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Europe. Introduction  Hearth of Western civilization  Global imperialism  Industrial revolution  History of fragmentation and integration  Nationalism:

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Presentation on theme: "Europe. Introduction  Hearth of Western civilization  Global imperialism  Industrial revolution  History of fragmentation and integration  Nationalism:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Europe

2 Introduction  Hearth of Western civilization  Global imperialism  Industrial revolution  History of fragmentation and integration  Nationalism: Nation-state  Regional integration: E.U.

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4 Environmental Geography

5 Landform  The European Lowland  The Alpine Mountain System  Central Uplands  Western Highlands

6 The European Lowland  Support high population density  Major rivers  Ports in estuaries  Glacial forces north of the Rhine River delta  affects soil fertility and land forms (eg. moraines)

7 The Alpine Mountain System  The northward movement of the African Plate against the Eurasian Plate  Pyrenees, Alps, Carpathian Mountains, Dinaric Alps, and Balkan Ranges

8 Central Uplands  Between the Alps and the European Lowland  Raw materials for Europe’s industrial areas  Steel industry in Germany and France

9 Western Highlands  Portugal – Northwestern British Isles – Scandinavia  Fjords  A long, narrow, deep inlet of the sea between steep slopes  Western coastline of Norway  Shield landscape  Oldest rock formation by the erosion of ice sheets  Fenno-Scandian Shield

10  Plate movement  east-west trending mountain chain  Pleistocene glaciation  glacial land forms

11 Cs Df Cf

12 Climate controls  Why is western Europe warmer than comparable latitudes? Mild North Atlantic current

13 Seas  Baltic Sea  North Sea  Atlantic Ocean  Mediterranean Sea  Black Sea  Skagerrak & Kattegat  Strait of Gibraltar  Bosporous Strait & Dardanelles

14 Rivers  Rivers of the European Lowland  Loire, Seine, Rhine, Elbe, and Vistula River  Flow into Atlantic and Baltic Sea  Danube River  Longest river in Europe  Connects between central and eastern Europe  In general, Europe is a region of navigable rivers connected by canals and locks

15 Ports  Developed at the mouths of rivers  Transshipment points for inland waterway  Bordeux, Le Havre, London, Rotterdam, Hamburg, and Gdansk

16 Polders  Protected and reclaimed landscapes (diked agricultural settlements) in the Netherlands  Windmills are used to pump water from low-lying wetlands

17 Environmental issues

18 Environmental protection in western Europe  Environmental problems cross national boundaries  Formation of E.U. aided in addressing problems  Heightened environmental sensitivity  “Red-Green Coalition” in Germany  Greenhouse gas emission reduction

19 Environmental protection in eastern Europe  Legacy of Soviet economic planning (1945-90)  Post-1990 economic and political transition Acid rain and forest death Bohemia, Czech Republic

20 Settlement and Population

21 Population density in the Core and Periphery  Population pattern is linked to areas of early industrialization  Urban-industrial core is characterized by  Low natural growth rates  Target area for migrants

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24 Continued slow natural growth  Why?  Highly urbanized and industrialized population in western Europe  Labor shortage after WWII in eastern Europe  need for female labor  government promotes family planning and birth control

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26 Migration into Europe  So far, industrialized countries in Europe have received many immigrants because of  Open-door immigration policy to alleviate labor shortage during the postwar period (eg. guest works in Germany)  Influx of migrants from former European colonies  Flight from post-1989 economic and political turmoil

27 Migration into Europe

28 Schengen Agreement  EU declaration of intent to reduce border formalities for travelers moving between western Europe (1985)  Resulted in strict border controls between EU and non-EU countries – “Fortress Europe”

29 Urban landscapes  Contemporary landscape expresses different historical periods  Medieval period (900-1500)  Narrow, winding streets, and crowded masonry buildings with little setback from the street  Renaissance-Baroque period (1500-1800)  Urban planning, high stories girdled by city walls  Industrial period (1800-present)  Industrial districts clustered along transportation lines, often outside the fortifications

30 Cultural Coherence and Diversity

31 Language  Major Indo-European language (90%)  Germanic language  German, English, Dutch, Flemish, Scandinavian, and Icelandic  Romance language  Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Romanian, and Moldavian  Slavic language  Polish, Czech, Slovakian – Latin Alphabet  Serbo-Croatian, Bularian, Macedonian, Slovenian – Cyrillic Alphabet

