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Best Practices in Transition: Critical Components Related to Educating Adolescents With Autism Brandee El-Attar, M.S., Kate Dickey, M.S. Devereux CARES.

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Presentation on theme: "Best Practices in Transition: Critical Components Related to Educating Adolescents With Autism Brandee El-Attar, M.S., Kate Dickey, M.S. Devereux CARES."— Presentation transcript:

1 Best Practices in Transition: Critical Components Related to Educating Adolescents With Autism Brandee El-Attar, M.S., Kate Dickey, M.S. Devereux CARES Consultants

2 Programming for Adolescents What is adolescence? What is adolescence? Why is this a difficult period to plan for with students with ASD? Why is this a difficult period to plan for with students with ASD? What are our obligations as educators? What are our obligations as educators? What critical components are necessary to ensure success? What critical components are necessary to ensure success?

3 Legal requirements IDEA 2004 states that transition services must: IDEA 2004 states that transition services must: Begin no later than the first IEP to be in effect when the student is 16 and updated annually thereafter (PA requires from age 14) Begin no later than the first IEP to be in effect when the student is 16 and updated annually thereafter (PA requires from age 14) Be provided until Be provided until The student turns 21, or The student turns 21, or The student graduates from high school with a regular diploma The student graduates from high school with a regular diploma

4 IEP requirements Appropriate measurable postsecondary goals Appropriate measurable postsecondary goals Based on age appropriate transition assessments related to training, education, employment, and, where appropriate, independent living skills Based on age appropriate transition assessments related to training, education, employment, and, where appropriate, independent living skills Transition services (including courses of study) needed to assist the student in reaching those goals Transition services (including courses of study) needed to assist the student in reaching those goals

5 What are we planning for? Key Transition Areas: Key Transition Areas: Employment Employment Postsecondary education Postsecondary education Living arrangements Living arrangements Community participation Community participation Community mobility Community mobility Financial independence Financial independence Recreation and leisure Recreation and leisure Friendships and relationships Friendships and relationships

6 Employment Competitive employment Competitive employment Supported employment Supported employment Self-employment Self-employment Rehabilitation facility or workshop Rehabilitation facility or workshop Day program, sheltered workshop, or activity center Day program, sheltered workshop, or activity center

7 Postsecondary education Four-year college or university Four-year college or university Community college Community college Trade or business schools Trade or business schools Vocational-technical schools Vocational-technical schools Specialized training in business and industry Specialized training in business and industry Continuing adult education Continuing adult education

8 Living arrangements Individualized housing supports: Individualized housing supports: Providing support services to people living in their own apartments Providing support services to people living in their own apartments Matching individuals with disabilities to roommates without disabilities or with families that may be compensated for providing needed assistance Matching individuals with disabilities to roommates without disabilities or with families that may be compensated for providing needed assistance Supplying in-home supports to people with disabilities and their families Supplying in-home supports to people with disabilities and their families Assisting people with disabilities to become homeowners Assisting people with disabilities to become homeowners

9 Best Practices in Transition: Critical Components Create a student-centered transition plan (i.e.,PCFP) Create a student-centered transition plan (i.e.,PCFP) Cultivate student involvement and self-determination Cultivate student involvement and self-determination Align the curriculum with visions for post school life, the student’s transition plan, and the general education curriculum Align the curriculum with visions for post school life, the student’s transition plan, and the general education curriculum Provide students with paid and actual work experiences while still in school Provide students with paid and actual work experiences while still in school Establish interagency collaboration with adult service providers, employers, and post-secondary institutions Establish interagency collaboration with adult service providers, employers, and post-secondary institutions Foster family involvement in the transition planning process Foster family involvement in the transition planning process

10 Best Practices In Transition: Critical Components Create a student-centered transition plan Why? Why? Keeps the process focused on student preferences Keeps the process focused on student preferences Key elements Key elements Use person-centered futures planning to create a vision Use person-centered futures planning to create a vision Transition plan drives the IEP – not an add on Transition plan drives the IEP – not an add on Revise plan annually to reflect changing needs and goals Revise plan annually to reflect changing needs and goals

11 Person-centered futures planning (PCFP) is an ongoing process that brings together a group of committed individuals to help an individual with special needs plan and create a life that is personally fulfilling and productive Person-centered futures planning (PCFP) is an ongoing process that brings together a group of committed individuals to help an individual with special needs plan and create a life that is personally fulfilling and productive This process can start at any time, but should begin minimally at 14 years This process can start at any time, but should begin minimally at 14 years Supporting Families and Students Through Person-Centered Futures Planning

