Presentation on theme: "Teaching Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders"— Presentation transcript:
1Teaching Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders Overhead Slides
2Questions I have about teaching students with autism spectrum disorders
3Focus Questions Part One What are the general areas of delays and concerns that characterize individuals with autistic spectrum disorders?How do the characteristics of autism spectrum disorders impact teaching and learning?
4Autism Spectrum Disorders are complex, neurological disorders that affect the functioning of the braincan be present in a variety of combinations and may accompany other disabilities
5Autism Spectrum Disorders Autistic DisorderAsperger’s DisorderRett’s DisorderChildhood Disintegrative DisorderPervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise SpecifiedImpairments in social behaviourCommunication difficultiesStereotypic or unusual behaviours
6Social Impairments Multiple nonverbal behaviours Peer relationships eye-to-eye gazesfacial expressionsbody posturesgesturesPeer relationshipsSpontaneous seeking of othersSocial or emotional reciprocity
7Communication Impairments Delay in language developmentDifficulty initiating or sustaining a conversationRepetitive or idiosyncratic languageLack of varied spontaneous imaginative play
8Repetitive Patterns of Behaviour Preoccupation with patterns of interestInflexible adherence to routinesRepetitive motor mannerismsPreoccupation with parts of objects
9Other Autism Spectrum Disorders Asperger’s Disordersocial impairments and unusual behavioursaverage or above cognitive abilitiescommunication and anxiety are issueslanguage development not significantly delayedRett’s Disorderoccurs only in females, very rareChildhood Disintegrative Disorderregression in multiple areas after normal developmentPervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specifieddoes not meet diagnostic criteria for autism
10General Characteristics of ASD Communication difficultiesSocial interaction difficultiesUnusual behavioursUnusual patterns of attentionUnusual sensory responsesAnxietyLearning difficulties
11Communication Nonverbal communication difficulties Expressive language delaysOral language differencesLanguage use not for social purposesEcholalia speechPerseveration on a topicRestricted vocabularyDifficulty with conversationsComprehension difficulties
12Social Interaction Establishing and maintaining relationships playing with otherstaking turns and sharingTheory of mindunderstanding other perspectivesmaking sense of social behaviourmaking sense of feelings and emotionsmaking sense of communication
13Implications for Instruction Ideas and Examples CommunicationSocial interactionHave each table come up with these and share
14Implications for Instruction Ideas and Examples CommunicationInstruction based on assessment resultsInstruction should emphasize:paying attentionimitatingcomprehending words and instructionusing language for social reasonsdeveloping functional communicationHave each table come up with these and share
15Implications for Instruction Ideas and Examples Social InteractionSocial Skill DevelopmentTolerating others in own spaceImitating the actions/vocalizations of othersEngaging in parallel activitiesTaking turnsUsing eye contactExplicitly teach theory of mind conceptsHave each table come up with these and share
16Unusual Behaviours Diagnostic criteria preoccupation with patterns of interestinflexible adherence to routinesrepetitive motor mannerismspreoccupation with parts of objectsUnusual response to sensory stimuliChallenging aggressive destructive behavioursBehaviours are the tip of the iceberg. It is essential to delvebelow the surface to identify the message of the behaviour.
17Unusual Patterns of Attention Stimulus overselectivityImpairment in joint attentionDifficulty disengaging and shifting attentionShort attention span
18Sensory Characteristics Often hypersensitive or hyposensitive totactileauditoryvisual and olfactoryolfactorygustatoryvestibular and proprioceptive
19Anxiety Characteristics Difficulty regulating emotionsInability to express oneself clearlySensory processing needsHigh need for predictabilityDifficulty understanding social situations
20Implications for Instruction Ideas and Examples Unusual behavioursAttentionSensory responsesAnxiety
21Implications for Instruction Ideas and Examples Unusual or Challenging BehavioursTeaching students new skills and interestsUnderstanding responses to sensory stimuliPreparing the student for planned changesDeveloping calming strategiesAssisting the student to monitor level of arousal or anxietyAdapting the learning environmentHave each table come up with these and share
22Implications for Instruction Ideas and Examples Patterns of AttentionInformation and instructional activities should be provided in a format that:is clear and conciseis consistent with comprehension levelfocuses their attentionemphasizes the most relevant informationHave each table come up with these and share
23Implications for Instruction Ideas and Examples Sensory ResponsesAssess sensory responses.Be aware of different experiences of sensory stimulation.Use alerting strategies to help enhance students when hyposensitive.Implement strategies to calm students when hypersensitive.Have each table come up with these and share
24Implications for Instruction Ideas and Examples AnxietyProvide warnings about transitions and changes.Provide daily and weekly schedules.Use social scripts to encourage calming and teach coping skills.Provide facts about anxiety-arousing situations.Establish a calming area.Have each table come up with these and share
25Focus Questions Part Two Who should be involved in the development of an individualized program plan (IPP)?What are the roles and responsibilities of each participant?How can the collaborative team best communicate, problem-solve and plan for transitions?
