Presentation on theme: "Bureau of Labor Statistics UNECE Statistical Commission Gender Statistics meeting September 11-13, 2006 American Time Use Survey: Overview & Gender Analyses."— Presentation transcript:
Bureau of Labor Statistics UNECE Statistical Commission Gender Statistics meeting September 11-13, 2006 American Time Use Survey: Overview & Gender Analyses Diane Herz Bureau of Labor Statistics United States Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics ATUS Background New survey on time use in U.S. First federally administered, continuous U.S. time use survey Produces nationally representative data by demographic characteristics Why BLS conducts the survey –non-market activities –quality of life beyond income and earnings –trends in work, including changes in location and timing –additional source of work hours –international comparisons Gender analyses –Not specifically designed for gender analyses, but rich in data –Possible analyses reflect survey design
Bureau of Labor Statistics ATUS Sample People in households that recently completed the national labor force survey, the Current Population Survey (CPS) Nationally representative data by demographic characteristics Stratified by household characteristics Survey of individuals 15 and over Each person is pre-selected for a specific day Half are interviewed about a weekday, and half about a weekend day Households (stratified) Individuals (randomly selected) Day of week (assigned)
Bureau of Labor Statistics ATUS Interview Explanatory letter, brochure sent in advance Computer-assisted telephone interviews –(2,000/mo in 2003; 1,100/mo in ) One-time only interview No proxy responses Contents: –Core: 24-hour time diary about yesterday –Updates of demographic and labor force information –Module information
Bureau of Labor Statistics Survey Structure IntroductionCore Time diary Labor Force Updates Household Roster & Employment Status Paid Work Child Care Volunteering Missed Days Summary Questions Modules
Bureau of Labor Statistics Household Roster How is [NAME] related to you?
Bureau of Labor Statistics ATUS Diary
Bureau of Labor Statistics ATUS diary data ActivityStartStopLocation Worked8:10 am11:45 pmWorkplace Ate lunch11:45 am1:20 pmWorkplace Worked1:20 pm4:45 pmWorkplace Drove to grocery store4:45 pm5:52 pmCar (Driver) Shopped for groceries5:52 pm6:15 pmGrocery store How many hours per day do people work? On which days? At what times? Where? How do workers spend their non-work time?
Bureau of Labor Statistics Post-diary Summary Questions To clearly and consistently identify work activities ( which activities were done as part of job) To measure childcare as a secondary activity (during which activities were children <13 “in your care”) To enable coders to distinguish volunteering for organizations from care activities for individuals (which activities were done for or through an organization) To identify types of activities the survey may be missing because of the 24-hour design
Bureau of Labor Statistics ATUS Coding Each activities is assigned a 6-digit code Each code represents 3 levels of detail (17, 105, 438) Design enables analytical flexibility Interviewers also perform activity coding 100% verification Sample from ATUS lexicon
Bureau of Labor Statistics ATUS Data Files Annual files are posted each summer with release of data Documentation provided Files are organized to avoid duplication. Files include: –Activity file –Individual file: demographics and CPS updates –CPS data for matching (not updated in ATUS) –Who was with you file –Survey methods file
Bureau of Labor Statistics ATUS Analyses Population estimates (e.g. time use of mothers) Participants (e.g. time spent working among those who worked on the diary day) Time of Day (e.g when women employed part time work) Where activities were done (e.g. work at home) Who was in the room with or accompanied respondent during activities (e.g. time with children) Start and stop times of activities International comparisons Time series
Bureau of Labor Statistics Sample of existing gender analyses Intra-household allocation of time (husbands v. wives) Trends in housework time by gender & task Child care time—active care versus secondary Input to national accounts (output, income, productivity) Adult care giving time Contribution of volunteer labor to nonprofit output Injury and death valuation Tradeoff analyses (e.g. work & leisure by presence of children) Activities of non-working men and women
Bureau of Labor Statistics ATUS Modules Questions on special topics, up to 5 minutes Currently food & eating module by USDA –January December 2007 –9 questions on secondary eating, school meal programs, height and weight, and income Other possibilities –Eldercare –Purchased child care services –Well-being –Tool use and appliance ownership
Bureau of Labor Statistics A few descriptive statistics From ATUS
Bureau of Labor Statistics Analyzing ATUS: The “average day” does not look like anyone’s typical day Sleeping 8.6 hours Household activities 1.8 hours Working 3.3 hours Leisure and sports 5.2 hours Eating and drinking 1.2 hours Caring for others 0.8 hour Other 3.1 hours Total= 24.0 hours Universe: All persons 15 and over; all days of the week combined. Annual averages, 2004
Bureau of Labor Statistics Household activities 1.1 hour Leisure and sports 2.6 hours Eating and drinking 1.0 hour Caring for others 1.3 hours Other 2.5 hours Total= 24.0 hours Universe: Employed persons ages 25 to 54 who worked on the diary day & lived in households with children under 18; weekdays only Working 8.0 hours Sleeping 7.5 hours Time use on an average work day for employed persons ages 25 to 54 with children Annual averages, 2004
Bureau of Labor Statistics Average sleep times per day, by age and sex Annual averages, 2003 Universe: All persons 15 and over; all days of the week combined.
