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Shulamith Kreitler, Ph.D. Department of Psychology Tel-Aviv University Tel-Aviv, Israel Tel: +972-3-5227185 Fax: +972-3-5225371

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Presentation on theme: "Shulamith Kreitler, Ph.D. Department of Psychology Tel-Aviv University Tel-Aviv, Israel Tel: +972-3-5227185 Fax: +972-3-5225371"— Presentation transcript:

1 Shulamith Kreitler, Ph.D. Department of Psychology Tel-Aviv University Tel-Aviv, Israel Tel: +972-3-5227185 Fax: +972-3-5225371 E-mail: Krit@netvision.net.il Cognitive Orientation and Management: Predicting and Changing Behavior in Management

2 What is Cognitive Orientation and what it can do for management?

3 Reasons for the complexity of management behavior: 1. Multiplicity of goals, contexts, teams interacting, combining, replacing each other at unpredictable rates. 2. Constant dependence on and need to respond adequately to external circumstances over which one has little or no control. 3. Constant evaluation by external standards that could lead to lowered status up to the point of being fired. 4. Requirement for creativity coupled with the need to conform to reality-conditioned circumstances 5. Absence of any specific behavior which could be identified as demonstrating good management.

4 Three approaches to overcoming the difficulties of management: Shaping external reality (markets, consumers, other businesses) Shaping external reality (markets, consumers, other businesses) Shaping internal reality (within the business itself, employees, atmosphere) Shaping internal reality (within the business itself, employees, atmosphere) Shaping management: Shaping management: Selecting and Training individuals with the adequate potential Selecting and Training individuals with the adequate potential

5 Three common, possible approaches to overcoming the difficulties of management: Shaping external reality (markets, consumers, other businesses) Shaping external reality (markets, consumers, other businesses) Shaping internal reality (within the business itself, employees, atmosphere) Shaping internal reality (within the business itself, employees, atmosphere) Shaping management: Shaping management: Selecting and Training individuals with the adequate potential Selecting and Training individuals with the adequate potential We are going to focus on shaping management. There have been many theoretical and applied approaches to selecting managers.

6 Common approaches to selecting managers: 1. 1. Focusing on characteristics considered to be relevant for the position, e.g., Considering the job requirements (stimulus properties), e.g., elegance, expertise, verbal ability Considering the personality (response properties), e.g., self-esteem, flexibility, locus of control

7 Common approaches to selecting managers: 2. 2. Level of characteristics General: e.g., Adaptors versus Innovators (Kirton), Leadership, Emotional intelligence Specific: e.g., Ability to concentrate under noise conditions Readiness to get specific instructions for performance

8 Common approaches to selecting managers: 3. 3. Means of assessment Self-report Peers evaluation Supervisors ’ evaluation Verbal Behavioral General items Situational items

9 Major shortcomings of the common selection procedures 1. Too specific Limited to particular context job behavior needs 2. OR

10 Major shortcomings of the common selection procedures 2. Too general Do not relate to any particular context job behavior needs

11 Major shortcomings of the common selection procedures 3. Selection not coordinated with training

12 Principles of selection on the basis of cognitive orientation 1. Selecting on the basis of a set of characteristics 2. Selecting in view of multiple needs 3. Selecting on the basis of motivational tendencies (and not traits) 4. Selecting on the basis of tendencies related directly to behavior 5. Selecting on the basis of tendencies related to a broad spectrum of behaviors in a given domain 6. Selecting on the basis of motivational tendencies that allow for change and training 7. Selection and training open to extension to any preferred type of manager

13 Cognitive Orientation Theory A theory for A theory for understanding understanding predicting predicting changing changing Developed in 1962 Hans Kreitler and Shulamith Kreitler behavior

14 Cognitive Orientation Theory A body of data – in regard to A body of data – in regard to predicting behavior predicting behavior changing behavior changing behavior conceptual and empirical tools generated by the theory conceptual and empirical tools generated by the theory Developed in 1962 Hans Kreitler and Shulamith Kreitler

15 Cognitive Orientation Theory A methodology – for A methodology – for predicting behavior predicting behavior changing behavior in desired direction changing behavior in desired direction Developed in 1962 Hans Kreitler and Shulamith Kreitler

