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1 Overhead Slides Teaching Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

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1 1 Overhead Slides Teaching Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

2 2 Questions I have about teaching students with autism spectrum disorders

3 3  What are the general areas of delays and concerns that characterize individuals with autistic spectrum disorders?  How do the characteristics of autism spectrum disorders impact teaching and learning? Focus Questions Part One

4 4  are complex, neurological disorders that affect the functioning of the brain  can be present in a variety of combinations and may accompany other disabilities Autism Spectrum Disorders

5 5  Impairments in social behaviour  Communication difficulties  Stereotypic or unusual behaviours Autistic Disorder Childhood Disintegrative Disorder Rett’s Disorder Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified Asperger’s Disorder

6 6 Social Impairments  Multiple nonverbal behaviours eye-to-eye gazes facial expressions body postures gestures  Peer relationships  Spontaneous seeking of others  Social or emotional reciprocity

7 7 Communication Impairments  Delay in language development  Difficulty initiating or sustaining a conversation  Repetitive or idiosyncratic language  Lack of varied spontaneous imaginative play

8 8 Repetitive Patterns of Behaviour  Preoccupation with patterns of interest  Inflexible adherence to routines  Repetitive motor mannerisms  Preoccupation with parts of objects

9 9  Asperger’s Disorder social impairments and unusual behaviours average or above cognitive abilities communication and anxiety are issues language development not significantly delayed  Rett’s Disorder occurs only in females, very rare  Childhood Disintegrative Disorder regression in multiple areas after normal development  Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified does not meet diagnostic criteria for autism Other Autism Spectrum Disorders

10 10 General Characteristics of ASD  Communication difficulties  Social interaction difficulties  Unusual behaviours  Unusual patterns of attention  Unusual sensory responses  Anxiety  Learning difficulties

11 11  Nonverbal communication difficulties  Expressive language delays  Oral language differences  Language use not for social purposes  Echolalia speech  Perseveration on a topic  Restricted vocabulary  Difficulty with conversations  Comprehension difficulties Communication

12 12 Social Interaction  Establishing and maintaining relationships playing with others taking turns and sharing  Theory of mind understanding other perspectives making sense of social behaviour making sense of feelings and emotions making sense of communication

13 13 Implications for Instruction Ideas and Examples  Communication  Social interaction

14 14 Implications for Instruction Ideas and Examples Communication Instruction based on assessment results Instruction should emphasize:  paying attention  imitating  comprehending words and instruction  using language for social reasons  developing functional communication

15 15 Implications for Instruction Ideas and Examples Social Interaction Social Skill Development  Tolerating others in own space  Imitating the actions/vocalizations of others  Engaging in parallel activities  Taking turns  Using eye contact  Explicitly teach theory of mind concepts

16 16 Unusual Behaviours  Diagnostic criteria preoccupation with patterns of interest inflexible adherence to routines repetitive motor mannerisms preoccupation with parts of objects  Unusual response to sensory stimuli  Challenging aggressive destructive behaviours Behaviours are the tip of the iceberg. It is essential to delve below the surface to identify the message of the behaviour.

17 17  Stimulus overselectivity  Impairment in joint attention  Difficulty disengaging and shifting attention  Short attention span Unusual Patterns of Attention

18 18 Sensory Characteristics Often hypersensitive or hyposensitive to tactile auditory visual and olfactory olfactory gustatory vestibular and proprioceptive

19 19 Anxiety Characteristics  Difficulty regulating emotions  Inability to express oneself clearly  Sensory processing needs  High need for predictability  Difficulty understanding social situations

20 20 Implications for Instruction Ideas and Examples  Unusual behaviours  Attention  Sensory responses  Anxiety

21 21 Implications for Instruction Ideas and Examples Unusual or Challenging Behaviours  Teaching students new skills and interests  Understanding responses to sensory stimuli  Preparing the student for planned changes  Developing calming strategies  Assisting the student to monitor level of arousal or anxiety  Adapting the learning environment

22 22 Implications for Instruction Ideas and Examples  is clear and concise  is consistent with comprehension level  focuses their attention  emphasizes the most relevant information Patterns of Attention Information and instructional activities should be provided in a format that:

