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Argument Writing An Introduction. What is an Argument Essay? In argument writing, a writer takes a position FOR or AGAINST an issue and writes to convince.

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Presentation on theme: "Argument Writing An Introduction. What is an Argument Essay? In argument writing, a writer takes a position FOR or AGAINST an issue and writes to convince."— Presentation transcript:

1 Argument Writing An Introduction

2 What is an Argument Essay? In argument writing, a writer takes a position FOR or AGAINST an issue and writes to convince the reader to believe or do something Argument writing utilizes LOGIC and REASON to show that one idea is more legitimate than another idea. It attempts to persuade a reader to adopt a certain point of view or to take a particular action. The argument must always use sound reasoning and solid evidence by stating FACTS, giving LOGICAL REASONS, using EXAMPLES, and QUOTING EXPERTS.

3 When planning an arugument essay, follow these steps: 1. Choose your position. Which side of the issue or problem are you going to write about, and what solution will you offer? Know the PURPOSE of your essay. 2. Analyze your AUDIENCE. Decide if your audience agrees with you, is neutral, or disagrees with your position. 3. RESEARCH your topic. A persuasive essay must provide specific and convincing EVIDENCE. Often it is necessary to go beyond your own knowledge and experience. You might need to go to the library or interview people who are experts on your topic. 4. STRUCTURE your essay. Figure out what evidence you will include and in what order you will present the evidence. Remember to consider your purpose, your audience, and your topic.

4 The following criteria are essential to produce an effective argument: Be well informed about your topic. To add to your knowledge of a topic, read thoroughly about it, using legitimate sources. Take notes. Test your thesis. Your thesis, i.e., argument, must have two sides. It must be debatable. If you can write down a thesis statement directly opposing your own, you will ensure that your own argument is debatable. Disprove the opposing argument. Understand the opposite viewpoint of your position and then counter it by providing contrasting evidence or by finding mistakes and inconsistencies in the logic of the opposing argument. Support your position with evidence. Remember that your evidence must appeal to reason.

5 The Introduction The introduction has usually has THREE parts: The introduction has usually has THREE parts: The HOOK!!!!!!!!!!!!! (ATTENTION GRABBER) The HOOK!!!!!!!!!!!!! (ATTENTION GRABBER) Some Background Knowledge Some Background Knowledge The THESIS STATEMENT The THESIS STATEMENT 1. It tells the reader the specific topic of your essay. (PURPOSE) 2. It imposes manageable limits on that topic. (THREE REASONS) 3. It suggests the organization of your paper. (The order in which you are going to discuss those reasons)

6 The Hook: Some Examples Opening with an unusual detail: Manitoba, because of its cold climate, is not thought of as a great place to be a reptile. Actually, it has the largest seasonal congregation of garter snakes in the world! Opening with a strong statement: Cigarettes are the number one cause of lung cancer in the United States Opening with a Quotation: Elbert Hubbard once said, "Truth is stronger than fiction." Opening with an Anecdote: An anecdote can provide an amusing and attention-getting opening if it is short and to the point. (A short account of a particular incident.) I remember the first time my father gave me my first allowance payment. The sum was a meager two dollars, but at the time, I felt like the luckiest kid in the world. A whole new concept opened up to me: the idea that I could make money by working.

7 The Hook: Some More Examples Opening with a Statistic or Fact: Sometimes a statistic or fact will add emphasis or interest to your topic. It may be wise to include the item's authoritative source. According to the Center of Disease Control, over 440,000 Americans dies each year from tobacco use. Opening with a Question. Opening with a question is overused and I recommend not using it! Have you ever considered how many books we'd read if it were not for television? Opening with an Exaggeration or Outrageous Statement or Figurative Language. The whole world watched as the comet flew overhead.

8 Your Turn to Write an Intro Topic: Topic: Many parents give children a weekly or monthly allowance regardless of their behavior because they believe an allowance teaches children to be financially responsible. Other parents only give children an allowance as a reward for completing chores or when they have behaved properly. Explain whether or not you believe parents should give their children allowances. Many parents give children a weekly or monthly allowance regardless of their behavior because they believe an allowance teaches children to be financially responsible. Other parents only give children an allowance as a reward for completing chores or when they have behaved properly. Explain whether or not you believe parents should give their children allowances.