16 Cognitive Orientation Theory Major domain of application - Major domain of application - Molar behaviors Molar behaviors Cognitive behaviors Cognitive behaviors Health behaviors Health behaviors Medical disorders Medical disorders Psychopathological disorders Psychopathological disorders Emotional behaviors Emotional behaviors Developed in 1962 Hans Kreitler and Shulamith Kreitler

17 Basic Assumption of the Cognitive Orientation Theory : Cognition plays an active- dynamic role in regard to behavior

18 Cognitive Orientation Theory (Kreitler & Kreitler) Behavior is a function of a motivational disposition (=directionality of behavior) and performance Behavior is a function of a motivational disposition (=directionality of behavior) and performance Major Theses : Motivational disposition (Where to?) Performance (How?) Behavior Cognition affects behavior by contributing differentially to motivation and performance Cognition affects behavior by contributing differentially to motivation and performance The cognitive impact is neither conscious nor voluntary The cognitive impact is neither conscious nor voluntary

19 The rationale for the impact of cognitions on behavior is their meaning-based relation to behavior

20 Cognitive Orientation Theory Major Stages “Question”Process “Answer” INPUT 1. What is it? Meaning Action Unconditioned or conditioned response 2. What does it Meaning Generation Action required mean in general and to me? 3. What action?4 types of beliefs; Behavioral Intent CO Cluster 4. How to perform Program Retrieval; Behavioral Program action? Planning OUTPUT

21 Input dealt with Input identified Input not identified Reflex, CR, etc. Meaning action What does it mean for me? What action? 4 types of beliefs: Cog. Orientation Cluster How to perform action? Behavioral Program Exit Input identified for molar action Input not dealt with Action not required Exit Action required Behavior What is the input? Input Behavioral Intent

22 Four Types of Behavioral Programs 1) Innately determined programs e.g., reflexes 2) Programs determined partly innately and partly by learning 1) e.g., instincts, language 3) Programs acquired through learning 1) e.g., culturally shaped behaviors (running elections, etc.) or personal habits (making friends, relaxing, etc.) 4) Programs constructed by the individual ad hoc

23 Structure of Beliefs BELIEF SUBJECTRELATION SelfI Factual Norms non-I Desirable Goals I Desired General non-I Factual

24 Examples of the Four Types of Beliefs Beliefs about self: “I am an easy-going person” “I often lie” “I hate disorder” Beliefs about goals: “I wish to be a tough person” “I would like to be free of any obligations” “I want to be loved by everybody”

25 Examples of the Four Types of Beliefs Beliefs about rules and norms: “One should never lie” “People ought to consider first of all their own interests” “Don’t ever expect to be loved by everybody” General beliefs: “It is impossible to do everything to perfection” “Obligations weigh heavily on most people” “Most people lie even to their friends”

26 Identifying Themes by Meaning Generation Interpersonally-shared meaning of behavior or disorder Key-words Level 1 :Personal meanings of key-words Level 2 :Personal meanings of responses on level 1 Level 3 :Personal meanings of responses on level 2

27 Examples of Themes Themes of Achievement : Rejection of limitations Rejection of limitations All facts can be changed All facts can be changed All results depend on the individual All results depend on the individual Strength of the individual Strength of the individual Commitment Commitment Themes of Punctuality : Acceptance of limitations Acceptance of limitations Compromising concerning one ’ s needs Compromising concerning one ’ s needs Concern with controlling events and situations Concern with controlling events and situations

28 Predictive Matrix of Beliefs Themes Beliefs about Self Beliefs about Norms Beliefs about Goals General Beliefs 1) 2) 3) : n).

29 Beliefs about Self Beliefs about Norms Beliefs about Goals General Beliefs Behavioral Intent

30 Predicting Behavior on the Basis of the CO Theory 1. Constructing a CO questionnaire for the behavior of interest 2. Administrating the CO questionnaire, examining the availability of the behavioral program and assessing the behavior 3. If the behavioral program is available, then Examining the relations between the scores of the CO questionnaire and the behavior, in terms of CO index scores (0-4)  Analyses of variance CO index scores (0-4)  Analyses of variance Continuous scores for the 4 belief types  Regression or Discriminant Function Analyses Continuous scores for the 4 belief types  Regression or Discriminant Function Analyses