23 23 Sensory Responses  Assess sensory responses.  Be aware of different experiences of sensory stimulation.  Use alerting strategies to help enhance students when hyposensitive.  Implement strategies to calm students when hypersensitive. Implications for Instruction Ideas and Examples

24 24 Anxiety  Provide warnings about transitions and changes.  Provide daily and weekly schedules.  Use social scripts to encourage calming and teach coping skills.  Provide facts about anxiety-arousing situations.  Establish a calming area. Implications for Instruction Ideas and Examples

25 25  Who should be involved in the development of an individualized program plan (IPP)?  What are the roles and responsibilities of each participant?  How can the collaborative team best communicate, problem-solve and plan for transitions? Focus Questions Part Two

26 26 Individualized Program Plan Process 1.Gathering information 2.Setting the direction for the IPP 3.Developing the IPP 4.Implementing the IPP 5.Reviewing the IPP

27 27  Personal and educational data  Strengths and needs  Long-term goals  Short-term objectives  Strategies and accommodations  Transition plans  Resources  How progress will be evaluated  Assignment of responsibility  Process for review and evaluation Components of Effective IPPs

28 28  Uneven cognitive profile  Deficits in attending to relevant cues  Language impairments  Difficulties with abstract reasoning  Planning, organizing and problem solving  Strong rote memory and visual spatial skills Learning Characteristics

29 29 Implications for Instruction Ideas and Examples  organization skills  problem-solving skills  visual cues and reminders  concrete language Learning Instruction should be based on assessment results and emphasize:

30 30  What are the elements that lead to successful home and school collaboration? Collaboration

31 31  Gathering relevant background information  Maintaining communication  Planning problem-solving and decision- making goals and objectives placement transition plans  Coordinating resources Collaborating with Parents

32 32  What information needs to be gathered?  What planning, problem-solving and/or decision- making needs to take place at this time? How will goals and objectives be addressed? Is placement an issue at this time? What transition plans are necessary?  Which resources and professionals should be involved?  Who should be invited to participate in the meeting? Planning a Collaborative Meeting

33 33  Introduction of participants  Purpose of the meeting  Sharing new information What’s working Concerns/issues  Brainstorming  Planning Who What When  Review date Develop an Agenda

34 34 1.Set a positive tone, introductions, logistics. 2.Give each participant the opportunity to share. 3.Brainstorm possible options. 4.Summarize the discussion and review plans. 5.Establish plans and times for follow-up. Conducting a Successful Collaboration Meeting

35 35 IPP – Part One Group Activity  Group Number:  Name of student  Strengths and needs  Long-term goals  Short-term objectives

36 36 What worked well?What would you change for next time? Collaboration Meeting Role-play

37 37 Transition Strategies Starting Off on the Right Foot  Teacher preparation  Preparing the student  Preparing the classroom  Promoting understanding

38 38  Visit student in current setting to observe: behaviour classroom routine and organization structure successful adaptations and modifications visual systems used to support the student effective instructional strategies student’s level of participation Transition Strategies Preparing the Teacher and Staff

39 39  Meet with sending staff to exchange information about: effective ways to motivate student student’s likes and dislikes sensory-related issues effective behaviour management strategies and/or Behaviour Support Plan relevant health issues  Meet with parents Transition Strategies Preparing the Teacher and Staff

40 40  Student:  Date of birth/age:  Family situation (e.g., parents, siblings, involvement of extended family, how does the child relate to his family, etc.)  Diagnosis (how did the diagnosis come about, who diagnosed the child, concerns about the diagnosis):  Parent concerns and expectations:  Interventions (e.g., Early Intervention Programming, therapies, etc.):  What types of supports and therapies are currently in place?  What type of involvement does the child have in the community (e.g., sports, religious school, other outside activities)?  What works at home and in other settings?  What worked at previous school setting?  Specific concerns or issues to be aware of. Understanding Your Student

41 41  Use videotapes or pictures of new teacher and classroom.  Prepare scrapbook or social story.  Plan visit or visits to future classroom with familiar person.  Plan preferred activities for student in new setting.  Prepare a calendar for student. Transition Strategies Preparing the Student