12 The initial PCFP meeting at CARES typically takes two to three hours; subsequent annual meetings usually last between one and two hours The initial PCFP meeting at CARES typically takes two to three hours; subsequent annual meetings usually last between one and two hours We try to have this meeting about one month before the IEP; we have found that this process can help plan transition IEPs We try to have this meeting about one month before the IEP; we have found that this process can help plan transition IEPs Supporting Families and Students Through Person-Centered Futures Planning

13 Meeting outcomes will also include: Meeting outcomes will also include: A description of medical and physical needs A description of medical and physical needs The student’s and family’s vision for post-21 living, employment, social interactions, and community inclusion The student’s and family’s vision for post-21 living, employment, social interactions, and community inclusion A description of the student’s preferences and strengths; and needed supports A description of the student’s preferences and strengths; and needed supports Goals and objectives for employment education Goals and objectives for employment education An action plan for the upcoming year An action plan for the upcoming year See our wiki for our format… See our wiki for our format… Supporting Families and Students Through Person-Centered Futures Planning

14 Best Practices in Transition: Critical Components Cultivate student involvement and self- determination Why? Why? Develops self-advocacy and self-determination Develops self-advocacy and self-determination Enhances quality of life Enhances quality of life Keeps plan focused on student preferences Keeps plan focused on student preferences Key elements: Key elements: Involve student in IEP/transition planning Involve student in IEP/transition planning Teach self-determination skills directly Teach self-determination skills directly Student-led IEP meetings or increase participation in IEP meetings Student-led IEP meetings or increase participation in IEP meetings Teach self-advocacy Teach self-advocacy Infuse instruction throughout the day Infuse instruction throughout the day

15 Best Practices in Transition: Critical Components Align the curriculum with visions for post school life AND Align the student’s transition plan with the general education curriculum Why? Why? Curriculum during transition years must prepare students for all aspects of adult living Curriculum during transition years must prepare students for all aspects of adult living At the same time, if transition plan is linked to general education: At the same time, if transition plan is linked to general education: – More likely to graduate with regular diploma – More likely to have continued inclusion with same-age peers without disabilities

16 Best Practices in Transition: Critical Components Key elements of Curriculum: Key elements of Curriculum: Balance between high academic expectations while addressing functional needs Balance between high academic expectations while addressing functional needs Utilize existing general education classes and services (e.g., vocational education) Utilize existing general education classes and services (e.g., vocational education) Community-based instruction for learning functional skills (in real-life settings) Community-based instruction for learning functional skills (in real-life settings) College campus –based or community-based programs for providing services to students age College campus –based or community-based programs for providing services to students age Age appropriate setting Age appropriate setting Ongoing inclusion with same-age peers Ongoing inclusion with same-age peers Opportunities for work experiences and postsecondary education with support Opportunities for work experiences and postsecondary education with support See See

17 Best Practices in Transition: Critical Components Establish interagency collaboration with adult service providers, employers, and post-secondary institutions Why? Why? Fosters seamless transition to adult life Fosters seamless transition to adult life Creates opportunities for post school success Creates opportunities for post school success Key elements: Key elements: Invite agency representatives to IEP/transition meetings Invite agency representatives to IEP/transition meetings Form school-agency partnerships and pool resources Form school-agency partnerships and pool resources

18 Best Practices in Transition: Critical Components Provide students with paid and actual work experiences while still in school Why? Why? Results in immediate and long-term post school employment Results in immediate and long-term post school employment Key elements: Key elements: Real life experiences through Real life experiences through Internships Internships School sponsored part-time jobs School sponsored part-time jobs Vocational education Vocational education

19 Best Practices in Transition: Critical Components Foster family involvement in the transition planning process Why? Why? Families serve as the bridge to adult life Families serve as the bridge to adult life Families can assist the student in voicing preferences and goals for adult life Families can assist the student in voicing preferences and goals for adult life Key elements: Key elements: Provide critical information to families Provide critical information to families Establish partnership in the planning process Establish partnership in the planning process Use person-centered planning Use person-centered planning Respect family values and culture Respect family values and culture

