Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Understanding and Living with ASD Prepared by the 2003-2004 Autism Team.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Understanding and Living with ASD Prepared by the 2003-2004 Autism Team."— Presentation transcript:

1 Understanding and Living with ASD Prepared by the 2003-2004 Autism Team

2 Parenting children with autism spectrum disorders requires flexibility, creativity, and a willingness to change.

3 Autism is referred to as a spectrum disorder to signify similarities among a group of individuals who share a common diagnosis, but who differ in how core characteristics are manifested, and in the number and severity of specific characteristics.

4 Spectrum Disorder Because of broad variability in:Because of broad variability in: –Measured Cognitive Ability –Social-Emotional Development –Communication Ability –Motor Skills: Both Fine and Gross –Sensory Processing

5 Causes of Autism Spectrum Disorders No Specific Known CauseNo Specific Known Cause Neurobiological DisorderNeurobiological Disorder Genetic ComponentGenetic Component Perhaps Multiple Causal FactorsPerhaps Multiple Causal Factors Subtypes Based on Predicted Time of OnsetSubtypes Based on Predicted Time of Onset

6 Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) AutismAutism Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise SpecifiedPervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified Asperger’s SyndromeAsperger’s Syndrome Rett’s SyndromeRett’s Syndrome Childhood Disintegrative DisorderChildhood Disintegrative Disorder

7 Autism Characterized by difficulties in communication, social interaction, and imaginative play, and the presence of restricted interests and activities prior to the age of 3.Characterized by difficulties in communication, social interaction, and imaginative play, and the presence of restricted interests and activities prior to the age of 3.

8 PDD NOS Atypical autism presentations that do meet the criteria for Autistic Disorder because of late age at onset, atypical symptomatology or subthreshold symptomatology.Atypical autism presentations that do meet the criteria for Autistic Disorder because of late age at onset, atypical symptomatology or subthreshold symptomatology.

9 Asperger’s Syndrome The disturbance causes clinically significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.The disturbance causes clinically significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. There is no clinically significant general delay in language (e.g., single words by age 2 years, communicative phrases used by 3 years).There is no clinically significant general delay in language (e.g., single words by age 2 years, communicative phrases used by 3 years).

10 Rett’s Disorder A genetic disorder, that only occurs in girls.A genetic disorder, that only occurs in girls. Normal development for the first 5 months. Head growth ceases between 5-48 months with loss of previously acquired skills.Normal development for the first 5 months. Head growth ceases between 5-48 months with loss of previously acquired skills. Results in difficulties in expressive and receptive communication, poorly coordinated gait and trunk movements, and cognitive disabilities.Results in difficulties in expressive and receptive communication, poorly coordinated gait and trunk movements, and cognitive disabilities.

11 Childhood Disintegrative Disorder Extremely rare.Extremely rare. Develop normally for at least the first 2 years and then display significant regression in communication, motor, and social interaction skills.Develop normally for at least the first 2 years and then display significant regression in communication, motor, and social interaction skills.

12 Characteristics of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Social DifficultiesSocial Difficulties Expressive and Receptive Communication DifficultiesExpressive and Receptive Communication Difficulties Restricted RepertoireRestricted Repertoire Additional ConsiderationsAdditional Considerations Sensory Processing DifficultiesSensory Processing Difficulties Theory of MindTheory of Mind Executive FunctioningExecutive Functioning

13 Areas of Difficulty SocialSocial PragmaticsPragmatics Obsessive InterestsObsessive Interests Black/White ThinkingBlack/White Thinking RigidityRigidity SensorySensory Attention Motivation Motor Executive Functioning Emotional Regulation Hidden Social Rules

14 Behavioral Characteristics Obsessions/RitualsObsessions/Rituals Compulsive MannerismsCompulsive Mannerisms Self-Stimulatory BehaviorSelf-Stimulatory Behavior RefusalRefusal WithdrawalWithdrawal Self-Injury/AbuseSelf-Injury/Abuse AggressionAggression

15 Sensory Processing Difficulties Each of us have various sensory systems which process information and assist us in making sense of the world.Each of us have various sensory systems which process information and assist us in making sense of the world. People with autism spectrum disorders have difficulty processing and using sensory input in a meaningful and relevant way.People with autism spectrum disorders have difficulty processing and using sensory input in a meaningful and relevant way. Some individuals are over sensitive and others are under sensitive to sensory input.Some individuals are over sensitive and others are under sensitive to sensory input.