42 42  Identify key people for student.  Assign an adult mentor.  Provide training in how to use lock and lockers.  Enlist the assistance of peers.  Develop a plan/script for handling teasing.  Create a homework plan.  Teach specific skills necessary for new setting. Transition Strategies – Preparing the Student for Junior and Senior High

43 43  Consider desk positioning to facilitate attention to ensure that teacher assistant is unobtrusive.  Consider sensory issues.  Consider possible distractions.  Define specific spaces for specific purposes such as calming area individual learning area. Transition Strategies Classroom Accommodations

44 44  Provide an in-school mentor  Organizational support  Modified academic demands  Allow more time for cognitive processing  Homework support and modification  Accommodate for sensory needs  Identify safe, calming area for student Transition Strategies – Junior and Senior High Accommodations

45 45  Remember that students mirror the teacher’s attitude.  Address concerns, questions and misconceptions.  Invite guest speakers.  Use activities to foster awareness and understanding.  Coach peers to be effective partners. Transition Strategies Preparing Classmates

46 46  Collaborate with parents, community agencies, support services and student.  Develop transition goals.  Teach specific skills necessary for new setting. Transition to Adult Life

47 47  Visual support  Structuring the environment Instructional Approaches and Accommodations

48 48  Schedules (no surprises)  Visual rules (what are the rules today)  Visual tools to organize (materials)  Social experiences (solving problems)  Independence (theme boards and cues)  Visual bridges (communicating about life)  Behaviour tools (anxiety and relaxation) Visual Supports

49 49 Example of a weekly schedule Example of a daily schedule Example of a group schedule Example of a visual chore chart Example of a simple visual schedule to support arrival routine Visual Schedules

50 50 Visual Schedules Desk Strip

51 51 Visual Schedules Written Reminders

52 52 Visual Rules Walking in the hall Hands to yourself WalkDon’t run

53 53 Visual Rules Asking for help 1.When I don’t know what to do. 2.I can raise my hand. 3.I get help, then I practice. 4.I can do it. I feel good!

54 54 Visuals to Organize Independent Work

55 55 Visuals to Organize Class Discussions

56 56 Read a paragraph. Ask yourself questions – What did I just read? Paraphrase – Put it in your own words. RAP Strategy Visuals to Organize Reading

57 57 Visuals to Organize Writing Linear Outline From Alberta Learning, Make School Work for You: A Resource for Junior and Senior High Students Who Want to be More Successful Learners (Edmonton, AB: Alberta Learning, 2001), p. 94.

58 58 When someone says “Hi” to me, I say “Hi” back. Visuals to Aid Social Experiences

59 59 Visuals to Aid Socialization When I Want to Tell a Joke I look at the other person. I ask, “Do you want to hear a joke?” If they say, “Yes,” I start. If it’s a riddle, I ask the question. I wait for the other person to find an answer. When the other person says, “I don’t know,” or doesn’t answer, I tell them the answer.

60 60 Visuals to Support Independence Getting Ready for Math You Need PencilsMath notebook RulerMath book

61 61 What to do Before Class is Over  Check agenda.  Write down new assignments.  Get materials for homework.  Ask for help if you don’t understand or can’t find the materials. Independence

62 62 Visual Bridges

63 63 Visual Bridges School/Home

64 64 Visual Bridges Home/School

65 65 Behaviour Tools When It’s Too Noisy It’s too noisy! I can put on headphones. I’m happy! It’s quiet now.

66 66 When I’m Stressed I’m stressed !!I take 5 deep breaths. Visual Tool

67 67 When I am Upset I need to relax! RelaxTake deep breaths Don’t kickDon’t hitDon’t yell Behaviour Tool

68 68 Structuring the Environment  Structure the classroom  Attend to sensory issues  Organize materials  Provide routines  Use schedules  Use First/Then cards  Introduce changes gradually

69 69 Structure for Carpet Time

70 70 Structuring a Work Station

71 71  Group Number:  Name of Student:  Transition Plan:  Accommodations: IPP – Part Two

72 72 Discussion Questions

73 73  What general instructional approaches are recommended for students with ASD?  What types of environmental supports and routines promote independence?  How can communication and social functioning be enhanced for students with ASD? Focus Questions Part Three