9 Take a Look at this Example Starting when I was about eight years old, my parents gave me a list of chores that had to be completed each week. If I did my chores, I got an allowance, a bit of change that I could use as I pleased. If I didn’t do my chores, I didn’t get my allowance. There was no other punishment, but no other punishment was necessary. That dollar or two a week was all the incentive I needed to help out around the house. Whether it was the latest Barbie or a six-pack of Hubba Bubba chewing gum, there was always something I wanted to buy. My parents could always count on me doing my chores. Starting when I was about eight years old, my parents gave me a list of chores that had to be completed each week. If I did my chores, I got an allowance, a bit of change that I could use as I pleased. If I didn’t do my chores, I didn’t get my allowance. There was no other punishment, but no other punishment was necessary. That dollar or two a week was all the incentive I needed to help out around the house. Whether it was the latest Barbie or a six-pack of Hubba Bubba chewing gum, there was always something I wanted to buy. My parents could always count on me doing my chores. I think that giving children an allowance for doing chores is a smart parenting move, for it accomplishes four important goals: It helps ensure that important work gets done around the house; it teaches children that they need to do their part to make things run smoothly for the whole family; it rewards children in a realistic, practical way for good behavior; and it helps teach children how to handle money. I think that giving children an allowance for doing chores is a smart parenting move, for it accomplishes four important goals: It helps ensure that important work gets done around the house; it teaches children that they need to do their part to make things run smoothly for the whole family; it rewards children in a realistic, practical way for good behavior; and it helps teach children how to handle money.

10 What do you Notice? Hook: What type is used? Starting when I was about eight years old, my parents gave me a list of chores that had to be completed each week. If I did my chores, I got an allowance, a bit of change that I could use as I pleased. If I didn’t do my chores, I didn’t get my allowance. There was no other punishment, but no other punishment was necessary. That dollar or two a week was all the incentive I needed to help out around the house. Whether it was the latest Barbie or a six-pack of Hubba Bubba chewing gum, there was always something I wanted to buy. My parents could always count on me doing my chores. Starting when I was about eight years old, my parents gave me a list of chores that had to be completed each week. If I did my chores, I got an allowance, a bit of change that I could use as I pleased. If I didn’t do my chores, I didn’t get my allowance. There was no other punishment, but no other punishment was necessary. That dollar or two a week was all the incentive I needed to help out around the house. Whether it was the latest Barbie or a six-pack of Hubba Bubba chewing gum, there was always something I wanted to buy. My parents could always count on me doing my chores. I think that giving children an allowance for doing chores is a smart parenting move, for it accomplishes four important goals: It helps ensure that important work gets done around the house; it teaches children that they need to do their part to make things run smoothly for the whole family; it rewards children in a realistic, practical way for good behavior; and it helps teach children how to handle money. I think that giving children an allowance for doing chores is a smart parenting move, for it accomplishes four important goals: It helps ensure that important work gets done around the house; it teaches children that they need to do their part to make things run smoothly for the whole family; it rewards children in a realistic, practical way for good behavior; and it helps teach children how to handle money.

11 What do you Notice? Background Information: Starting when I was about eight years old, my parents gave me a list of chores that had to be completed each week. If I did my chores, I got an allowance, a bit of change that I could use as I pleased. If I didn’t do my chores, I didn’t get my allowance. There was no other punishment, but no other punishment was necessary. That dollar or two a week was all the incentive I needed to help out around the house. Whether it was the latest Barbie or a six-pack of Hubba Bubba chewing gum, there was always something I wanted to buy. My parents could always count on me doing my chores. Starting when I was about eight years old, my parents gave me a list of chores that had to be completed each week. If I did my chores, I got an allowance, a bit of change that I could use as I pleased. If I didn’t do my chores, I didn’t get my allowance. There was no other punishment, but no other punishment was necessary. That dollar or two a week was all the incentive I needed to help out around the house. Whether it was the latest Barbie or a six-pack of Hubba Bubba chewing gum, there was always something I wanted to buy. My parents could always count on me doing my chores. I think that giving children an allowance for doing chores is a smart parenting move, for it accomplishes four important goals: It helps ensure that important work gets done around the house; it teaches children that they need to do their part to make things run smoothly for the whole family; it rewards children in a realistic, practical way for good behavior; and it helps teach children how to handle money. I think that giving children an allowance for doing chores is a smart parenting move, for it accomplishes four important goals: It helps ensure that important work gets done around the house; it teaches children that they need to do their part to make things run smoothly for the whole family; it rewards children in a realistic, practical way for good behavior; and it helps teach children how to handle money.