26Individualized Program Plan Process Gathering informationSetting the direction for the IPPDeveloping the IPPImplementing the IPPReviewing the IPP
27Components of Effective IPPs Personal and educational dataStrengths and needsLong-term goalsShort-term objectivesStrategies and accommodationsTransition plansResourcesHow progress will be evaluatedAssignment of responsibilityProcess for review and evaluation
28Learning Characteristics Uneven cognitive profileDeficits in attending to relevant cuesLanguage impairmentsDifficulties with abstract reasoningPlanning, organizing and problem solvingStrong rote memory and visual spatial skills
29Implications for Instruction Ideas and Examples LearningInstruction should be based on assessment results and emphasize:organization skillsproblem-solving skillsvisual cues and remindersconcrete languageHave each table come up with these and share
30CollaborationWhat are the elements that lead to successful home and school collaboration?
31Collaborating with Parents Gathering relevant background informationMaintaining communicationPlanning problem-solving and decision-makinggoals and objectivesplacementtransition plansCoordinating resources
32Planning a Collaborative Meeting What information needs to be gathered?What planning, problem-solving and/or decision-making needs to take place at this time?How will goals and objectives be addressed?Is placement an issue at this time?What transition plans are necessary?Which resources and professionals should be involved?Who should be invited to participate in the meeting?
33Develop an Agenda Introduction of participants Purpose of the meeting Sharing new informationWhat’s workingConcerns/issuesBrainstormingPlanningWhoWhatWhenReview date
34Conducting a Successful Collaboration Meeting Set a positive tone, introductions, logistics.Give each participant the opportunity to share.Brainstorm possible options.Summarize the discussion and review plans.Establish plans and times for follow-up.
35IPP – Part One Group Activity Group Number:Name of studentStrengths and needsLong-term goalsShort-term objectives
36Collaboration Meeting Role-play What worked well?What would you change for next time?
37Transition Strategies Starting Off on the Right Foot Teacher preparationPreparing the studentPreparing the classroomPromoting understanding
38Transition Strategies Preparing the Teacher and Staff Visit student in current setting to observe:behaviourclassroom routine and organization structuresuccessful adaptations and modificationsvisual systems used to support the studenteffective instructional strategiesstudent’s level of participation
39Transition Strategies Preparing the Teacher and Staff Meet with sending staff to exchange information about:effective ways to motivate studentstudent’s likes and dislikessensory-related issueseffective behaviour management strategies and/or Behaviour Support Planrelevant health issuesMeet with parents
40Understanding Your Student Date of birth/age:Family situation (e.g., parents, siblings, involvement of extended family, how does the child relate to his family, etc.)Diagnosis (how did the diagnosis come about, who diagnosed the child, concerns about the diagnosis):Parent concerns and expectations:Interventions (e.g., Early Intervention Programming, therapies, etc.):What types of supports and therapies are currently in place?What type of involvement does the child have in the community (e.g., sports, religious school, other outside activities)?What works at home and in other settings?What worked at previous school setting?Specific concerns or issues to be aware of.
41Transition Strategies Preparing the Student Use videotapes or pictures of new teacher and classroom.Prepare scrapbook or social story.Plan visit or visits to future classroom with familiar person.Plan preferred activities for student in new setting.Prepare a calendar for student.