74 74  Visual support  Structuring the environment  Encouraging independence  Task analysis  Addressing sensory issues  Applied behaviour analysis Instructional Approaches

75 75  Fading prompts  Fading physical presence Encouraging Independence A Goal For Every Student

76 76 IIndependent G Gestural prompt IVIndirect verbal prompt VDirect verbal prompt MModel MPMinimal physical prompt PP Partial physical prompt FFull physical prompt Encouraging Independence Hierarchy of Prompts

77 77  Breaking a large task into smaller subskills  Teaching and reinforcing subskills  Forward chaining teaching each subskill in sequence  Backward chaining last step in subskill taught first Task Analysis

78 78 Task Analysis Prompt Hierarchy Sample Task Analysis Data Sheet

79 79 How can direct instruction enhance learning and decrease problematic behaviours? Focus Question

80 80  Test-teach-test  Scripted lessons with clearly defined tasks  Sequenced tasks from simple to complex  Well-defined response expectations  Consistent instructional language  Carefully planned reinforcement  Rapid-paced lessons  Independent work after mastery Direct Instruction

81 81  Stimulus  Prompt  Response  Consequence  Inter-trial interval Discrete Trial Training

82 82  Shaping behaviours reinforce approximations to the desired behaviour.  Example: John will be reinforced when he plays for two minutes. John will be reinforced when he plays for four minutes. John will be reinforced when he plays for six minutes. Shaping Procedures

83 83  What is the routine  Purpose of the routine  Task analysis of the routine  How will the routine be taught visuals written directions backwards or forward chaining  Write or sketch the routine Planning a Routine

84 84 Visual Guide to Planning a Routine

85 85  Auditory  Visual  Tactile  Gustatory and olfactory  Vestibular and proprioceptive Is the child extremely sensitive to sounds? Are visual stimuli distracting the child? Are certain textures aversive? Are there strong preferences in tastes and smells? What is the child ’ s need to move and experience different types of pressure ? Assessing Sensory Issues

86 86 Alerting/energizing  Gross motor activities  Fresh air  Cold Water  Play activities with toys and bright lights  Loud energetic music  Sudden fast movement Relaxing/calming  Quiet music  Deep pressure  Sucking activities  Deep breathing  Repetitive behaviour  Weighted vests or blankets  Tensing and relaxing Sensory Diet

87 87 To Alert  Use bright lights  Use a slant board  Listen to loud music  Hold fidget item  Wear cooler clothing  Erase the board or do classroom task  Chew gum  Drink something cold To Calm  Use a study carrel  Use a room divider  Listen to calm music  Hold fidget item  Wear warm clothing  Sit on an inflated cushion  Chew gum  Suck on straw, candy Sensory Diet for Older Children

88 88 Adding a Sensory Break

89 89 Incorporating Movement in the Class

90 90 Hopscotch Can Be a Sensory Break

91 91 Using Bean Bag Chairs for Deep Pressure

92 92 Carrying a Heavy Load Can Be a Sensory Break

93 93  Mouthing, sucking, teething  Hand-flapping or finger- flicking  Yelling, making loud noises  Visual stimulation, fingers in front of eyes  Deep tactile, masturbation  Cup with straw, plastic tubing, chewing items  Koosh toy, silicon gel ball, squishy ball, slinky toy  Walkman, stories, clickers  Kaleidoscope, pinwheel ribbon  Deep pressure, weighted vest, headband, cap, wristband The Source of Autism, Linguisystems, Sensory Accommodations Autism Modification Toys

94 94 Inappropriate sensation seeking  Playing with saliva  Smelling hair or feet  Placing inedible objects in mouth  Aimless running or spinning  Eating shirt sleeves  Putting hands in pants Substituting More Appropriate Sensory Activities

95 95  Playing with saliva  Smelling hair or feet  Placing inedible objects in mouth  Aimless running or spinning  Eating shirt sleeves  Putting hands in pants  Putting lotion on hands  Scratch and sniff stickers  Sucking on water bottle  Playing tag or swinging on swings  Providing chewing toys/ gum/straws, etc.  Using Koosh balls, squeeze toys, etc. Substituting More Appropriate Sensory Activities Inappropriate sensoryMore appropriate activities sensory activities