16 Sensory Processing Difficulties VisualVisual AuditoryAuditory TactileTactile VestibularVestibular OlfactoryOlfactory Gustatory (taste)Gustatory (taste) ProprioceptiveProprioceptive

17 As a result of these sensory difficulties, individuals may experience sensory overloads and or meltdowns.

18 Common Stressors at School Unstructured timesUnstructured times –Bus –Before/after school –Transitions –Lunch –Physical education SensorySensory –Crowds –Space –Noise Academic –Understanding what to do & how to do it –Breaking down tasks –Writing –Organization Social Novel Events Changes

19 Common Stressors at Home SensorySensory –food –haircuts –dentists –medical –clothing –showers Completing routines –getting ready for school –doing homework –chores Family activities –Adjusting “their” agenda/interests with family plans

20 Lower Expectations Temporarily, be flexibleTemporarily, be flexible This is not the time to teach new skills!This is not the time to teach new skills! Adreon & Gitlitz, 1998Adreon & Gitlitz, 1998

21 Increase Environmental Supports Make the environment as predictable as possibleMake the environment as predictable as possible Provide consistencyProvide consistency –Prepare the individual for any unavoidable changes –If a change is unavoidable, further reduce expectations/demands following the change Adreon & Gitlitz, 1998Adreon & Gitlitz, 1998

22 Remove/Reduce Stressors Remove/decrease disliked activitiesRemove/decrease disliked activities Remove/decrease difficult activitiesRemove/decrease difficult activities –Simplify work –Reduce writing assignments –Simplify all tasks involving organizing, planning & sequencing –Eliminate discussions on feelings Adreon & Gitlitz, 1998Adreon & Gitlitz, 1998

23 1. Operate on “Their Time” Twice as Much Time, Half as Much Done = A Successful DayTwice as Much Time, Half as Much Done = A Successful Day Avoid Rushing!Avoid Rushing!

24 2. Balance the Agenda Assess the demands for the student when planning the schedule.Assess the demands for the student when planning the schedule. Incorporate a balance of LOW-STRESS, HIGH- PLEASURE activities for the individual.Incorporate a balance of LOW-STRESS, HIGH- PLEASURE activities for the individual. Include “stress-free” time in the schedule.Include “stress-free” time in the schedule.

25 Balance the Agenda (con’t) Conserve energyConserve energy Assess the upcoming demands on the student for the day.Assess the upcoming demands on the student for the day. Remove any stressful tasks/activities that are not essential.Remove any stressful tasks/activities that are not essential. Do not remove tasks that the student enjoys.Do not remove tasks that the student enjoys.

26 First/Then Use this to assist student in managing time and anxiety

27 3. Manage the Environment Provide consistency in the environment.Provide consistency in the environment. Avoid sudden changes.Avoid sudden changes. Adapt the environment when there are changes.Adapt the environment when there are changes.

28 4. Set the Tone Speak in a calm, relaxed voice.Speak in a calm, relaxed voice. Give facts in an unemotional tone of voice.Give facts in an unemotional tone of voice. Model positive acceptance.Model positive acceptance.

29 5. Share the Agenda Live Out LoudLive Out Loud Let the student know the sequence of upcoming events.Let the student know the sequence of upcoming events. Provide information about time periods.Provide information about time periods.