31 Behavior Predictions on the basis of the CO Theory Achievement Achievement Being late Being late Responses to success Responses to success Responses to failure Responses to failure Conformity Conformity Assertiveness Assertiveness Curiosity Curiosity Impulsivity Impulsivity Handling stress Handling stress Orderliness Orderliness Intolerance of ambiguity Intolerance of ambiguity Planning Planning Applying different defense mechanisms Applying different defense mechanisms Accuracy Accuracy Pain tolerance Pain tolerance Compliance with treatment regimen (diabetics) Compliance with treatment regimen (diabetics) Communicability Communicability Cleanliness (schizophrenics) Cleanliness (schizophrenics) Taking medication (schizophrenics) Taking medication (schizophrenics) Paranoid reactions (schizophrenics) Paranoid reactions (schizophrenics) Rigidity (IQ 50-60) Rigidity (IQ 50-60) Speed of performance (schizophrenics) Speed of performance (schizophrenics) Reactions to success (IQ 50-60) Reactions to success (IQ 50-60) Reactions to failure (IQ 50-60) Reactions to failure (IQ 50-60) Responsiveness to tangible an intangible rewards (IQ 50-60) Responsiveness to tangible an intangible rewards (IQ 50-60) Quitting smoking Quitting smoking Undergoing tests for the early detection of breast cancer Undergoing tests for the early detection of breast cancer

32 Cognitive Orientation of Creativity: CLUSTERS OF THEMES Openness to the environment, to possibilities, to others, curiosity Openness to the environment, to possibilities, to others, curiosity Openness to one’s inner world, one’s experiences, emotions Openness to one’s inner world, one’s experiences, emotions Playfulness, imagination, fantasy, thinking freely about problems, freedom from limited functionality Playfulness, imagination, fantasy, thinking freely about problems, freedom from limited functionality Emphasis on the application of ideas, making things work, changing things in reality Emphasis on the application of ideas, making things work, changing things in reality Focus on the self, one one’s internal world, investing in the self, exploring the self, remaining faithful to oneself Focus on the self, one one’s internal world, investing in the self, exploring the self, remaining faithful to oneself Readiness to contribute to the public welfare, doing things for the public, awareness of social and public issues Readiness to contribute to the public welfare, doing things for the public, awareness of social and public issues Freedom, cognitive freedom, insistence on doing things one’s own way Freedom, cognitive freedom, insistence on doing things one’s own way Need for firm framework, ability to conform to regulations and instructions Need for firm framework, ability to conform to regulations and instructions Openness to others, sharing emotions with others Openness to others, sharing emotions with others Social shyness, readiness to differ from others, readiness to do one’s thing regardless of good or bad evaluation on the part of others Social shyness, readiness to differ from others, readiness to do one’s thing regardless of good or bad evaluation on the part of others

33 Cognitive Orientation of Creativity: CLUSTERS OF THEMES Sticking to internal standards of excellence, without compromising, readiness to sacrifice a lot in order to attain one’s goals as one sees them Sticking to internal standards of excellence, without compromising, readiness to sacrifice a lot in order to attain one’s goals as one sees them Emphasizing one’s uniqueness, original contribution Emphasizing one’s uniqueness, original contribution Dynamism, becoming, moving ahead, changing Dynamism, becoming, moving ahead, changing Readiness to make efforts, work hard, invest in whatever one is doing Readiness to make efforts, work hard, invest in whatever one is doing Readiness for risk-taking, and functioning under uncertainty Readiness for risk-taking, and functioning under uncertainty No or low limiting boundaries between different domains (private and public, personal and interpersonal, subjective and objective, work and family, moral and esthetic) No or low limiting boundaries between different domains (private and public, personal and interpersonal, subjective and objective, work and family, moral and esthetic)

34 Cognitive Orientation of team-work versus loner’s-work TEAM WORK LONER ’ S WORK Emphasis on ProcessProduct Viewing others As source of benefits (e.g., enjoyment, relaxation, support, admiration, inspiration) As burden, chore, requiring attention and other resources Attitude to others Trusting others Opening oneself up to others Defending against others Keeping things away from others Exploitation No fear of being exploited, not caring about being exploited Fear of being exploited One’s experiences and emotions Sharing, exposing Keeping to oneself Being understood by others Sense of being understood Others cannot understand one Rivalry, competition, jealousy LowHigh Getting the maximum out of oneself SometimesAlways Achievement considered As augmenting the available goods As aggrandizing oneself