12 What do you Notice? Thesis: Starting when I was about eight years old, my parents gave me a list of chores that had to be completed each week. If I did my chores, I got an allowance, a bit of change that I could use as I pleased. If I didn’t do my chores, I didn’t get my allowance. There was no other punishment, but no other punishment was necessary. That dollar or two a week was all the incentive I needed to help out around the house. Whether it was the latest Barbie or a six-pack of Hubba Bubba chewing gum, there was always something I wanted to buy. My parents could always count on me doing my chores. Starting when I was about eight years old, my parents gave me a list of chores that had to be completed each week. If I did my chores, I got an allowance, a bit of change that I could use as I pleased. If I didn’t do my chores, I didn’t get my allowance. There was no other punishment, but no other punishment was necessary. That dollar or two a week was all the incentive I needed to help out around the house. Whether it was the latest Barbie or a six-pack of Hubba Bubba chewing gum, there was always something I wanted to buy. My parents could always count on me doing my chores. I think that giving children an allowance for doing chores is a smart parenting move, for it accomplishes four important goals: It helps ensure that important work gets done around the house; it teaches children that they need to do their part to make things run smoothly for the whole family; it rewards children in a realistic, practical way for good behavior; and it helps teach children how to handle money. I think that giving children an allowance for doing chores is a smart parenting move, for it accomplishes four important goals: It helps ensure that important work gets done around the house; it teaches children that they need to do their part to make things run smoothly for the whole family; it rewards children in a realistic, practical way for good behavior; and it helps teach children how to handle money.

13 Now Break Down the Thesis Purpose: Purpose: I think that giving children an allowance for doing chores is a smart parenting move, for it accomplishes four important goals: I think that giving children an allowance for doing chores is a smart parenting move, for it accomplishes four important goals: Global Reasons in Order: Global Reasons in Order: 1. It helps ensure that important work gets done around the house; 1. It helps ensure that important work gets done around the house; 2. it teaches children that they need to do their part to make things run smoothly for the whole family; 2. it teaches children that they need to do their part to make things run smoothly for the whole family; 3. it rewards children in a realistic, practical way for good behavior; 3. it rewards children in a realistic, practical way for good behavior; 4. and it helps teach children how to handle money. 4. and it helps teach children how to handle money.

14 Another Example I remember the first time my father gave me my initial allowance payment. The sum was a meager two dollars, but at the time, I felt like the luckiest kid in the world. A whole new concept opened up to me: the idea that I could make money by working. Soon I was helping around the house with every chore I possibly could. I absolutely believe that giving children an allowance is a brilliant parenting move because is teaches children the value of hard work, instills financial responsibility, and rewards children for good behavior.

15 Writing the Body The writer then provides evidence to support the opinion offered in the thesis statement in the introduction. The body should consist of at least three paragraphs. Each paragraph is based on a solid reason to back your thesis statement. Since almost all issues have sound arguments on both sides of the question, a good persuasive writer tries to anticipate opposing viewpoints and provide counter-arguments along with the main points in the essay. One of the three paragraphs should be used to discuss opposing viewpoints and your counterargument.