42Transition Strategies – Preparing the Student for Junior and Senior High Identify key people for student.Assign an adult mentor.Provide training in how to use lock and lockers.Enlist the assistance of peers.Develop a plan/script for handling teasing.Create a homework plan.Teach specific skills necessary for new setting.
43Transition Strategies Classroom Accommodations Consider desk positioningto facilitate attentionto ensure that teacher assistant is unobtrusive.Consider sensory issues.Consider possible distractions.Define specific spaces for specific purposes such ascalming areaindividual learning area.
44Transition Strategies – Junior and Senior High Accommodations Provide an in-school mentorOrganizational supportModified academic demandsAllow more time for cognitive processingHomework support and modificationAccommodate for sensory needsIdentify safe, calming area for student
45Transition Strategies Preparing Classmates Remember that students mirror the teacher’s attitude.Address concerns, questions and misconceptions.Invite guest speakers.Use activities to foster awareness and understanding.Coach peers to be effective partners.
46Transition to Adult Life Collaborate with parents, community agencies, support services and student.Develop transition goals.Teach specific skills necessary for new setting.
47Instructional Approaches and Accommodations Visual supportStructuring the environment
48Visual Supports Schedules (no surprises) Visual rules (what are the rules today)Visual tools to organize (materials)Social experiences (solving problems)Independence (theme boards and cues)Visual bridges (communicating about life)Behaviour tools (anxiety and relaxation)
49Visual Schedules Example of a group schedule Example of a weekly scheduleExample of a simple visual schedule to support arrival routineExample of a daily scheduleExample of a visual chore chart
56Visuals to Organize Reading RAP StrategyRead a paragraph.Ask yourself questions – What did I just read?Paraphrase – Put it in your own words.
57Visuals to Organize Writing Linear Outline From Alberta Learning, Make School Work for You: A Resource for Junior and Senior High Students Who Want to be More Successful Learners (Edmonton, AB: Alberta Learning, 2001), p. 94.
58Visuals to Aid Social Experiences When someone says “Hi” to me, I say “Hi” back.
59Visuals to Aid Socialization When I Want to Tell a JokeI look at the other person.I ask, “Do you want to hear a joke?”If they say, “Yes,” I start.If it’s a riddle, I ask the question.I wait for the other person to find an answer.When the other person says, “I don’t know,” or doesn’t answer,I tell them the answer.
60Visuals to Support Independence Getting Ready for MathYou NeedPencils Math notebookRuler Math book
61What to do Before Class is Over IndependenceWhat to do Before Class is OverCheck agenda.Write down new assignments.Get materials for homework.Ask for help if you don’t understand or can’t find the materials.
73Focus Questions Part Three What general instructional approaches are recommended for students with ASD?What types of environmental supports and routines promote independence?How can communication and social functioning be enhanced for students with ASD?
75Encouraging Independence A Goal For Every Student Fading promptsFading physical presence
76Encouraging Independence Hierarchy of Prompts I IndependentG Gestural promptIV Indirect verbal promptV Direct verbal promptM ModelMP Minimal physical promptPP Partial physical promptF Full physical prompt
77Task Analysis Breaking a large task into smaller subskills Teaching and reinforcing subskillsForward chainingteaching each subskill in sequenceBackward chaininglast step in subskill taught first
78Task Analysis Prompt Hierarchy Sample Task Analysis Data Sheet
79Focus QuestionHow can direct instruction enhance learning and decrease problematic behaviours?
80Direct Instruction Test-teach-test Scripted lessons with clearly defined tasksSequenced tasks from simple to complexWell-defined response expectationsConsistent instructional languageCarefully planned reinforcementRapid-paced lessonsIndependent work after mastery
81Discrete Trial Training StimulusPromptResponseConsequenceInter-trial interval
82Shaping ProceduresShaping behaviours reinforce approximations to the desired behaviour.Example:John will be reinforced when he plays for two minutes.John will be reinforced when he plays for four minutes.John will be reinforced when he plays for six minutes.