30 Prepare a schedule for daily routines. A calendar may be helpful!

31 Arrange schedules from top to bottom or left to right - allow way to check off or remove task when done

32 6. Simplify Language Keep your language concise and simple.Keep your language concise and simple. Tell the student specifically what to do.Tell the student specifically what to do. Break down tasks into components.Break down tasks into components.

33 Giving the child checklists is particularly helpful when they has to complete short series of related activities or when they need to organize a group of materials. For a chore at home they might need a checklist for completing the steps necessary to clean their room.

34 7. Manage Change of Plans Handle changes PROACTIVELY!Handle changes PROACTIVELY! Incorporate “back-up” plans for which you can control the variables.Incorporate “back-up” plans for which you can control the variables. Field Trip to Science Museum

35 8. Provide Reassurance The student with AS NEVER KNOWS WHAT IS COMING NEXT!The student with AS NEVER KNOWS WHAT IS COMING NEXT! Reassure the child about the sequence of events.Reassure the child about the sequence of events. Utilize “check-ins”Utilize “check-ins”

36 9. Be Generous with Praise Find opportunities to build-up/compliment the student.Find opportunities to build-up/compliment the student.

37 10. Increase Opportunities to Engage in Activities of High Interests and/or Strengths Access to preferred peers/adults Allow individual work Schedule for activities individual enjoys –computer –reading –drawing Adreon & Gitlitz, 1998

38 11. Listen to the WORDS Words convey the meaning for children with AS.Words convey the meaning for children with AS. Listen to what the child is saying.Listen to what the child is saying. Interpret what the child is saying literally!Interpret what the child is saying literally! “Probe” for further information“Probe” for further information Encourage clarificationEncourage clarification

39 Students might also be able to communicate more effectively if given some structure to help talk about their day.

40 12. Recognize “Teachable Moments” Orchestrate positive exchangesOrchestrate positive exchanges Provide direct feedbackProvide direct feedback Capitalize on your child’s strengths/interests!Capitalize on your child’s strengths/interests!

41 13. Be Realistic! You’re only human!You’re only human! Do the best you can!Do the best you can! Be patient with yourself!Be patient with yourself! Remember, the child is doing the best he/she can!Remember, the child is doing the best he/she can!

42 14. Increase Social Supports Utilize Your CommunityUtilize Your Community Increase ReassuranceIncrease Reassurance Increase Clarity of FeedbackIncrease Clarity of Feedback Increase Access to People They LikeIncrease Access to People They Like Protect from Teasing/BullyingProtect from Teasing/Bullying Schedule “Support Talk”Schedule “Support Talk” D. Adreon, 1998D. Adreon, 1998

43 15. Set up System for Monitoring Often difficult to recognize signs of stress & anxietyOften difficult to recognize signs of stress & anxiety Need to carefully monitor how the student is doing in various social situations (through observation/interviews)Need to carefully monitor how the student is doing in various social situations (through observation/interviews) Carefully monitor whether schoolwork is being completed and turned itCarefully monitor whether schoolwork is being completed and turned it DON’T LET PROBLEMS BUILD UP!DON’T LET PROBLEMS BUILD UP!

44 Stabilization Strategies The goal is to help the individual survive each day successfully –Lower expectations –Do not teach new tasks at this time –Increase supports –Reduce stressors

45 Five Steps to Remember to Help Stabilize when Problems Occur 1)Gather information from a number of sources to assess the student’s emotional state. 2)Determine the stressors that exist in the environment. 3)Decrease the stressors by modifying the requirement for disliked and/or difficult tasks and temporarily eliminating any emphasis on teaching new skills (con’t)

46 Stabilization (con’t) 4.Make the environment more predictable and increase the use of home base. 5.Balance stressors and learning.

47 Be Patient with Yourself!

48 Thank you for coming ! For more information or to contact us please visit: http://www.shcsc.k12.in.us/SpecEd/sped.htm


Download ppt "Understanding and Living with ASD Prepared by the 2003-2004 Autism Team."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google