16 Types of Supporting Evidence Facts - A powerful means of convincing, facts can come from your reading, observation, or personal experience. Note: Do not confuse facts with truths. A "truth" is an idea believed by many people, but it cannot be proven. Statistics - These can provide excellent support. Be sure your statistics come from responsible sources. Always cite your sources. Example: A poll of 50 of my peers found that 68% of my classmates received a weekly allowance. Of that 68%, 85% said they thought that their allowance encouraged them to complete more house work. Quotes - Direct quotes from leading experts that support your position are invaluable. Dr. Linda Carter of the Center of Young Adults states, “Giving an adolescent a weekly allowance greatly encourages responsible behavior and can further lead to more mature and responsible decisions as an adult.” Examples - Examples enhance your meaning and make your ideas concrete. They are the proof. My friend Brenda also receives an allowance from her parents. She saves her allowance in her own personal bank account. There is know doubt that Brenda is learning financial responsibility.

17 What to Include in a Body Paragraph Topic Sentences Topic Sentences Concession Statements Concession Statements Clarification Statements Clarification Statements Solid Supporting Evidence Solid Supporting Evidence Personal Experiences Personal Experiences Closing Statements Closing Statements All of these sentences need to be linked together via TRANSITION WORDS and PHRASES All of these sentences need to be linked together via TRANSITION WORDS and PHRASES

18 Concession Statements If you're writing a persuasive piece, you might consider beginning with a CONCESSION--that is, by beginning with an acknowledgement of part of your opponent's argument as being valid. Remember that a concession is not a form of weakness. In fact a concession is a strength as it finds common ground with your opponent and establishes your ethical appeal: you are a reasonable person willing to listen to/acknowledge that there are more sides to an issue than yours. If you're writing a persuasive piece, you might consider beginning with a CONCESSION--that is, by beginning with an acknowledgement of part of your opponent's argument as being valid. Remember that a concession is not a form of weakness. In fact a concession is a strength as it finds common ground with your opponent and establishes your ethical appeal: you are a reasonable person willing to listen to/acknowledge that there are more sides to an issue than yours. You can’t ignore compelling opposing evidence. You must address strong arguments on the other side; if you don’t, it looks like you are not well prepared and have not looked at the issue you are writing about from all perspectives. You can’t ignore compelling opposing evidence. You must address strong arguments on the other side; if you don’t, it looks like you are not well prepared and have not looked at the issue you are writing about from all perspectives.

19 Concession Statements Now I want to have a concession statement to begin my FIRST body paragraph before my Topic Sentence…This is what it may look like: Now I want to have a concession statement to begin my FIRST body paragraph before my Topic Sentence…This is what it may look like: I understand that many parents believe that children should just complete their chores and help around the house simply because they are told to. Others feel that an allowance is a form of bribery and can undermine the concept of putting the family first. This may be true if a parent gives the child too much money. I understand that many parents believe that children should just complete their chores and help around the house simply because they are told to. Others feel that an allowance is a form of bribery and can undermine the concept of putting the family first. This may be true if a parent gives the child too much money.

20 Topic Sentences It is important to introduce the global reason, or MAIN IDEA, within the first few sentences of the paragraph. This establishes the PARAMETERS of the paragraph and lets the reader know exactly what you are going to be discussing. You also need to use TRANSITION WORDS OR PHRASES to introduce this main idea. This gives the essay fluidity. It is important to introduce the global reason, or MAIN IDEA, within the first few sentences of the paragraph. This establishes the PARAMETERS of the paragraph and lets the reader know exactly what you are going to be discussing. You also need to use TRANSITION WORDS OR PHRASES to introduce this main idea. This gives the essay fluidity.

21 Topic Sentences This is what my topic sentence may look like with a transition phrase, and it is going to follow directly after my concession statement… This is what my topic sentence may look like with a transition phrase, and it is going to follow directly after my concession statement… Nevertheless, giving children a small allowance is just a simple way to reward good behavior. Nevertheless, giving children a small allowance is just a simple way to reward good behavior.

22 Clarification Statement Clarification statements are a simple way to reiterate your main idea (REPITITION) while adding some voice to your essay. When used correctly they can be very affective. Clarification statements are a simple way to reiterate your main idea (REPITITION) while adding some voice to your essay. When used correctly they can be very affective. The trick is to not be redundant and actually write your main idea IN DIFFERENT WORDING. The trick is to not be redundant and actually write your main idea IN DIFFERENT WORDING.