83Planning a Routine What is the routine Purpose of the routine Task analysis of the routineHow will the routine be taughtvisualswritten directionsbackwards or forward chainingWrite or sketch the routine
85Assessing Sensory Issues AuditoryVisualTactileGustatory and olfactoryVestibular and proprioceptiveIs the child extremely sensitive to sounds?Are visual stimuli distracting the child?Are certain textures aversive?Are there strong preferences in tastes and smells?What is the child’s need to move and experience different types of pressure?Auditory – are their fans, loud speakers, fire alarms,What is general sound levelVisual – consider eye level, time required to shift visual attentionOver reliance of peripheral visionUnusual visual processingSensitivity to light and colorTunnel visionWork on eye contact but don’t expect prolong contactTactile – does the child need to explore things through touch and yet hates to be touchedConsider the type of touch – is it a light touch that sends him off the wallIs deep pressure calmingTaste and smell – may be very sensitiveVestibular – inner ear – balance – need to swing or walk with head to side,Proprioceptive – Muscles Joints and ligamentfinding body in spaceWhere is your left footHow hard to press on a pencilWhat’s a light tap and a hard shoveCan be several senses – shifting from one sense to the next can be an issueConsider the experience of eating crunchy food, the taste, texture, smell and sound
86Sensory Diet Alerting/energizing Relaxing/calming Gross motor activitiesFresh airCold WaterPlay activities with toys and bright lightsLoud energetic musicSudden fast movementRelaxing/calmingQuiet musicDeep pressureSucking activitiesDeep breathingRepetitive behaviourWeighted vests or blanketsTensing and relaxing
87Sensory Diet for Older Children To AlertUse bright lightsUse a slant boardListen to loud musicHold fidget itemWear cooler clothingErase the board or do classroom taskChew gumDrink something coldTo CalmUse a study carrelUse a room dividerListen to calm musicHold fidget itemWear warm clothingSit on an inflated cushionChew gumSuck on straw, candy
93Sensory Accommodations Autism Modification Toys Mouthing, sucking, teethingHand-flapping or finger- flickingYelling, making loud noisesVisual stimulation, fingers in front of eyesDeep tactile, masturbationCup with straw, plastic tubing, chewing itemsKoosh toy, silicon gel ball, squishy ball, slinky toyWalkman, stories, clickersKaleidoscope, pinwheel ribbonDeep pressure, weighted vest, headband, cap, wristbandThe Source of Autism, Linguisystems, 1997.
94Substituting More Appropriate Sensory Activities Inappropriate sensation seekingPlaying with salivaSmelling hair or feetPlacing inedible objects in mouthAimless running or spinningEating shirt sleevesPutting hands in pants
95Substituting More Appropriate Sensory Activities Inappropriate sensory More appropriate activities sensory activitiesPlaying with salivaSmelling hair or feetPlacing inedible objects in mouthAimless running or spinningEating shirt sleevesPutting hands in pantsPutting lotion on handsScratch and sniff stickersSucking on water bottlePlaying tag or swinging on swingsProviding chewing toys/ gum/straws, etc.Using Koosh balls, squeeze toys, etc.
96Communication Goals To enhance use of forms of communication To increase use of different communicative functionsTo expand receptive and expressive skillsTo acquire pivotal social language skillsTo maintain two-way communication
97Assessing Forms of Communication Speech/vocalizationSign languageBody languagePicturesWritten languageBehaviour
98Assessing Functions of Communication RequestingObtaining attentionProtesting/refusingExpressing feelings, commenting and gaining informationGreetings
99Receptive Language Comprehension Difficulties Expressive language may be more developedMay only hear last word or most familiar wordDifficulty with multi-step directionsDifficulty with abstract languageLimited vocabularyLiteral interpretationDifficulty understanding social cues
100Ways to Index the Environment Point out social information.“Look, Tommy’s waving at you. Can you wave back?”Point out emotional information.“Mary got hurt. Look, she’s crying.”Point out anticipatory information.“Look, Joey’s going to throw the ball. Put your hands up.”Structure the commenting function.“Look at the bird eating the seed. He must be very hungry.”Code feelings and reactions.“You are very angry that Joey took your ball. Say, “Joey, give me that ball!’”Twachtman Cullen, 2000
101Expressive Language Difficulties EcholaliaMay have a large vocabulary in a very limited subject areaTwo-way conversation may be difficult
102Pivotal Social Language Skills Tolerating other peopleAttending to othersTaking turnsWaitingInitiating, responding and sustaining conversations
103Strategies to Facilitate Communication Ensure that a communication system is in place.Focus on developing interaction.Use clear, concise language.Allow time to process information.Teach listening skills and check comprehension.Use visual supports.Provide social scripts for spoken language.Teach subtleties of tone and intonation.
