:

72 Discussion Questions

73 Focus Questions Part Three
What general instructional approaches are recommended for students with ASD? What types of environmental supports and routines promote independence? How can communication and social functioning be enhanced for students with ASD?

74 Instructional Approaches
Visual support Structuring the environment Encouraging independence Task analysis Addressing sensory issues Applied behaviour analysis

75 Encouraging Independence A Goal For Every Student
Fading prompts Fading physical presence

76 Encouraging Independence Hierarchy of Prompts
I Independent G Gestural prompt IV Indirect verbal prompt V Direct verbal prompt M Model MP Minimal physical prompt PP Partial physical prompt F Full physical prompt

77 Task Analysis Breaking a large task into smaller subskills
Teaching and reinforcing subskills Forward chaining teaching each subskill in sequence Backward chaining last step in subskill taught first

78 Task Analysis Prompt Hierarchy
Sample Task Analysis Data Sheet

79 Focus Question How can direct instruction enhance learning and decrease problematic behaviours?

80 Direct Instruction Test-teach-test
Scripted lessons with clearly defined tasks Sequenced tasks from simple to complex Well-defined response expectations Consistent instructional language Carefully planned reinforcement Rapid-paced lessons Independent work after mastery

81 Discrete Trial Training
Stimulus Prompt Response Consequence Inter-trial interval

82 Shaping Procedures Shaping behaviours reinforce approximations to the desired behaviour. Example: John will be reinforced when he plays for two minutes. John will be reinforced when he plays for four minutes. John will be reinforced when he plays for six minutes.

83 Planning a Routine What is the routine Purpose of the routine
Task analysis of the routine How will the routine be taught visuals written directions backwards or forward chaining Write or sketch the routine

84 Visual Guide to Planning a Routine

85 Assessing Sensory Issues
Auditory Visual Tactile Gustatory and olfactory Vestibular and proprioceptive Is the child extremely sensitive to sounds? Are visual stimuli distracting the child? Are certain textures aversive? Are there strong preferences in tastes and smells? What is the child’s need to move and experience different types of pressure? Auditory – are their fans, loud speakers, fire alarms, What is general sound level Visual – consider eye level, time required to shift visual attention Over reliance of peripheral vision Unusual visual processing Sensitivity to light and color Tunnel vision Work on eye contact but don’t expect prolong contact Tactile – does the child need to explore things through touch and yet hates to be touched Consider the type of touch – is it a light touch that sends him off the wall Is deep pressure calming Taste and smell – may be very sensitive Vestibular – inner ear – balance – need to swing or walk with head to side, Proprioceptive – Muscles Joints and ligament finding body in space Where is your left foot How hard to press on a pencil What’s a light tap and a hard shove Can be several senses – shifting from one sense to the next can be an issue Consider the experience of eating crunchy food, the taste, texture, smell and sound

86 Sensory Diet Alerting/energizing Relaxing/calming
Gross motor activities Fresh air Cold Water Play activities with toys and bright lights Loud energetic music Sudden fast movement Relaxing/calming Quiet music Deep pressure Sucking activities Deep breathing Repetitive behaviour Weighted vests or blankets Tensing and relaxing

87 Sensory Diet for Older Children
To Alert Use bright lights Use a slant board Listen to loud music Hold fidget item Wear cooler clothing Erase the board or do classroom task Chew gum Drink something cold To Calm Use a study carrel Use a room divider Listen to calm music Hold fidget item Wear warm clothing Sit on an inflated cushion Chew gum Suck on straw, candy

88 Adding a Sensory Break

89 Incorporating Movement in the Class

90 Hopscotch Can Be a Sensory Break

91 Using Bean Bag Chairs for Deep Pressure

92 Carrying a Heavy Load Can Be a Sensory Break

93 Sensory Accommodations Autism Modification Toys
Mouthing, sucking, teething Hand-flapping or finger- flicking Yelling, making loud noises Visual stimulation, fingers in front of eyes Deep tactile, masturbation Cup with straw, plastic tubing, chewing items Koosh toy, silicon gel ball, squishy ball, slinky toy Walkman, stories, clickers Kaleidoscope, pinwheel ribbon Deep pressure, weighted vest, headband, cap, wristband The Source of Autism, Linguisystems, 1997.