20 Developing Competencies for Adulthood: From Planning to Practice Assessment strategies Assessment strategies Instructional methods and activities to promote independence Instructional methods and activities to promote independence Program components to optimize student growth Program components to optimize student growth

21 General Assessment and Program Planning Thorough assessment provides information that can be used for: Thorough assessment provides information that can be used for: Diagnosis/verification (and subsequent special education eligibility decisions) Diagnosis/verification (and subsequent special education eligibility decisions) Educational programming/intervention planning (i.e., strengths and needs) Educational programming/intervention planning (i.e., strengths and needs) Present levels of performance/measurement of progress Present levels of performance/measurement of progress

22 Common Areas of Skill Assessment Across Most Young Students With Autism Communication skills Communication skills Social skills Social skills Play skills Play skills Academic Academic Motor skills Motor skills

23 Additional Areas of Emphasis for Adolescents With Autism Functional Communication Functional Communication Expressive Expressive Requesting reinforcers Requesting reinforcers Requesting assistance Requesting assistance Requesting breaks Requesting breaks Requesting clarification Requesting clarification Requesting bathroom Requesting bathroom Affirmation, rejection, and protestation Affirmation, rejection, and protestation Commenting (responsive and spontaneous) Commenting (responsive and spontaneous) Answering and asking questions Answering and asking questions

24 Additional Areas of Emphasis for Adolescents With Autism Receptive Receptive Understanding verbal directions with gestures and/or contextual cues Understanding verbal directions with gestures and/or contextual cues Understanding verbal directions without gestures and/or contextual cues Understanding verbal directions without gestures and/or contextual cues Following pictorial and/or written directions and schedules Following pictorial and/or written directions and schedules Waiting Waiting

25 Additional Areas of Emphasis for Adolescents With Autism Social Skills Social Skills Initiating and responding to greetings Initiating and responding to greetings Gaining attention appropriately Gaining attention appropriately Avoiding violation of others’ personal space Avoiding violation of others’ personal space Accepting feedback and/or correction Accepting feedback and/or correction Using “please” and “thank you” Using “please” and “thank you” Responding to social questions Responding to social questions Refraining from disruptive behaviors Refraining from disruptive behaviors

26 Additional Areas of Emphasis for Adolescents With Autism Functional Academics Functional Academics Reading Reading Money Handling (understanding the exchange of money to purchase, using a debit card, using a wallet) Money Handling (understanding the exchange of money to purchase, using a debit card, using a wallet) Writing (name, notes/letters) Writing (name, notes/letters) Math Concepts (understanding concepts of “more or less,” using a calculator, reading a clock and manage time) Math Concepts (understanding concepts of “more or less,” using a calculator, reading a clock and manage time)

27 Additional Areas of Emphasis for Adolescents With Autism Self-Care Self-Care Feeding Feeding Independent Toileting and Self-Care Routines Independent Toileting and Self-Care Routines Consistently Washing Hands Consistently Washing Hands Dressing Skills Dressing Skills

28 Additional Areas of Emphasis for Adolescents With Autism Domestic Skills Domestic Skills Simple Food Preparation Simple Food Preparation Cleaning Skills Cleaning Skills Taking Care of Clothing Taking Care of Clothing

29 Additional Areas of Emphasis for Adolescents With Autism Recreation and Leisure Recreation and Leisure Solitary Activities Solitary Activities TV, Music, Computer, Books and Magazines, Electronic Games, Art, Puzzles, Sports and Exercise, and so on TV, Music, Computer, Books and Magazines, Electronic Games, Art, Puzzles, Sports and Exercise, and so on Group Activities Group Activities Table-Top (cards, games, art) Table-Top (cards, games, art) Gross Motor (walks, sports, games) Gross Motor (walks, sports, games)

30 Additional Areas of Emphasis for Adolescents With Autism Community Community General Skills (waiting, using transportation) General Skills (waiting, using transportation) Single-Item Purchases Single-Item Purchases Multi-Item Purchases Multi-Item Purchases Food Related Activities Food Related Activities Recreational Activities Recreational Activities

31 Additional Areas of Emphasis for Adolescents With Autism Health and Safety Health and Safety Refraining from dangerous behaviors Refraining from dangerous behaviors Communicating effectively when feeling ill Communicating effectively when feeling ill Cooperating with medical interventions and personnel Cooperating with medical interventions and personnel Participating in regular exercise routines Participating in regular exercise routines Acting upon sexual feelings appropriately Acting upon sexual feelings appropriately