104Comprehension Tone and Intonation of Language I didn’t say she stole my money (but someone said it).I didn’t say she stole my money ( I definitely didn’t say it).I didn’t say she stole my money (but I implied it).I didn’t say she stole my money (but someone stole it).I didn’t say she stole my money (but she did something).I didn’t say she stole my money (but she stole someone else’s).I didn’t say she stole my money ( but she took something else).Quill, 1995
105Social Interaction Goals To develop friendship skillsTo increase understanding of rules of social interactionTo increase number and quality of positive social interactions
106Social Skills Strategies Direct teachingPuppets/role-playingCartooningPeer supportSocial scriptsSocial stories
107Direct Teaching Decide what social skill needs to be taught. Complete a task analysis.Identify which steps child can do.Observe levels of prompting.Choose a direct teaching strategy such as discrete trial training.
108Using Puppets, Role-playing and Videotapes to Teach Social Skills
109Cartooning Social Situations Fullerton, Stratton, Coyne & Gray, (1996)
110Peer Support Provide peers with skills Building friendships is about helping peers learn to accept and become friends with the child with Autismfriends are powerful teachersfriends play an important roleemotional resources, both for having fun and adapting to stress;*cognitive resources for problem-solving and knowledge acquisition; peers and siblings best teachers*contexts in which basic social skills are acquired or elaborated;Friendships may buffer children and adolescents from the adverse effects of negative events,Relationships people develop in childhood are forerunners of subsequent relationships.Model but don’t expect spontaneous interactionsProvide critical information to peersTeach students how to interactoften children with autistic disorders shy away from interaction – important to help peers learn to be persistent in encouraging the child to join them.In each class there may be a protective, mothering type child who might give the answers for your student.teach how to cue, not to answerFor the child who isn’t verbal or who uses language in an eccentric, or unusual manner- teach others how to communicate with him (Kindergarten signing class)Create opportunities to highlight strengthsRemember the trauma associated with partner pickingProvide peers with skillsbe persistentgive cues not answersteach communication skillsProvide cooperative learning activitiesProvide support to the studentrecess buddyEncourage friendships
112Creating Social Stories Introduce changes and new routines.Explain reasons for others’ behaviour.Teach situation-specific social skills.Assist in teaching new academic skills.
113Social Story Process Assess and identify student needs. Observe the specific situation.Take the perspective of the child.Write the social story.Read the story with the child frequently.Enhance the social story through modelling and role-playing.
114Writing Social Stories Descriptive sentencesDirective sentencesPerspective sentenceFormula for writing social stories2–5 descriptive or perspective statements + 1 directive statement
115Social Story When I Change My Mind Sometimes a person says, “I’ve changed my mind.” (Descriptive)That means he had one idea, but now he has a new idea. (Descriptive)I will work on staying calm when someone changes their mind. (Directive)I can think of someone writing something down, scratching it out and writing something new. (Directive)
116Social Story Eating Lunch at School Sometimes I eat lunch at school. (Descriptive)People feel comfortable when I eat my food nicely. (Perspective)Other kids will think I’m friendly when I wait for them to sit down and get their lunch before I start eating. (Perspective)I will try to chew my food slowly with my mouth closed. (Directive)When I eat slowly with my mouth closed, people will be happy to sit at the same table with me. (Perspective)
117Write a Social StoryWhat skill/task does your student need that can be taught through a social story?With a partner, do a task analysis on the social skill.Write the social story.
118Focus Questions Part Four How is a behaviour intervention plan developed and implemented?How can precision teaching enhance learning and decrease problematic behaviours?