94 Substituting More Appropriate Sensory Activities
Inappropriate sensation seeking Playing with saliva Smelling hair or feet Placing inedible objects in mouth Aimless running or spinning Eating shirt sleeves Putting hands in pants

95 Substituting More Appropriate Sensory Activities
Inappropriate sensory More appropriate activities sensory activities Playing with saliva Smelling hair or feet Placing inedible objects in mouth Aimless running or spinning Eating shirt sleeves Putting hands in pants Putting lotion on hands Scratch and sniff stickers Sucking on water bottle Playing tag or swinging on swings Providing chewing toys/ gum/straws, etc. Using Koosh balls, squeeze toys, etc.

96 Communication Goals To enhance use of forms of communication
To increase use of different communicative functions To expand receptive and expressive skills To acquire pivotal social language skills To maintain two-way communication

97 Assessing Forms of Communication
Speech/vocalization Sign language Body language Pictures Written language Behaviour

98 Assessing Functions of Communication
Requesting Obtaining attention Protesting/refusing Expressing feelings, commenting and gaining information Greetings

99 Receptive Language Comprehension Difficulties
Expressive language may be more developed May only hear last word or most familiar word Difficulty with multi-step directions Difficulty with abstract language Limited vocabulary Literal interpretation Difficulty understanding social cues

100 Ways to Index the Environment
Point out social information. “Look, Tommy’s waving at you. Can you wave back?” Point out emotional information. “Mary got hurt. Look, she’s crying.” Point out anticipatory information. “Look, Joey’s going to throw the ball. Put your hands up.” Structure the commenting function. “Look at the bird eating the seed. He must be very hungry.” Code feelings and reactions. “You are very angry that Joey took your ball. Say, “Joey, give me that ball!’” Twachtman Cullen, 2000

101 Expressive Language Difficulties
Echolalia May have a large vocabulary in a very limited subject area Two-way conversation may be difficult

102 Pivotal Social Language Skills
Tolerating other people Attending to others Taking turns Waiting Initiating, responding and sustaining conversations

103 Strategies to Facilitate Communication
Ensure that a communication system is in place. Focus on developing interaction. Use clear, concise language. Allow time to process information. Teach listening skills and check comprehension. Use visual supports. Provide social scripts for spoken language. Teach subtleties of tone and intonation.

104 Comprehension Tone and Intonation of Language
I didn’t say she stole my money (but someone said it). I didn’t say she stole my money ( I definitely didn’t say it). I didn’t say she stole my money (but I implied it). I didn’t say she stole my money (but someone stole it). I didn’t say she stole my money (but she did something). I didn’t say she stole my money (but she stole someone else’s). I didn’t say she stole my money ( but she took something else). Quill, 1995

105 Social Interaction Goals
To develop friendship skills To increase understanding of rules of social interaction To increase number and quality of positive social interactions

106 Social Skills Strategies
Direct teaching Puppets/role-playing Cartooning Peer support Social scripts Social stories

107 Direct Teaching Decide what social skill needs to be taught.
Complete a task analysis. Identify which steps child can do. Observe levels of prompting. Choose a direct teaching strategy such as discrete trial training.