96 96  To enhance use of forms of communication  To increase use of different communicative functions  To expand receptive and expressive skills  To acquire pivotal social language skills  To maintain two-way communication Communication Goals

97 97 Assessing Forms of Communication Speech/vocalization Sign language Body language Pictures Written language Behaviour

98 98 Requesting Obtaining attention Protesting/refusing Expressing feelings, commenting and gaining information Greetings Assessing Functions of Communication

99 99  Expressive language may be more developed  May only hear last word or most familiar word  Difficulty with multi-step directions  Difficulty with abstract language  Limited vocabulary  Literal interpretation  Difficulty understanding social cues Receptive Language Comprehension Difficulties

100 Twachtman Cullen,  Point out social information. “Look, Tommy’s waving at you. Can you wave back?”  Point out emotional information. “Mary got hurt. Look, she’s crying.”  Point out anticipatory information. “Look, Joey’s going to throw the ball. Put your hands up.”  Structure the commenting function. “Look at the bird eating the seed. He must be very hungry.”  Code feelings and reactions. “You are very angry that Joey took your ball. Say, “Joey, give me that ball!’” Ways to Index the Environment

101 101  Echolalia  May have a large vocabulary in a very limited subject area  Two-way conversation may be difficult Expressive Language Difficulties

102 102 Tolerating other people Attending to others Taking turns Waiting Initiating, responding and sustaining conversations Pivotal Social Language Skills

103 103  Ensure that a communication system is in place.  Focus on developing interaction.  Use clear, concise language.  Allow time to process information.  Teach listening skills and check comprehension.  Use visual supports.  Provide social scripts for spoken language.  Teach subtleties of tone and intonation. Strategies to Facilitate Communication

104 Quill,  I didn’t say she stole my money (but someone said it).  I didn’t say she stole my money ( I definitely didn’t say it).  I didn’t say she stole my money (but I implied it).  I didn’t say she stole my money (but someone stole it).  I didn’t say she stole my money (but she did something).  I didn’t say she stole my money (but she stole someone else’s).  I didn’t say she stole my money ( but she took something else). Comprehension Tone and Intonation of Language

105 105  To develop friendship skills  To increase understanding of rules of social interaction  To increase number and quality of positive social interactions Social Interaction Goals

106 106  Direct teaching  Puppets/role-playing  Cartooning  Peer support  Social scripts  Social stories Social Skills Strategies

107 107  Decide what social skill needs to be taught.  Complete a task analysis.  Identify which steps child can do.  Observe levels of prompting.  Choose a direct teaching strategy such as discrete trial training. Direct Teaching

108 108 Using Puppets, Role-playing and Videotapes to Teach Social Skills

109 Fullerton, Stratton, Coyne & Gray, (1996) Cartooning Social Situations

110 110  Provide peers with skills be persistent give cues not answers teach communication skills  Provide cooperative learning activities  Provide support to the student recess buddy  Encourage friendships Peer Support

111 111 Social Scripts

112 112  Introduce changes and new routines.  Explain reasons for others’ behaviour.  Teach situation-specific social skills.  Assist in teaching new academic skills. Creating Social Stories

113 113  Assess and identify student needs.  Observe the specific situation.  Take the perspective of the child.  Write the social story.  Read the story with the child frequently.  Enhance the social story through modelling and role-playing. Social Story Process

114 114  Descriptive sentences  Directive sentences  Perspective sentence  Formula for writing social stories 2–5 descriptive or perspective statements + 1 directive statement Writing Social Stories

115 115  Sometimes a person says, “I’ve changed my mind.” (Descriptive)  That means he had one idea, but now he has a new idea. (Descriptive)  I will work on staying calm when someone changes their mind. (Directive)  I can think of someone writing something down, scratching it out and writing something new. (Directive) Social Story When I Change My Mind

116 116 Social Story Eating Lunch at School  Sometimes I eat lunch at school. (Descriptive)  People feel comfortable when I eat my food nicely. (Perspective)  Other kids will think I’m friendly when I wait for them to sit down and get their lunch before I start eating. (Perspective)  I will try to chew my food slowly with my mouth closed. (Directive)  When I eat slowly with my mouth closed, people will be happy to sit at the same table with me. (Perspective)

117 117 Write a Social Story  What skill/task does your student need that can be taught through a social story?  With a partner, do a task analysis on the social skill.  Write the social story.

