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Nutrition: Nutrients, This or That, Q & A Fall 2014.

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Presentation on theme: "Nutrition: Nutrients, This or That, Q & A Fall 2014."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nutrition: Nutrients, This or That, Q & A Fall 2014

2 Game: Eat This, Not That

3 Vitamins Schmitamins Fat-soluble Water-soluble The fat cat is in the attic (OR) (The) FAT (cat is in the) ADEK Fat-soluble vitamins are Vitamins A, D, E, K

4 Vitamins Schmitamins – Your Turn Water-Soluble Vitamins (B Vitamins) Vitamin B1 = Thiamine Vitamin B2 = Riboflavin Vitamin B3 = Niacin Vitamin B5 = Pantothenic Acid Vitamin B6 = Pyridoxine Vitamin B7 = Biotin Vitamin B9 = Folic Acid Vitamin B12 = Cobalamin

5 Vitamins Schmitamins: Results

6 Student Question: Which Squash Varieties are GMO? Zucchini Yellow (summer) squash Modified for virus resistance According to nongmoproject.org, varieties being monitored: – Acorn squash (winter) – Delicata squash (winter) – Patty pan (summer)

7 Vegetarian? Vegan? Pescetarian? Vegetarians do not eat meat, do consume eggs & milk Vegans do not consume any animal-based products Pescetarians eat fish, milk, eggs, no meat or chicken Animal concerns (upworthy.com) Animal concerns

8 Student Question: What are Health Differences Between Processed & Unprocessed Foods? A “processed” food has been altered from its raw state: – Cooked – Dried – Canned – Pasteurized – Ingredients added Texture Taste Preservation

9 Student Question: What are Health Differences Between Processed & Unprocessed Foods? Processed Unprocessed Think about foods lying on a continuum – Completely processed on one end – Completely unprocessed on another

10 Student Question: What are Health Differences Between Processed & Unprocessed Foods? Completely unprocessed – In natural form, without any additives Banana from a tree Egg directly from a chicken

11 Student Question: What are Health Differences Between Processed & Unprocessed Foods? Highly processed – Many ingredients added – Pre-cooked or otherwise prepared

12 Student Question: What are Health Differences Between Processed & Unprocessed Foods? As a general rule, minimally processed foods will be healthier – Fewer synthetic additives – Less sugar, fat, salt “Minimal:” think two or fewer additives – Cut carrots – Rolled oats – “Natural” peanut or almond butter

13 Student Question: What are Health Differences Between Processed & Unprocessed Foods? Moderately processed foods – Raw foods have been changed Whole grains to bread, cereal, pasta, crackers Sweet potatoes peeled, seasoned, shaped into fries – Can be part of a generally healthy diet, but try to minimize ingredient number

14 Student Question: What are Health Differences Between Processed & Unprocessed Foods? Heavily processed (junk food) – Cookies, snack cakes – Prepared dinners, side dishes (frozen, boxed) – “Energy” bars – Candy – Sugary cereals Center for Science in the Public Interest: Food Additives

15 Student Question: What are Health Differences Between Processed & Unprocessed Foods? Health Implications – Fat and sugar – Salt – Gluten sensitivity – Food coloring sensitivity/allergy – Pesticides/herbicides – Dependence

16 Student Question: What’s the Best Type of Oil to Cook With but Also Be Healthy? Look at label for smoke point, refrigeration information Information from Cleveland Clinic: –High smoke point (searing, frying, browning) Avocado Almond –Medium-high smoke point (stir frying, baking) Grapeseed Organic canola –Medium-low smoke point (sauteing) Olive oil Walnut oil –Extra virgin olive oil only at low temperatures

17 Student Question: What is the best thing to eat before a workout? Be sure you are well hydrated – Water is best – High-sugar drinks, fruit juices may cause cramping You may not need to eat if you have a healthy diet (carb from muscles and liver) If not eating leads to dizziness, eat ~100 calories 30 minutes prior, high-carb 1-2 hours prior to exercise – Trail mix – Yogurt smoothie – Veggies & hummus – Almond butter, apple butter & rice cake – Egg, chopped veggies

18 Student Question: What About Ergogenic Aids? Creatine – Body converts to phosphocreatine for energy – Seems to improve high- intensity, short-term performance – Can increase body weight – How much? (calculator) How much? – No long-term problems yet identified – Present in meats; supplement is higher dose

19 Student Question: What About Ergogenic Aids? Glutamine – Amino acid – Used to boost immune health and reduce post- workout muscle breakdown – May be helpful in overtraining – Present in animal-based foods, smaller doses NYU Langone Medical Center: Other Aids NYU Langone Medical Center: Other Aids

20 Student Question: What would you say are the most valuable (if any) supplements to take? Depends on a person ’ s individual circumstances (diet, activity, general health) First & foremost: improve diet Fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) = careful with megadoses Multivitamin Lactobacillus for gut health = immune health

21 Student Question: Are there any favorite dieting “ tricks? ” When tempted to eat something off the “ diet, ” busy yourself with something - a chore, a walk, a drive, etc. Recording food and beverage consumption (tedious but improves awareness) Regular physical activity, include high-intensity exercise Include lean protein and/or fiber with most meals De-centralize meat on the plate Chew food thoroughly

22 Student Question: Are there any favorite dieting “ tricks? ” Avoid misery Drink water regularly Assess alcohol consumption Use smaller plates Make dietary change a lasting lifestyle change

23 Student Question: What’s the Best Brain Food? Water Salmon, other oily fish (memory, focus) Blueberries (delaying potential short-term memory loss) Broccoli, spinach (cognitive function) Nuts (blood flow) Coffee (stimulation) Avocado (blood flow) Sources: BBC GoodFood, Huffington Post 9/18/12 Huffington Post 9/18/12

