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FOOD SAFETY IN THE COFFEE INDUSTRY 1 st INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON FOOD SAFETY 22 nd NOVEMBER 2002 RENAISSANCE JAMAICA GRANDE OCHO RIOS Presented by:

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1 FOOD SAFETY IN THE COFFEE INDUSTRY 1 st INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON FOOD SAFETY 22 nd NOVEMBER 2002 RENAISSANCE JAMAICA GRANDE OCHO RIOS Presented by: Timon Waugh Research& Environmental Department Coffee Industry Board

2 Presentation Summary Overview of coffee and safety concerns Broad look at the emerging threat of mycotoxins to food safety Local coffee industry response to mycotoxin in coffee

3 The Coffee Industry After oil, coffee is the most widely traded commodity in the world Provides employment for some 20 million persons worldwide Most widely consumed beverage Grown in the tropics

4 Jamaica’s Coffee Industry Coffee is the second most important agricultural product Generates earnings of over US $30 M from export Employs over 50,000 person directly with over 250, 000 dependents Best coffee in the world

5 Coffee plant

6 Coffee berries

7 Coffee beans

8 Areas of Concern Chemical residues (pesticides) Proper processing Storage conditions Contamination

9 Chemical Residues Proper use & handling Time between application and reaping Residue analysis

10 Processing All processors are licensed by Coffee Industry Board Annual inspection of works Powers to revoke license

11 Storage Coffee absorbs anything in its surroundings – must be stored away from chemicals, spices etc. Store in sealed containers Low humidity Low temperature

12 Care in Brewing Coffee Clean equipment with a brush and hot water immediately after use No detergents or chemicals should be used for cleaning Do not reheat coffee after brewing. If it becomes cold it should be dumped

13 MYCOTOXINS - Their Impact on Food Safety with Focus on Coffee

14 What are Mycotoxins ? Mycotoxins are metabolic products of moulds/fungi that infest a wide range of agricultural commodities, processed food and animal feed.

15 Major Mycotoxin-Producing Moulds Aspergillus Fusarium Penicillium

16 Mycotoxins of Major Interest Aflatoxins – most well known Ochratoxin Fumonisin Zearlenone Patulin

17 Food & Commodities Commonly Affected Corn & corn products Oats Barley Wheat Peanuts

18 Food & Commodities Commonly Affected Cereals Coffee Dried vine fruits Wine and beer Processed pork and fish

19 Mould Infested Corn

20 Other Affected Animal Products Kidney Liver Blood Human blood samples

21 Where Are Mycotoxins Found Tropical regions Temperate regions

22 Health Problems Caused by Mycotoxins Cancers – (in many different areas of the body) Kidney Disorder Liver Damage Reproduction Disorder Respiratory Disorder Birth Abnormalities Heart Disease

23 Growth Suppression in turkey poult (right)

24 Livers from guinea pigs given increasing doses of aflatoxin

25 Enlarged uterus in mouse (left) injected with zearalenone

26 Tumor development in liver of trout due to mycotoxin in diet Control

27 Regulations Governing Mycotoxins Monitoring testing at port of entry Many countries have legislated maximum allowable limits Allowable limits vary from country to country and is mycotoxin specific.

28 Some Examples of Limits for OTA in Coffee Italy4 ppb Spain4 ppb Finland5 ppb Germany3 ppb 4 ppb is equivalent to a small teaspoon of OTA spread uniformly over 1000 tonnes of coffee

29 Epidemics Caused by Mycotoxins Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (Yugoslavia, Romania, Bulgaria) –Cancers of the kidney –12% of population affected –100 % fatality over 2-10 yrs. after diagnosis Alimentary Toxic Aleukia ( Russia, WWII) Ergotism (Middle Ages)

30 What Makes Mycotoxins in Coffee of Concern OTA is carcinogenic Contaminated coffee can contribute from 2.5%-25% of tolerable daily OTA intake from food & beverage (3-4 cups or 25g/day) The coffee industry (internationally) is instituting limits & testing Cut off level for OTA in coffee is 2-4 ppb

31 Research Findings OTA has a half –life of days in human blood OTA is not destroyed by the roasting and brewing process Coffee can contribute up to 25 % of OTA intake

32 Our Response Keep informed on development Set up testing facility Conduct survey of OTA in local coffee Monitor all coffee being marketed Identify Critical Control Points (CCP)

33 Findings of Local Industry Levels of OTA encountered in Jamaican coffee ppb Most of the local coffee tested have levels well below the 4 ppb limit

34 SUMMARY Mycotoxins are an emerging threat to food safety There is great need for further research to illustrate the health risks caused by mycotoxins Major health risks are cancers and damage to the kidney, liver,reproductive system, immune system, respiratory tract Jamaican coffee have levels below the maximum allowable limit

35 SUMMARY Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) & Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) must be encouraged Identify Critical Control Points (CCP) in all food operations Institute testing Foster awareness in general public


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