35 Cognitive Orientation of Marketing and Salesmanship Orientation Development of the individual (or of a unit such as, family or society) entails expansion of needs Development of the individual (or of a unit such as, family or society) entails expansion of needs Needs need to be satisfied (it is socially and psychologically healthy to satisfy needs) Needs need to be satisfied (it is socially and psychologically healthy to satisfy needs) Loving oneself means doing things for yourself (such as, purchasing) Loving oneself means doing things for yourself (such as, purchasing) Satisfying needs promotes one’s independence Satisfying needs promotes one’s independence When you produce and sell you promote openness, free flow; Freedom consists in openness, free flow When you produce and sell you promote openness, free flow; Freedom consists in openness, free flow

36 Study on Creativity in Management Participants:62 managers Participants:62 managers 40 men, 22 women Mean age : 41.6 High-tech businesses Dependant variable: Creativity in management Dependant variable: Creativity in management Rating on 1-7 scale Rated by supervisors Rated by co-managers Rated by subordinates

37 Study on Creativity in Management Predictors: Cognitive orientation – Predictors: Cognitive orientation – 4 belief types 4 belief types Themes Themes Regression analysis: R 2 =.85 Regression analysis: R 2 =.85 Order of contributing factors: Order of contributing factors: Goals.97 Norms.92 General.90 Self.84

38 Study on Creativity in Management Major contributing themes Openness to environment Openness to environment Openness to inner world Openness to inner world Emphasis on application Emphasis on application Readiness to contribute to public welfare Readiness to contribute to public welfare Dynamism Dynamism Risk-taking, uncertainty Risk-taking, uncertainty

39 Further predictions based on applying the CO questionnaire of creativity: Creativity in resolving engineering problems Creativity in resolving engineering problems Participants: 120 engineers in different employments Participants: 120 engineers in different employments Creativity in resolving interpersonal conflicts in the plants Creativity in resolving interpersonal conflicts in the plants Participants: 28 supervisors in plants producing construction materials Participants: 28 supervisors in plants producing construction materials Creativity in design Creativity in design Participants: 25 design experts in advertisement (rating of products) Participants: 25 design experts in advertisement (rating of products)

40 Study on team-work Participants: 51 managers Participants: 51 managers 30 men, 21 women 30 men, 21 women Mean age : 37.4 Mean age : 37.4 Pharmaceutical and electricity businesses Pharmaceutical and electricity businesses Dependant variable: Team-work functioning Dependant variable: Team-work functioning Rating on 1-5 scale Mean rating by team members No. of raters per subject: 3-5

41 Study on team-work Predictors: Cognitive orientation – Predictors: Cognitive orientation – 4 belief types 4 belief types Themes Themes Regression analysis: R 2 =.82 Regression analysis: R 2 =.82 Order of contributing factors: Order of contributing factors: Norms.95 Goals.91 Self.88 General.80

42 Study on team-work Correspondence between cognitive orientation scores of team-work: Correspondence between cognitive orientation scores of team-work: Cognitive Orientation (CO) scores : 0 – 4 Cognitive Orientation (CO) scores : 0 – 4 Correspondence : Assessed in terms of gaps [absolute numbers] Correspondence : Assessed in terms of gaps [absolute numbers] Range of gaps: |4| |3| |2| |1| Range of gaps: |4| |3| |2| |1| Participants: Participants: 15 teams2-5 members per team 15 teams2-5 members per team Variables for each team: Variables for each team: Correspondence in CO scores (mean) Correspondence in CO scores (mean) Cohesion of team (mean of ratings) Cohesion of team (mean of ratings) Correlation coefficient : r =.70 Correlation coefficient : r =.70

43 Changing Behavior on the Basis of the CO Theory 1. Administering the CO questionnaire for the behavior of interest 2. Identifying the themes and belief types in which there are not enough supporting beliefs ( “ weak cells ” ) 3. Promoting belief evocation or construction in the “ weak cells ”, focusing on the themes 4. If an adequate behavioral program is not available, promote its acquisition

44 Advantages of the CO Theory 1. The CO theory is an empirically supported theory and methodology of predicting and changing behaviors 2. Each CO questionnaire predicts a broad range of behaviors in the relevant domain 3. May be applied to participants of different ages, cultures, and IQs 4. Applying the procedures of prediction or change does not require any “ mind set ” or other conditions and no addition of further variables 5. Procedures may be applied in regard to any behavior 6. Participants are unable to “ adjust ” responses to questionnaire to fit or not their behavior 7. Procedures of predicting and changing behaviors are related (i.e., economical)

45 Thank you for your attention


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