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Psychology of Learning: Operant Conditioning Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos.

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Presentation on theme: "Psychology of Learning: Operant Conditioning Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos."— Presentation transcript:

1 Psychology of Learning: Operant Conditioning Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos

2 Overview  Operant Conditioning Overview  Reinforcement Schedules  Introduction to Cognitive Theories of Learning Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos

3 Operant Conditioning Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos

4 Operant Conditioning  Law of effect: Responses followed by positive outcomes are repeated while those followed by negative outcomes are not  Operant Conditioning: Learn to behave in ways that result in reinforcement Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos

5 Operant Conditioning Response Reinforcement: Repeat Behavior Punishment: Behavior Ends Positive: Presentation Positive Reinforcement Positive Punishment Negative: Removal Negative Reinforcement Negative Punishment Stimulus Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos

6 Operant Conditioning  Reinforcement: Increase likelihood of response Positive Reinforcement: Strengthens response by presenting a pleasant stimulus Negative Reinforcement: Strengthens a response by removing an unpleasant stimulus  Punishment: Decrease likelihood of response Positive Punishment: Weakens a response through presentation of unpleasant stimulus Negative Punishment: Weakens a response through removing a pleasant stimulus Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos

7 Operant Conditioning StimulusResponse Type StudyGood grade Positive Reinforcement Homework Not sweep compound Negative Reinforcement Disrespect Teacher Sent to headmaster Positive Punishment Cheat on homework No break-time Negative Punishment Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos

8 Operant Conditioning  Clapping hands for answering Stimulus: Clapping hands Response: Answering Positive Reinforcement  Grounded for being late Stimulus: Removal of friends Response: Late Negative Punishment Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos

9 Operant Conditioning  Pinch for misbehaving Stimulus: Pinch Response: Misbehaving Positive Punishment  Pepe in soup Stimulus: Pepe Response: Eat soup Negative Reinforcement Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos

10 Operant Conditioning StimulusResponse Type Positive Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Positive Punishment Negative Punishment Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos

11 Reinforcement  Positive Reinforcement Premack Principle: More desired activity is a positive reinforcer for a less desired activity  Observe students to determine most effective reinforcer Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos

12 Punishment  Negative Punishment Extinction: Ignore the inappropriate behavior by a child Time Out: Remove a student from a reinforcing environment  Remove all reinforcement  Consistently maintain  Short (1 minute per year of child) Response Cost: Remove previously earned rewards Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos

13 Punishment  Advantages When used carefully and rarely, provides information about inappropriate behaviors  Disadvantages Obedience is not permanent May classically condition negative emotions Long history may lead to psychological harm Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos

14 Learned Helplessness  Learned Helplessness: Expectation all efforts lead to failure Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos

15 Operant Conditioning Discriminative Stimulus Operant Response Contingent Stimulus Classical Conditioning Conditioned Stimulus Conditioned Response Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos

16 Operant Conditioning  Discriminative Stimulus: Learn cues for when to demonstrate behavior  Superstitions: Any discriminant cue associated with a highly rewarding experience may be reinforced, resulting in a superstitious practice Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos

17 Operant Conditioning Classical Conditioning  Involuntary Responses  A conditioned stimulus becomes associated with an unconditioned stimulus that results in a conditioned response Operant Conditioning  Voluntary Responses  A behavior (response) is associated with a reinforcer or punishment (stimulus) that influences future behavior Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos

18 Teaching via Operant Conditioning  Shaping: Reinforcing successive approximations of a desired behavior  Chaining: Reinforcing simple behaviors that combine to a more complex behavior Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos

19 Operant Conditioning: Maintaining Behavior  Reinforcement schedules Continuous: Reinforced after every behavior Fixed Interval: Reinforced after fixed interval of time Variable Interval: Reinforced after average amount of time Fixed Ratio: Reinforced after fixed number of responses Variable Ratio: Reinforced after average number of responses Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos

20 Operant Conditioning: Maintaining Behavior Fixed BehaviorReward 1 2 3X 4 5 6X 7 8 9X X X Variable BehaviorReward 1 2X 3 4 5X X 10 11X X Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos

21 Operant Conditioning Fixed: Consistent Variable: Irregularly TimeFixed IntervalVariable Interval Number of Responses Fixed RatioVariable Ratio Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos

22 Operant Conditioning: Maintaining Behavior  Reinforcing Mathematics Learning Fixed Interval: Quiz every 3 weeks Variable Interval: Quiz about every 3 weeks Fixed Ratio: Reward after every 20 correct problems Variable Ratio: Reward after about every 20 correct problems Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos

23 Operant Conditioning: Maintaining Behavior Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos

24 Educational Implications  Planning Behavioral Change Collect baseline data Set behavioral goals Select procedures for changing behavior Implement procedures and record results Evaluate progress and revise as necessary Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos

25 Educational Implications  Class Attendance Baseline Data:  Students attend 50% of classes Goal: Students attend 90% of classes Procedure: Students will receive a coupon for a free chore for every 30 classes they attend Record Results: Evaluate progress: Great improvement in attendance Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos

26 Educational Implications Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos

27 Operant Conditioning  Strengths Effective for short-term behavior modification Straight-forward and easy to implement  Criticisms Does not address cognitive processes Behavior ends when reinforcement ends May hinder intrinsic motivation Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos

28 Rewards and Motivation  Motivation Intrinsic Motivation: Perform an activity for inherent satisfaction in the activity Extrinsic Motivation: Perform an activity for a reason external to the activity  Motivation: Self Determination Theory Rewards make one feel manipulated  Attitudes: Cognitive Dissonance Theory Justify behavior by rewards Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos

29 Operant Conditioning Overview  Results: Voluntary Responses  Means Reinforcement increases behavior Punishment decreases behavior  Inputs: Reinforcement and Punishment Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos

30 Operant Conditioning Overview  Learning Outcomes: Voluntary reactions  Role of the Learner: Passive  Role of the Instructor: Provide reinforcement and punishment as necessary  Inputs for Learning: Reinforcement and Punishment  Process of Learning: Associate reinforcement and punishment with behaviors Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos

31 Revision  Describe the four types of operant conditioning  Describe the five types of reward schedules  Which type of reward schedule leads to the best behavior? Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos


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