108 Using Puppets, Role-playing and Videotapes to Teach Social Skills

109 Cartooning Social Situations
Fullerton, Stratton, Coyne & Gray, (1996)

110 Peer Support Provide peers with skills
Building friendships is about helping peers learn to accept and become friends with the child with Autism friends are powerful teachers friends play an important role emotional resources, both for having fun and adapting to stress; *cognitive resources for problem-solving and knowledge acquisition; peers and siblings best teachers *contexts in which basic social skills are acquired or elaborated; Friendships may buffer children and adolescents from the adverse effects of negative events, Relationships people develop in childhood are forerunners of subsequent relationships. Model but don’t expect spontaneous interactions Provide critical information to peers Teach students how to interact often children with autistic disorders shy away from interaction – important to help peers learn to be persistent in encouraging the child to join them. In each class there may be a protective, mothering type child who might give the answers for your student. teach how to cue, not to answer For the child who isn’t verbal or who uses language in an eccentric, or unusual manner- teach others how to communicate with him (Kindergarten signing class) Create opportunities to highlight strengths Remember the trauma associated with partner picking Provide peers with skills be persistent give cues not answers teach communication skills Provide cooperative learning activities Provide support to the student recess buddy Encourage friendships

111 Social Scripts

112 Creating Social Stories
Introduce changes and new routines. Explain reasons for others’ behaviour. Teach situation-specific social skills. Assist in teaching new academic skills.

113 Social Story Process Assess and identify student needs.
Observe the specific situation. Take the perspective of the child. Write the social story. Read the story with the child frequently. Enhance the social story through modelling and role-playing.

114 Writing Social Stories
Descriptive sentences Directive sentences Perspective sentence Formula for writing social stories 2–5 descriptive or perspective statements + 1 directive statement

115 Social Story When I Change My Mind
Sometimes a person says, “I’ve changed my mind.” (Descriptive) That means he had one idea, but now he has a new idea. (Descriptive) I will work on staying calm when someone changes their mind. (Directive) I can think of someone writing something down, scratching it out and writing something new. (Directive)

116 Social Story Eating Lunch at School
Sometimes I eat lunch at school. (Descriptive) People feel comfortable when I eat my food nicely. (Perspective) Other kids will think I’m friendly when I wait for them to sit down and get their lunch before I start eating. (Perspective) I will try to chew my food slowly with my mouth closed. (Directive) When I eat slowly with my mouth closed, people will be happy to sit at the same table with me. (Perspective)

117 Write a Social Story What skill/task does your student need that can be taught through a social story? With a partner, do a task analysis on the social skill. Write the social story.

118 Focus Questions Part Four
How is a behaviour intervention plan developed and implemented? How can precision teaching enhance learning and decrease problematic behaviours?

119 Behaviour Goals Develop self-control Increase positive behaviours
Decrease negative behaviours Reduce anxiety Follow specific school routines

120 Playing Behaviour Detective
Determine which behaviour to target. Determine the function of the behaviour. Implement positive, proactive strategies.

121 Programming for Challenging Behaviour
Determine which behaviour to target. Assess function and contributing factors. Identify alternate or incompatible behaviours. Develop strategies to increase positive behaviours. Develop strategies to decrease negative behaviours. Create a behaviour support plan.

122 Determining Which Behaviour to Target
Is it life threatening? Does it pose a health risk? Does it interfere with learning? Is it likely to become more serious? Has it been a problem for some time? Does it interfere with acceptance?

123 Behaviour is Communication

124 Determine the Functions of the Behaviour
We need to understand WHY the behaviour is occurring BEFORE we can properly respond to the behaviour.

125 Activity 13: Brainstorm Possible Functions of Behaviour

126 Common Functions of Behaviour
The purpose of the behavior may be ATTENTION if … It occurs when you are not paying attention to the student It stops when you stop paying attention to the student The purpose of the behavior may be ESCAPE/AVOIDANCE if It occurs when you ask the student to do something that he or she does not like to do It stops after you stop making demands. The purpose of the behavior may be GETTING SOMETHING/ TANGIBLES if It occurs when you take away a favorite toy, food or activity It sots soon after you give the student a toy, food, or activity that he or she seems to like or has requested It occurs when the student can’t have a toy, food or activity he or she requested The purpose of the behavior may be SENSORY/ SELF-REGULATION if It tends to be performed over and over again in a rhythmic or cyclical manner It tends to happen when there is either a lot going on in the area or very little and The student can still do other things at the same time as he or she is performing the behavior. Attention Escape/avoidance Getting something Sensory/self-regulation Other

