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Presentation on theme: "12-1 Chapter 12 THE DECISION MAKING AND CONTROLLING."— Presentation transcript:


2 12-2 INTERNATIONAL DECISION MAKING British are highly decentralized French tend to be centralized Germans are fairly centralized Swedes are also centralized Japanese decide by consensus

3 12-3 FACTORS AFFECTING DECISION MAKINGCENTRALIZATION  Large company  Homogeneous product lines  Large capital investment  High degree of technologyDECENTRALIZATION  Small company  Heterogeneous product lines  Small capital investment  Moderate to low degree of technology

4 12-4 TQM DECISIONS Manufacturing Rewards and Recognition U.S. has greatly improved the quality of their cars Japanese use continuous improvement of quality U.S. workers value individual recognition and praise Japanese prefer group rewards

5 12-5 QUALITY OLD MYTH  Quality is the responsibility of the people in the Quality Control Department  Training is costly  It is human to make mistakes  Quality improvements are made in small, continuous steps  Quality improvement takes time  Haste makes waste  Suppliers need to be price competitive

6 12-6 QUALITY NEW TRUTH  Quality is everyone’s job  Training does not cost, it saves  Total customer satisfaction is a standard that should be vigorously pursued  In improving quality, both small and large improvements are necessary  Quality does not take time, it saves time  Thoughtful speed improves quality  Suppliers need to be quality competitive

7 12-7 TYPES OF CONTROL Direct/Indirect Internal/External

8 12-8 INTERNAL  dominating attitude bordering on aggressiveness towards the environment  focused on self, function, one’s own group, and one’s own organization  discomfort when the environment seems “out of control” or changeable  Win some, lose some EXTERNAL  flexible attitude, willing to compromise and keep the peace  focused on others such as customers, partners, and colleagues  Comfort with waves, shifts, and cycles, which are regarded as “natural”  Win together, lose apart

9 12-9 Direct Controls Involves face-to-face or personal meetings to monitor operations Ex.) Monthly management meetings Ex.) Visits by top executives to overseas affiliates or subsidiaries Indirect Controls Use reports and other written forms of communication to control operations Ex.) Monthly operating reports that are sent to the home office Ex.) Balance sheet, income statement, cash budgets

10 12-10 CONTROL IN U.S. MNCs Control in U.S. MNCs focuses more on the quantifiable, objective aspects of a foreign subsidiary Requires more precise plans and budgets Requires large central staffs and centralized information processingcapability

11 12-11 CONTROL IN EUROPEAN MNCs Requires more decentralization of operating decisions Requires more capable expatriate managers who are willing to spend long periods of time abroad Requires a high level of company-wide understanding and agreement regarding appropriate behavior

12 12-12 CONTROL TECHNIQUES Financial Performance Quality Performance Personal Performance

13 12-13 FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE  Based on profit and return on investment  Profit = Total Revenues - Total Exp Using Financial Performance alone when controlling a subsidiary for effective performance can be misleading

14 12-14 QUALITY PERFORMANCE Taguchi Method: Brainstorming and a few experiments seek to quickly find the problem. Brainstorming session Production problem Employ Taguchi Experimental production runs Confirm results

15 12-15 PERSONAL PERFORMANCE 1. Success attracts the best people--and the best people sustain success 2.The top companies know precisely what they are looking for 3.These firms see career development as an investment, not a chore 4.Whenever possible, these companies promote from within 5.Performance is rewarded

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