119Behaviour Goals Develop self-control Increase positive behaviours Decrease negative behavioursReduce anxietyFollow specific school routines
120Playing Behaviour Detective Determine which behaviour to target.Determine the function of the behaviour.Implement positive, proactive strategies.
121Programming for Challenging Behaviour Determine which behaviour to target.Assess function and contributing factors.Identify alternate or incompatible behaviours.Develop strategies to increase positive behaviours.Develop strategies to decrease negative behaviours.Create a behaviour support plan.
122Determining Which Behaviour to Target Is it life threatening?Does it pose a health risk?Does it interfere with learning?Is it likely to become more serious?Has it been a problem for some time?Does it interfere with acceptance?
124Determine the Functions of the Behaviour We need to understand WHY the behaviour is occurring BEFORE we can properly respond to the behaviour.
125Activity 13: Brainstorm Possible Functions of Behaviour
126Common Functions of Behaviour The purpose of the behavior may be ATTENTION if …It occurs when you are not paying attention to the studentIt stops when you stop paying attention to the studentThe purpose of the behavior may be ESCAPE/AVOIDANCE ifIt occurs when you ask the student to do something that he or she does not like to doIt stops after you stop making demands.The purpose of the behavior may be GETTING SOMETHING/ TANGIBLES ifIt occurs when you take away a favorite toy, food or activityIt sots soon after you give the student a toy, food, or activity that he or she seems to like or has requestedIt occurs when the student can’t have a toy, food or activity he or she requestedThe purpose of the behavior may be SENSORY/ SELF-REGULATION ifIt tends to be performed over and over again in a rhythmic or cyclical mannerIt tends to happen when there is either a lot going on in the area or very little andThe student can still do other things at the same time as he or she is performing the behavior.AttentionEscape/avoidanceGetting somethingSensory/self-regulationOther
127Functional Behaviour Assessment Data Collection Behavioural observationsInterviewsMotivation Assessment Scale
128ABC Observation Time: Setting: Social situation: Antecedents Behaviour Consequences
138Decrease Negative Behaviours Try proactive strategies first.Identify the least restrictive strategies.Develop planned response within the team.
139Three Reactive Strategies Reducing attention to the behaviourRedirectionRemoval from reinforcements or timeout
140Helping Develop Self-control Identify the interfering behaviour.Observe the antecedents to the behaviour.Decide on appropriate reinforcers.Provide the student with visuals of the antecedent, desired behaviour and reinforcer.Rehearse the scene.Support the student in the situation by using the visuals.
141Developing Self-control in the Classroom Antecedent: Walking by other students in the classroom.Desired behaviour: Going to desk and reading quietly.Reinforcement: Personal music time.
142Behaviour Support Plan Behavior PlanBehavior plans target specific behaviors and outline in detail the team’s responses including language and consequences and are formed in consultation with the student’s parents and educational team.1. Gathering background information:)about the student’s likes, dislikes, personal habits, strengths, etc.)about the behavior ( when, where, purpose, etc))about other people’s reactions (what do they do, does it work,)ruling out medical reasons. 2. Determining the purpose of the behavior)what message is the student sending and what purpose does it serve him/her)finding alternate, more appropriate ways of saying or getting the same thingEnvironmental Changes)establishing clear, consistent routines and schedules)adapting materials)teaching functional or developmentally appropriate skillsPositive Programming)communication: functional, reliable ways to communicate)anticipatory clues – give warnings of change))presenting clear directions)allowing for choice making)desensitization and rehearsal strategies (for new places, procedures))others such as relaxation training, exercise, social interaction, errorless learning to build success, etc.Reinforcement)critical to use reinforcement to help students understand what behavior is desired))lack of reinforcement often most common reason for behavior program failureReactive Plan)plan to deal with behavior at first sign of escalation (whining, crying, pacing, etc))plan to handle physical acting out to keep everyone safe)all caregivers trained and consistent.Key understandingsAntecedent eventsWarning signsImmediate measuresPositive behaviour supportsAssistance from peersReactive planSignatures
143Activity 15 IPP – Part Three Communication objectivesCommunication strategiesSocial interaction objectivesSocial interaction strategiesBehaviour objectivesBehaviour strategies