32 A Closer look at Human Sexuality Ignoring it will not help! Ignoring it will not help! Discrepancies exist between emotional, social, and cognitive abilities AND physical and sexual development Discrepancies exist between emotional, social, and cognitive abilities AND physical and sexual development Devereux’s guiding philosophies: Devereux’s guiding philosophies: All individuals will have sexual feelings as they progress through adolescence and/or adulthood All individuals will have sexual feelings as they progress through adolescence and/or adulthood All individuals should be allowed to express their sexuality in appropriate ways, and receive guidance when needed All individuals should be allowed to express their sexuality in appropriate ways, and receive guidance when needed Parents are the best teachers for these skills, but their efforts should be supported by educators Parents are the best teachers for these skills, but their efforts should be supported by educators

33 A Closer Look at Human Sexuality Some concepts to teach– always address the who, when, and wheres Some concepts to teach– always address the who, when, and wheres Public versus private Public versus private Touching (greetings, gaining attention, showing affection) Touching (greetings, gaining attention, showing affection) Conversations Conversations Dressing/undressing and nudity Dressing/undressing and nudity Dating and related social behavior Dating and related social behavior Adolescents- Introducing yourself, maintaining conversations, reading social cues, using manners Adolescents- Introducing yourself, maintaining conversations, reading social cues, using manners Young adults- asking someone out on a date, accepting rejection, dating behavior, and so on Young adults- asking someone out on a date, accepting rejection, dating behavior, and so on Self-pleasuring when appropriate Self-pleasuring when appropriate Timing of instruction depends upon the student in conjunction with their family Timing of instruction depends upon the student in conjunction with their family Time and place considerations Time and place considerations Safe and effective techniques Safe and effective techniques Consider teaching a routine Consider teaching a routine

34 Additional Areas of Emphasis for Adolescents With Autism Vocational Vocational Office/Clerical Work Office/Clerical Work Janitorial Janitorial Food Services Food Services Horticultural/Lawn Maintenance Horticultural/Lawn Maintenance Customer Service Customer Service Stocking Stocking Laundry Laundry Industrial Industrial Performance Parameters (independence, duration, accuracy, generalization, and rate) Performance Parameters (independence, duration, accuracy, generalization, and rate)

35 Additional Areas of Emphasis for Adolescents With Autism Beginning of Self-Awareness and Determination Beginning of Self-Awareness and Determination Making choices Making choices Assessing their own appearance and performance Assessing their own appearance and performance Managing reinforcement/reward systems Managing reinforcement/reward systems Assessing and communicating preferences Assessing and communicating preferences Participating in meetings Participating in meetings

36 Assessment and Program Planning Assessment and program planning must also take into account Quality of Life (QoL) considerations QoL is a term used to describe an individual's satisfaction with his or her life and general sense of well-being. It is often measured as physical, psychological and social well-being.

37 Physical well being/health Physical well being/health Social connectedness with family, friends, and co- workers Social connectedness with family, friends, and co- workers Control and choice with variables that impact your life/self-determination Control and choice with variables that impact your life/self-determination Satisfaction with employment or school, residential living, and community inclusion Satisfaction with employment or school, residential living, and community inclusion Levels of independence across environments Levels of independence across environments Ability to communicate effectively with others Ability to communicate effectively with others Level of contact with reinforcers Level of contact with reinforcers Variables that Affect QoL

38 Evidence-based Ways to Increase QoL (Dennis Reid, 2010) We can maintain “happiness” and enhance personal growth by: We can maintain “happiness” and enhance personal growth by: Providing frequent choice opportunities Providing frequent choice opportunities Assessing preferences and using preference-based teaching procedures Assessing preferences and using preference-based teaching procedures Eliminating and/or modifying highly undesirable tasks and routines Eliminating and/or modifying highly undesirable tasks and routines

39 Focus Upon Quality of Life Indicators Choices and control Choices and control Opportunities to participate in preferred activities Opportunities to participate in preferred activities Community inclusion Community inclusion Peer relationships Peer relationships Relationships with family members Relationships with family members Increased independence across settings Increased independence across settings Expressive and receptive communication Expressive and receptive communication Are they happy most of the time? Are they happy most of the time?