23 Clarification Statement Example Clarification Statement to follow the Topic Sentence. Example Clarification Statement to follow the Topic Sentence. To clarify, the extrinsic reward of an allowance is a fantastic way to encourage positive choices. To clarify, the extrinsic reward of an allowance is a fantastic way to encourage positive choices.

24 Supporting Evidence Supporting evidence is the heart and soul of your persuasive essay. Without strong supporting evidence your essay will fail at its purpose. Please use FACTS, STATISTICS, EXAMPLES, QUOTES, LOGICAL REASONS. Supporting evidence is the heart and soul of your persuasive essay. Without strong supporting evidence your essay will fail at its purpose. Please use FACTS, STATISTICS, EXAMPLES, QUOTES, LOGICAL REASONS. The whole point of supporting evidence is to prove that your purpose is the correct way to view the topic. The whole point of supporting evidence is to prove that your purpose is the correct way to view the topic.

25 Supporting Evidence Now I have to back my Topic Sentence with evidence. This is how it may look… Now I have to back my Topic Sentence with evidence. This is how it may look… When I was young, around eight or nine years old, my father started giving me an allowance to complete simple chores around the house. The chores started with minor tasks like cleaning my room or washing the dishes. As I proved that I could handle those responsibilities with ease, the chores became progressively more difficult. Soon I was vacuuming carpets and dusting furniture. Then I graduated to the more difficult tasks of cleaning bathrooms, mopping floors and mowing the law. As a consequence, the more challenging the chores I completed, the more money I earned. Soon I didn’t have to asked to do my weekly chores, I just did them. If, for whatever reason, I was not responsible and did not complete my household tasks, I did not get paid. My parents did not have to punish me any further; I knew right there and then that I did not do something that I was supposed to. Without hesitation I would instantly complete my work so I could get my paycheck. When I was young, around eight or nine years old, my father started giving me an allowance to complete simple chores around the house. The chores started with minor tasks like cleaning my room or washing the dishes. As I proved that I could handle those responsibilities with ease, the chores became progressively more difficult. Soon I was vacuuming carpets and dusting furniture. Then I graduated to the more difficult tasks of cleaning bathrooms, mopping floors and mowing the law. As a consequence, the more challenging the chores I completed, the more money I earned. Soon I didn’t have to asked to do my weekly chores, I just did them. If, for whatever reason, I was not responsible and did not complete my household tasks, I did not get paid. My parents did not have to punish me any further; I knew right there and then that I did not do something that I was supposed to. Without hesitation I would instantly complete my work so I could get my paycheck.

26 Closing Sentence The closing sentence wraps up the whole paragraph and makes a smooth transition to the next paragraph in the body. The closing sentence wraps up the whole paragraph and makes a smooth transition to the next paragraph in the body. Here is an example of a closing sentence… Here is an example of a closing sentence… I never fully realized until much later, but my father was rewarding my responsible behavior. I never fully realized until much later, but my father was rewarding my responsible behavior. As a parent, wouldn’t you want to reinforce positive behavior to maximize its occurrence? As a parent, wouldn’t you want to reinforce positive behavior to maximize its occurrence?