127 Functional Behaviour Assessment Data Collection
Behavioural observations Interviews Motivation Assessment Scale

128 ABC Observation Time: Setting: Social situation: Antecedents Behaviour

129 Motivation Assessment Scale

130 When the Behaviour is Motivated by Attention
Reduce attention to the behaviour. Teach positive ways of getting attention. Teach appropriate communication.

131 When the Behaviour is Motivated by Tangibles
Teach appropriate communication. Reinforce communication. Increase choices.

132 When the Behaviour is Motivated by Avoidance
Teach, “I want a break.” Teach to communicate, “no.” Increase choices. Practice relaxation and anxiety reduction. Modify demands.

133 When the Behavior is Motivated by a Sensory Need
Increase sensory supports. Replace with alternative activities. Teach student to make requests for sensory preferences.

134 Increase Positive Behaviours
Environmental adaptations Positive/proactive approaches Reinforcements

135 Types of Reinforcers Material reinforcers Primary/edible reinforcers
Activity reinforcers Social reinforcers Sensory reinforcers Exchangeable reinforcers – token economy

136 Reinforcements Likes Dislikes Indifferent Activities Sensory stimuli
Edibles Social reinforcers

137 Exchangeable – Token Economy
Identify Reinforcers Material Primary/edible Activity Social Sensory Exchangeable – Token Economy

138 Decrease Negative Behaviours
Try proactive strategies first. Identify the least restrictive strategies. Develop planned response within the team.

139 Three Reactive Strategies
Reducing attention to the behaviour Redirection Removal from reinforcements or timeout

140 Helping Develop Self-control
Identify the interfering behaviour. Observe the antecedents to the behaviour. Decide on appropriate reinforcers. Provide the student with visuals of the antecedent, desired behaviour and reinforcer. Rehearse the scene. Support the student in the situation by using the visuals.

141 Developing Self-control in the Classroom
Antecedent: Walking by other students in the classroom. Desired behaviour: Going to desk and reading quietly. Reinforcement: Personal music time.

142 Behaviour Support Plan
Behavior Plan Behavior plans target specific behaviors and outline in detail the team’s responses including language and consequences and are formed in consultation with the student’s parents and educational team. 1. Gathering background information: )about the student’s likes, dislikes, personal habits, strengths, etc. )about the behavior ( when, where, purpose, etc) )about other people’s reactions (what do they do, does it work, )ruling out medical reasons . 2. Determining the purpose of the behavior )what message is the student sending and what purpose does it serve him/her )finding alternate, more appropriate ways of saying or getting the same thing Environmental Changes )establishing clear, consistent routines and schedules )adapting materials )teaching functional or developmentally appropriate skills Positive Programming )communication: functional, reliable ways to communicate )anticipatory clues – give warnings of change ))presenting clear directions )allowing for choice making )desensitization and rehearsal strategies (for new places, procedures) )others such as relaxation training, exercise, social interaction, errorless learning to build success, etc. Reinforcement )critical to use reinforcement to help students understand what behavior is desired ))lack of reinforcement often most common reason for behavior program failure Reactive Plan )plan to deal with behavior at first sign of escalation (whining, crying, pacing, etc) )plan to handle physical acting out to keep everyone safe )all caregivers trained and consistent. Key understandings Antecedent events Warning signs Immediate measures Positive behaviour supports Assistance from peers Reactive plan Signatures

143 Activity 15 IPP – Part Three
Communication objectives Communication strategies Social interaction objectives Social interaction strategies Behaviour objectives Behaviour strategies

144 Questions Thank you

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