40 Important Overarching Considerations Assess Specific Skills Assess Specific Skills Describe Learning Style Describe Learning Style Identify Student Preferences Identify Student Preferences Describe Strengths and Needs Describe Strengths and Needs Solicit Family Input Solicit Family Input

41 Planning an Educational Program Planning an Educational Program What is Functional? What is Functional? If a student does not perform the task, will someone else have to do it? If a student does not perform the task, will someone else have to do it? Is it immediately needed? Is it immediately needed? Is it frequently needed? Is it frequently needed? Is it needed across settings and situations? Is it needed across settings and situations? Is it age-appropriate? Is it age-appropriate? Will it lead to greater independence? Will it lead to greater independence? Will it enhance the student’s quality of life? Will it enhance the student’s quality of life?

42 Planning an Educational Program What are the most important skills to target? What are the most important skills to target? What teaching strategies will be utilized? What teaching strategies will be utilized? What are the family’s needs and preferences? How will the family be involved? What are the family’s needs and preferences? How will the family be involved? What are the least restrictive effective learning environments? What are the least restrictive effective learning environments? How much instructional time will be needed? How much instructional time will be needed?

43 Effective Instructional Strategies Include components of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) strategies Include components of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) strategies Empirically-supported interventions Empirically-supported interventions Reinforcement systems Reinforcement systems Prompting procedures Prompting procedures Various lesson formats (incidental teaching, natural environment teaching, discrete trial, shaping, chaining, whole or partial task presentation) Various lesson formats (incidental teaching, natural environment teaching, discrete trial, shaping, chaining, whole or partial task presentation) Error correction strategies Error correction strategies Incorporate choice conditions and preferences as much as possible Incorporate choice conditions and preferences as much as possible Ongoing progress monitoring Ongoing progress monitoring

44 Positive Behavioral Support Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA) and Positive Behavior Support Plans (PSBP) Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA) and Positive Behavior Support Plans (PSBP) FBAs are implemented to determine the function or functions of undesirable behaviors. FBAs are implemented to determine the function or functions of undesirable behaviors. A PBSP is developed based directly upon the outcomes of the FBA with input from both educational staff and families A PBSP is developed based directly upon the outcomes of the FBA with input from both educational staff and families Among other components, the written PBSP contains a description of antecedent modifications, functionally equivalent alternative responses (and teaching strategies), differential reinforcement systems, and consequences designed to eliminate or minimize reinforcement after undesirable responses Among other components, the written PBSP contains a description of antecedent modifications, functionally equivalent alternative responses (and teaching strategies), differential reinforcement systems, and consequences designed to eliminate or minimize reinforcement after undesirable responses Objective data is used to determine program effectiveness and to guide modifications in the PBSP Objective data is used to determine program effectiveness and to guide modifications in the PBSP

45 Visual Enhancement Strategies Why Use Them? Why Use Them? We all use visual supports everyday We all use visual supports everyday Daytimers and calendars Daytimers and calendars Post-it notes/lists/signs Post-it notes/lists/signs Menus Menus Visual/written instructions Visual/written instructions Placement of materials Placement of materials Tables and graphs Tables and graphs Most individuals with an ASD are visual learners Most individuals with an ASD are visual learners

46 Visual Enhancement Strategies- Visual Schedules Visual Schedules can be used to: Visual Schedules can be used to: provide information on the sequence of activities provide information on the sequence of activities teach new skills and routines teach new skills and routines enhance an individual’s independence enhance an individual’s independence incorporate choice conditions into a routine incorporate choice conditions into a routine teach coping with changes in routines teach coping with changes in routines

47 Individual or Group Schedule- Pictures

48 Individual Schedule- Daytimers

49 Using Schedules to Mediate Choice Conditions Recreation and leisure Recreation and leisure Jobs/chores Jobs/chores Academic tasks Academic tasks Social activities Social activities

50 Using a Schedule to Incorporate Choices

51 Visual Enhancement Strategies- Visual Reward Systems What am I working for? What am I working for? What do I need to do to get reinforced? What do I need to do to get reinforced? When will I get reinforced? When will I get reinforced?