Bureau of Labor Statistics Adult women with children under age 6 spent the most time providing primary childcare Hours providing primary childcare per day Universe: Adults 18 and over living in households with children under 18; all days of the week combined. Annual averages, 2004
Bureau of Labor Statistics Both men and women spent many more hours providing secondary care than primary care Universe: Adults 18 and over living in households with children under 13; all days of the week combined. Hours providing secondary childcare per day Annual averages, 2004
Bureau of Labor Statistics Women spend more time per day than men doing housework, care activities, and purchasing activities Universe: All persons 15 and over; all days of the week combined. Annual averages, 2004 Average hours per day
Bureau of Labor Statistics Two-thirds of women report preparing food and half report doing housework on an average day Proportion doing activity on average day Universe: All persons 15 and over; all days of the week combined. Annual averages, 2004
Bureau of Labor Statistics Weekday activity profiles of married full-time workers ages 25 to 54 who lived in households with children under 18 and worked on the diary day: Men and Women Annual averages, 2004 Average hours per day
Bureau of Labor Statistics Weekday activity profiles of married women ages 25 to 54 in households with children under 6: Employed full time vs. Not employed Annual averages, 2004 Average hours per day
Bureau of Labor Statistics About half of leisure time is spent watching TV Watching TV (2.6 hours) Socializing and Communicating (37 minutes) Relaxing and thinking (17 minutes) Sports, exercise, recreation (20 minutes) Reading (23 minutes) Total= 5.1 hours Playing games; using computer for leisure (20 minutes) Other leisure activities (22 minutes) Universe: All persons 15 and over; all days of the week combined. Annual averages, 2004
Bureau of Labor Statistics Percent of employed persons doing selected activities on workdays by hour of the day Universe: Employed persons 15 and over who worked on the diary day Annual averages, 2004
Bureau of Labor Statistics Percent of “available time” that older Americans spent with others, 2003 and 2004 Note: For the social contact data, “available time” excludes time spent working, sleeping, grooming, and doing personal activities. MenWomen Alone With Spouse With Family With Children With Friends
Bureau of Labor Statistics ATUS Contact Information Program Manager: Tina Shelley Website: –Data files & Documentation –Publications –Links to harmonized data set for US, MTUS database Program voice line: (01)
Bureau of Labor Statistics Other slides that may be of interest
Bureau of Labor Statistics Research using ATUS data on work: What Do Male Nonworkers Do? Evidence from the American Time Use Survey* (Frazis & Stewart) Shift Work and Participation in Social, Recreational, or Exercise Activities* (Polivka) What Can Time-Use Data Tell Us About Hours of Work? (Frazis & Stewart) Dec 2004 Monthly Labor Review The Time and Timing Costs of Market Work, and their Implications for Retirement (Hamermesh) * Available at:
Bureau of Labor Statistics Research on nonmarket activities using ATUS data: The Chore Wars: Household Bargaining and Leisure Time* (Friedberg & Webb) Accounting for Nonmarket Production: A Prototype Satellite Account Using the American Time Use Survey* (Landefeld, Fraumeni, & Vojtech) Time to Eat: Household Production Under Increasing Income Inequality* (Hamermesh) How Does Household Production Affect Earnings Inequality? Evidence from the ATUS (Frazis & Stewart) BLS working paper #393 *Available at:
Bureau of Labor Statistics Research using ATUS data on care activities includes: The Effects of Schooling on Parental Time in Education Production* (DeSimone) Fathers’ Time Investments in Children: Do Sons Get More?* (Mammen) Maternal Employment and Family Caregiving: Rethinking Time With Children in the ATUS* (Bianchi) The Gender Gap in Caregiving to Adults* (Mathiowetz & Oliker) *Available at:
Bureau of Labor Statistics Other research Non-BLS: Nonresponse in the American Time Use Survey: Who is Missing From the Data and How Much Does it Matter?* (Abraham, Maitland, & Bianchi) Measurement of Travel Behavior in a Trip-based Survey Versus a Time Use Survey* (Bose & Sharp) Time Use for Sleeping in Relation to Waking Activities* (Dinges) BLS: How Does Employment Affect the Timing of Time with Children? (Allard, Bianchi, & Stewart) What Do Older Americans Do? (Krantz-Kent & Stewart) Time Use as a Way of Examining Contexts of Adolescent Development in the United States (Vernon) *Available at:
Bureau of Labor Statistics Research using ATUS data on leisure activities includes: Here Comes the Rain Again: Weather and the Intertemporal Substitution of Leisure* (Connolly) Measuring Trends in Leisure: The Allocation of Time Over Five Decades (Aguiar & Hurst) *Available at:
Bureau of Labor Statistics Summary questions: Work Some activities were work but weren’t identified as such in the diary: Others were income-generating activities other than for one’s job
Bureau of Labor Statistics Summary questions: Secondary child care Calculate duration of time respondent had child(ren) under 13 in his or her care while doing other things. Consistency rules: Respondent cannot be sleeping and providing care. Respondent cannot be providing primary and secondary care at the same time (no double-counting). Care must be done in the window between when first child under 13 got up and last child under 13 went to bed.
Bureau of Labor Statistics Summary questions: Volunteering Added to enable coders to distinguish volunteering for organizations from care activities for individuals Used CPS definition of volunteering
Bureau of Labor Statistics Summary questions: Missed Days Concern: 24-hour protocol means ATUS misses activities done on trips of 2 or more nights. Knowing how many trips and what type provides a general idea what we are missing.
Bureau of Labor Statistics ATUS Basics: Response rates