118 118  How is a behaviour intervention plan developed and implemented?  How can precision teaching enhance learning and decrease problematic behaviours? Focus Questions Part Four

119 119  Develop self-control  Increase positive behaviours  Decrease negative behaviours  Reduce anxiety  Follow specific school routines Behaviour Goals

120 120  Determine which behaviour to target.  Determine the function of the behaviour.  Implement positive, proactive strategies. Playing Behaviour Detective

121 121 1.Determine which behaviour to target. 2.Assess function and contributing factors. 3.Identify alternate or incompatible behaviours. 4.Develop strategies to increase positive behaviours. 5.Develop strategies to decrease negative behaviours. 6.Create a behaviour support plan. Programming for Challenging Behaviour

122 122 Determining Which Behaviour to Target  Is it life threatening?  Does it pose a health risk?  Does it interfere with learning?  Is it likely to become more serious?  Has it been a problem for some time?  Does it interfere with acceptance?

123 123 Behaviour is Communication

124 124 We need to understand WHY the behaviour is occurring BEFORE we can properly respond to the behaviour. Determine the Functions of the Behaviour

125 125 Activity 13: Brainstorm Possible Functions of Behaviour

126 126 Common Functions of Behaviour  Attention  Escape/avoidance  Getting something  Sensory/self-regulation  Other

127 127 Functional Behaviour Assessment Data Collection  Behavioural observations  Interviews  Motivation Assessment Scale

128 128 Time: Setting: Social situation: AntecedentsBehaviourConsequences ABC Observation

129 129 Motivation Assessment Scale

130 130 When the Behaviour is Motivated by Attention  Reduce attention to the behaviour.  Teach positive ways of getting attention.  Teach appropriate communication.

131 131 When the Behaviour is Motivated by Tangibles  Teach appropriate communication.  Reinforce communication.  Increase choices.

132 132 When the Behaviour is Motivated by Avoidance  Teach, “I want a break.”  Teach to communicate, “no.”  Increase choices.  Practice relaxation and anxiety reduction.  Modify demands.

133 133 When the Behavior is Motivated by a Sensory Need  Increase sensory supports.  Replace with alternative activities.  Teach student to make requests for sensory preferences.

134 134 Increase Positive Behaviours  Environmental adaptations  Positive/proactive approaches  Reinforcements

135 135  Material reinforcers  Primary/edible reinforcers  Activity reinforcers  Social reinforcers  Sensory reinforcers  Exchangeable reinforcers – token economy Types of Reinforcers

136 136 LikesDislikesIndifferent Activities Sensory stimuli Edibles Social reinforcers Reinforcements

137 137 MaterialPrimary/edibleActivity SocialSensoryExchangeable – Token Economy Identify Reinforcers

138 138  Try proactive strategies first.  Identify the least restrictive strategies.  Develop planned response within the team. Decrease Negative Behaviours

139 139  Reducing attention to the behaviour  Redirection  Removal from reinforcements or timeout Three Reactive Strategies

140 140 Helping Develop Self-control  Identify the interfering behaviour.  Observe the antecedents to the behaviour.  Decide on appropriate reinforcers.  Provide the student with visuals of the antecedent, desired behaviour and reinforcer.  Rehearse the scene.  Support the student in the situation by using the visuals.

141 141 Antecedent: Walking by other students in the classroom. Desired behaviour: Going to desk and reading quietly. Reinforcement: Personal music time. Developing Self-control in the Classroom

142 142 Behaviour Support Plan  Key understandings  Antecedent events  Warning signs  Immediate measures  Positive behaviour supports  Assistance from peers  Reactive plan  Signatures

143 143 Activity 15 IPP – Part Three  Communication objectives  Communication strategies  Social interaction objectives  Social interaction strategies  Behaviour objectives  Behaviour strategies

144 144 Thank you Questions

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