27 Now Put it all Together! I understand that many parents believe that children should just complete their chores and help around the house simply because they are told to. Others feel that an allowance is a form of bribery and can undermine the concept of putting the family first. This may be true if a parent gives the child too much money. Nevertheless, giving children a small allowance is just a simple way to reward good behavior. To clarify, the extrinsic reward of an allowance is a fantastic way to encourage positive choices. When I was young, around eight or nine years old, my father started giving me an allowance to complete simple chores around the house. The chores started with minor tasks like cleaning my room or washing the dishes. As I proved that I could handle those responsibilities with ease, the chores became progressively more difficult. Soon I was vacuuming carpets and dusting furniture. Then I graduated to the more difficult tasks of cleaning bathrooms, mopping floors and mowing the law. As a consequence, the more challenging the chores I completed, the more money I earned. Soon I didn’t have to asked to do my weekly chores, I just did them. If, for whatever reason, I was not responsible and did not complete my household tasks, I did not get paid. My parents did not have to punish me any further; I knew right there and then that I did not do something that I was supposed to. Without hesitation I would instantly complete my work so I could get my paycheck. I never fully realized until much later, but my father was rewarding my responsible behavior. I understand that many parents believe that children should just complete their chores and help around the house simply because they are told to. Others feel that an allowance is a form of bribery and can undermine the concept of putting the family first. This may be true if a parent gives the child too much money. Nevertheless, giving children a small allowance is just a simple way to reward good behavior. To clarify, the extrinsic reward of an allowance is a fantastic way to encourage positive choices. When I was young, around eight or nine years old, my father started giving me an allowance to complete simple chores around the house. The chores started with minor tasks like cleaning my room or washing the dishes. As I proved that I could handle those responsibilities with ease, the chores became progressively more difficult. Soon I was vacuuming carpets and dusting furniture. Then I graduated to the more difficult tasks of cleaning bathrooms, mopping floors and mowing the law. As a consequence, the more challenging the chores I completed, the more money I earned. Soon I didn’t have to asked to do my weekly chores, I just did them. If, for whatever reason, I was not responsible and did not complete my household tasks, I did not get paid. My parents did not have to punish me any further; I knew right there and then that I did not do something that I was supposed to. Without hesitation I would instantly complete my work so I could get my paycheck. I never fully realized until much later, but my father was rewarding my responsible behavior.

28 The Conclusion You need to include these three parts in your conclusion: You need to include these three parts in your conclusion: Restate your thesis or focus statement. Restate your thesis or focus statement. Summarize the main points: The conclusion enables your reader to recall the main points of your position. In order to do this you can paraphrase the main points of your argument. Summarize the main points: The conclusion enables your reader to recall the main points of your position. In order to do this you can paraphrase the main points of your argument. Write a personal comment or call for action Write a personal comment or call for action

29 The Conclusion Ways to write a concluding sentence: Ways to write a concluding sentence: With a Prediction: This can be used with a narrative or a cause and effect discussion. The conclusion may suggest or predict what the results may or may not be in the situation discussed or in similar situations. With a Prediction: This can be used with a narrative or a cause and effect discussion. The conclusion may suggest or predict what the results may or may not be in the situation discussed or in similar situations. With a Question: Closing with a question lets your readers make their own predictions, draw their own conclusions. With a Question: Closing with a question lets your readers make their own predictions, draw their own conclusions. With Recommendations: A recommendations closing is one that stresses the actions or remedies that should be taken. With Recommendations: A recommendations closing is one that stresses the actions or remedies that should be taken. With a Quotation: Since a quotation may summarize, predict, question, or call for action, you may use a quotation within a conclusion for nearly any kind of paper. With a Quotation: Since a quotation may summarize, predict, question, or call for action, you may use a quotation within a conclusion for nearly any kind of paper.

30 The Conclusion Making the decision to give a child an allowance in an important one. Not many parents take the time to think about the consequences, beneficial or negative, this decision may have on their child. Due to the fact that allowances help children prepare for the real world, I urge you to consider giving your child an allowance. Making the decision to give a child an allowance in an important one. Not many parents take the time to think about the consequences, beneficial or negative, this decision may have on their child. Due to the fact that allowances help children prepare for the real world, I urge you to consider giving your child an allowance.

31 The Conclusion When parenting, it is so important to make sure the good behavior is reinforced so that the child will grow to become a financially responsible adult with a strong work ethic. If an allowance is not tied to chores or proper behavior, these values will not likely take root. When parenting, it is so important to make sure the good behavior is reinforced so that the child will grow to become a financially responsible adult with a strong work ethic. If an allowance is not tied to chores or proper behavior, these values will not likely take root.

32 Quotes "The difference between winners and losers is winners do things losers don't want to do. And that's work hard to get ready to be a star.“ Dr. Phil “Over-indulgence is one of the most insidious forms of child abuse.” Dr. Phil “There are only two lasting bequests we can hope to give our children. One of these is roots, the other, wings. -Hodding Carter.” -- Life asks not merely what you can do; it asks how much can you endure and not be spoiled.--Harry Emerson Fosdick Life asks not merely what you can do; it asks how much can you endure and not be spoiled.Harry Emerson Fosdick


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