52 Visual Enhancement Strategies- Visual Reward Menus

53

54 Visual Enhancement Strategies- Visual Reward Systems- DRA

55

56 Visual Enhancement Strategies- Visual Reward Systems DRO

57 Visual Enhancement Strategies- Visual Reward Systems DRL

58 Visual Enhancement Strategies- Visual Reward Systems- Contract

59 Teaching Social Skills Using Visual Supports Social Stories Social Stories Comic Book Conversations Comic Book Conversations Videotaped Models Videotaped Models Visual Cues Visual Cues

60 Social Stories

61 Teaching Communication Skills Using Visual Supports Requesting Help Requesting Help Requesting a Break Requesting a Break Indicating Yes or NO Indicating Yes or NO Waiting Waiting Following Simple Directions Following Simple Directions

62 Examples of Visuals for Teaching Communication

63 Visual Supports to Enhance Independence in Task Completion Written instructions Written instructions Picture sequence books Picture sequence books Activity schedules Activity schedules Secondary environmental cues Secondary environmental cues Job/chore boards Job/chore boards Visual timers Visual timers Check my work cards Check my work cards Organize and label materials and make clear boundaries for different areas in the environment Organize and label materials and make clear boundaries for different areas in the environment

64 Visual Sequence Book

65 Labeled Work Bins

66 Community-Based Instruction What is CBI? What is CBI? It’s a process that provides frequent and highly structured learning opportunities outside of an individual’s classroom, immediate work environment, and home.

67 General Objectives of CBI Teach skills that are specific to community settings (e.g., waiting in line at the grocery store, ordering from a menu, and so on) Teach skills that are specific to community settings (e.g., waiting in line at the grocery store, ordering from a menu, and so on) Generalize acquired skills to new environments Generalize acquired skills to new environments Establish or maintain good behavior in new (and usually less structured) settings Establish or maintain good behavior in new (and usually less structured) settings Increase an individual’s interactions with typically developing individuals Increase an individual’s interactions with typically developing individuals

68 Vocational Exploration Ongoing Assessment Ongoing Assessment General strengths and needs General strengths and needs Specific vocational skills Specific vocational skills Related critical skills (communication, social, hygiene and appearance, behavioral) Related critical skills (communication, social, hygiene and appearance, behavioral) Preferences Preferences Situational assessments and time studies Situational assessments and time studies

69 Vocational Exploration Community-Based Vocational Experiences Community-Based Vocational Experiences Training Sites Training Sites Work Enclaves Work Enclaves Individual Work Sites with Support Individual Work Sites with Support Competitive Employment Competitive Employment

70 Comprehensive Staff Training, Support, and Supervision Pre-service and inservice training and workshops Pre-service and inservice training and workshops Use of individual performance checklists Use of individual performance checklists Use of weekly classroom checklists Use of weekly classroom checklists Ongoing supervisory feedback and support Ongoing supervisory feedback and support Regular team meetings Regular team meetings

71 Family Inclusion and Support Partnerships among families and educators are critical at the individual student and program-level Partnerships among families and educators are critical at the individual student and program-level IEP and Futures Planning Meeting IEP and Futures Planning Meeting Program Planning Meetings and PTO Program Planning Meetings and PTO Educational Activities (such as tours of other programs, seminars and workshops, structured observations, home visits) Educational Activities (such as tours of other programs, seminars and workshops, structured observations, home visits) Family Education and Training Program (PA Transition Grant ) Family Education and Training Program (PA Transition Grant )

72 Family Inclusion and Support Facilitation of Linking Families to Appropriate Agencies/Supports Facilitation of Linking Families to Appropriate Agencies/Supports OMH/MR, OVR OMH/MR, OVR Guardianship Issues Guardianship Issues Estate Planning Estate Planning Respite Services Respite Services Devereux CARES Transition Wiki Devereux CARES Transition Wiki

73 Putting it all Together…. Successful Transition Means: Successful Transition Means: Planning for the student’s future in a way that is meaningful to them (i.e.,PCFP) Planning for the student’s future in a way that is meaningful to them (i.e.,PCFP) Aligning the student’s vision for the future with curriculum and school/ community based opportunities to enhance skills Aligning the student’s vision for the future with curriculum and school/ community based opportunities to enhance skills Focusing on skills for life: provide students with paid and actual work experiences while still in school Focusing on skills for life: provide students with paid and actual work experiences while still in school

74 Putting it all Together…. Establishing interagency collaboration with adult service providers, employers, and post-secondary institutions early on Establishing interagency collaboration with adult service providers, employers, and post-secondary institutions early on Fostering family involvement in the transition planning process Fostering family involvement in the transition planning process Continually cultivate student involvement and self-determination Continually cultivate student involvement and self-determination


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