32 Language  Minor Indo-European language  Celtic language - Breton, Welsh, Scots Gaelic, Irish  Hellenic language - Greek  Baltic language - Lettish, Lithuanian  Non-Indo-European language  Uralic language - Magyar (Hungarian), Finns, Estonian  Altaic language - Turkish minorities in southeastern Europe  Etc… - Basque

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34 Religion  Historical geography of religious complexity is essential to understanding today’s cultural tension such as  Cultural borders in eastern Europe and Balkans  Northern Ireland  Ethnic cleansing in Yugoslavia

35 Historical geography of religion  Adoption of Christianity  Edict of Tolerance (A.D. 313)  Hierarchical diffusion  Schism between western and eastern Christianity  Official split of the eastern church from Rome (1054)  Conflicts with Islam  Presence of Ottoman Empire in southeastern Europe (16c ~ early 20c)  Muslim incursion into Spain (8c ~ 15c)

36 Historical geography of religion  Protestant Revolt (16c)  Creates north-south boundary between Protestant and Catholic Europe  Geography of Judaism  Forced dispersal of Jews from Palestine during the Roman Empire  Mediterranean cities  Iberian Peninsula (10c)  “Jewish Pale” in eastern Europe (15c)  North America (19c~)  Israel (1948~)  Germany (1990~)

37 Patterns of contemporary religion  Roman Catholics (250 million) in southern half except for Ireland and Poland  Protestants (100 million) in northern half  Secularization in western Europe after WWII

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39 Geopolitical Framework

40 From Empire to Nation-State  Legacy of the Roman Empire (B.C 300 - A.D.400)  Cities connected by highway (eg. London, Paris, Frankfurt)  Feudal territories (9c - 15c)  Urban power of a merchant class (eg. Hamburg, Venice)  Rural polity based on feudalism (formal relation between a superior and a vassal)  Nation-states (15c - 18c)  Geopolitical entity fostered by ethnic and cultural nationalism  Congruence between a shared culture and political space

41 Redrawing the map in 20 th century WWI 1914- 18

42 Redrawing the map in 20 th century WWII C.W. 1939 -45 1945 -89

43 Scale of tensions in the Balkans  Local/regional tensions  Provinces of Serbia, Montenegro, and Kosovo  Tensions between Yugoslavia and its neighboring states  Macedonia, Albania, Bosnia, Croatia, and Slovenia  Relations with the rest of Europe  E.U., NATO  Global implications  U.N.

44  Fragmented geopolitical processes involved with small-scale independence movements and the phenomenon of mininationalism as it develops along ethnic fault lines Ethnicity in the Balkans The diverse and complicated mosaic of ethnic diversity in the Balkans has led to geopolitical fragmentation in recent decades

45 Geopolitical issues in Europe

46 Economic and Social Development

47  Birthplace of industrial revolution  Economic integration – E.U.  Chaotic economic transition in eastern Europe

48 Industrial revolution  Human labor replaced by machine  Machines powered by inanimate energy sources  Began in England between 1730 and 1850  eg. Wool Textile manufacturing by steam-powered mechanized looms

49 Locational factors of early industrial areas  Access to coalfields  Coke replaced charcoal as a fuel to make iron and steel  eg. The English Midlands, The Ruhr, Saar-Lorraine  Exceptions to this are  London, and Po Plain

50 Industrial regions of Europe

51 Economic integration in the West  ECSC (European Coal and Steel Community) in 1952  Coordinate coal and steel production by a supranational authority  EEC (European Economic Community) in 1957  Foster the free movement of goods, labor, and capital  EC (European Community) in 1965  Add political union to the economic community

52 Economic integration in the West  EU (European Union) in 1991  Aimed at  Single currency through the European Monetary Union  Common foreign policies  Mutual security agreements  Currently 15 members  11 Euroland members adopt a common currency (2002)

53 The European Union

54 Economic transition in eastern Europe  The Soviet Plan (1949-1989)  CMEA (Council for Mutual Economic Assistance)  Command economy  Transitions since 1991  Discontinuation of subsidies  Privatization of industry

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59  Regional disparities between western and eastern Europe  Regional disparities within eastern Europe  Czech Republic, Slovenia, Hungary, and Poland

60 Global linkages and regional disparities


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