24 Student Question: Can You Over- Consume Vitamins? Assumption that everyone absorbs nutrients similarly General concern over fat- soluble vitamins: A, D, E, & K Vitamin high doses can be problematic during pregnancy (birth defect risk) Regular over-consumption of Vitamin D may increase risk for kidney stones Vitamin E: cardiovascular, kidney, skin, Alzheimer’s patients = careful Source: Mayo ClinicMayo Clinic

25 Student Question: What makes cheese and milk bad for our health? Cheese and milk are rich sources of complete protein Milk is a good source of calcium and Vitamin D Cheese is a good source of calcium

26 Student Question: What makes cheese and milk bad for our health? Disadvantage: some individuals have lactose intolerance, which results in gastric distress after milk & cheese consumption Disadvantage: whole milk, many cheeses are high in saturated fat, so moderate to heavy consumption can increase risk for weight gain and higher blood fats

27 Student Question: What makes cheese and milk bad for our health? Disadvantage: some individuals are intolerant to gluten; since some cheeses are made by bacterial cultures grown on rye, there could be gluten issues; additives to cheese may also trigger problems Disadvantage: many cows are given recombinant bovine growth hormone (rBGH) to increase milk output; some research points to an increase in animal lameness and infertility among those animals receiving rBGH

28 Student Question: Isn’t it better to consume a balanced diet with both meat and veggies (more veggies than meat) than completely cutting meat or completely cutting veggies out of the diet? A discussion question!

29 Student Question: What are most valued "Superfoods" to include in one's diet? Brightly-colored berries Raspberries, blueberries, blackberries, strawberries Vitamin C, fiber, water, antioxidants, low calorie Freeze for eating in winter Beans Black beans, lentils, edamame Fiber, protein, omega-3 fatty acids Mix with salads

30 Student Question: What are most valued "Superfoods" to include in one's diet? Nuts – Fiber; plant sterols to reduce cholesterol; omega-3 fatty acids for heart health – Mixed in salads makes texture interesting

31 Student Question: What are most valued "Superfoods" to include in one's diet? Salmon and flounder – Omega-3-rich foods for heart health; flounder is generally low in mercury and may help prevent cancer – Salmon: sugar, lemon rind, salt, pepper--dry rub, let chill for 1-2 hours, roast Brightly-colored vegetables (leafy greens, peppers, tomatoes, etc) – Vitamins, fiber, antioxidants – Bok choy preparation videovideo

32 Student Question: What food chemicals should we look out for? Challenge: People have varying sensitivities Challenge: Often, the issue is accumulation rather than one dose at a given time Challenge: Combinations of chemicals Challenge: chemicals used for a variety of attractive purposes Challenge: some chemicals are naturally occurring (estrogenic foods)

33 Student Question: What food chemicals should we look out for? Challenge: Chemicals used for a variety of purposes attractive to consumer – Preservatives – Sweeteners, flavorings – Fat replacers – Emulsifiers, thickeners – Color additives – List at FDAFDA

34 Student Question: What food chemicals should we look out for? Guideline: the more processed the food, the more chemicals present Guideline: shopping around the perimeter of a grocery store usually the healthiest approach

35 Student Question: What food chemicals should we look out for? Per Center for Science in the Public InterestCenter for Science in the Public Interest Sodium nitrite – Found in salty, processed meat products – World Cancer Research Fund, May 2011: processed meats too dangerous for human consumption (totalhealthbreakthroughs.com)processed meats too dangerous for human consumption Saccharin, aspartame, Acesulfame-KAcesulfame-K Beverages, snack foods, dairy products, gums, soups, snacks Increased cancer risk

36 Student Question: What food chemicals should we look out for? Caffeine Addictive Stimulant properties Olestra Fat substitute in snack chips Digestive problems Reduce absorption of some fat-soluble vitamins Food dyes Blue 2, Green 3, Orange B, Red 3, Yellow 5, et. Al. Blue 2 Candy, baked goods, beverages

37 Student Question: What food chemicals should we look out for? High fructose corn syrup – Beverages, cereals, candy, cookies, condiments – Increases sweetness of food products – Consumers not consuming less sugar – Connection to corn allergies? – Metabolic problems? (insulin resistance) Bisphenol A in cans, plastics (cancer, reproductive health, CV disease)

38 Student Question: What benefits does fasting have? Fasting: willfully restricting food and/or beverage consumption Various reasons throughout history: spiritualism, religion, therapy, famine Practice empties the colon

39 Student Question: What benefits does fasting have? Benefits: – Sense of control, other psychological benefits – Increased endorphins in the brain – If food allergies are present, physical relief

40 Student Question: What benefits does fasting have? Keep in mind: – Liver, kidneys, lungs “ detoxify ” blood 24/7 – Brain needs glucose No glucose = fat & protein sources removed from body – Fasts meant generally for short term Metabolism may shift to adapt to starvation mode – Registered dietician or naturopathic physician may help reduce risks

41 Student Question: Are there any favorite dieting “tricks?” When tempted to eat something off the “ diet, ” busy yourself with something - a chore, a walk, a drive, etc. Recording food and beverage consumption (annoying, can improve awareness) Regular physical activity, include high-intensity exercise Include lean protein and/or fiber with most meals De-centralize meat on the plate Chew food thoroughly

42 Student Question: Are there any favorite dieting “tricks?” Avoid misery Drink water regularly Assess alcohol consumption Use smaller plates Make dietary change a lasting lifestyle change


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