2Child Care and Education in Group Settings 23Child Care and Education in Group Settings2
3Key Terms child care programs in-home child care au pairs nannies family child carecenter-based child carefor-profit programsnot-for-profit programswork-related child care programsschool-age child care (SACC) programschild care resource and referral (CCR&R) agencieschild development laboratoriesHead Startcontinued
5ObjectiveTrace the history of the major types of group programs for young children.
6Types of Group Programs Child care programsChild development laboratoriesHead StartPreschool (pre-kindergarten) programsMontessori schoolsKindergartensPrimary schools
7Child Care ProgramsChild care programs are programs that operate to care for children for extended hoursoften operate between 9–12 hours a dayprovide basic care for children when parents are not availableMany programs are providing education as well as care services
8Historical Overview European Infant Schools late 1700s to early 1800sserved poor children until age five or six when they entered the workforceU.S. programs for poor familiesmiddle of nineteenth century, urban areasincluded education for parentscontinued
9Historical Overview Federal funds aided programs during Great Depression of 1929WWII (1941–1945 for U.S.)child care programs declined after WWIIWomen entered the workforce1960scare programs increased, poor quality
10Types of Child Care Programs In-homechild careFamilyCenter-basedSchool-age
11In-Home Child CareIn-home child care takes place in the child’s own homeMay be provided by parents, relatives, or nonrelativesAmong dual-career parents,about 27% of children under age five are cared for by a parenta little more than one-fourth of children are cared for by a relativecontinued
12In-Home Child CareSmall percentage of children receive in-home care from nonrelativeshousekeepers often take care of the children and clean the houseau pairs provide care for children as part of a cultural exchange programnannies may live in the home or come to the home dailygenerally have specific training in child care
13Family Child CareFamily child care is provided by a person for a small number of children in his or her own homeMay be run like a child care centerAbout 13% of children are in family child careMay offer more flexible hoursMay not be regulated
14Center-Based Child Care Center-based child care is a large group program in which child care is provided in a center (not a home)continued
15Center-Based Child Care About 29% of children under age five with working parents are in center-based child careCenters differ in the number of children they serveState licensing laws set the standards for all aspects of center-based child care programscontinued
16Center-Based Child Care For-profit programs are set up to make moneyNot-for-profit programs make only enough profit to pay expensesWork-related child care programs are sponsored by businesses for their employees’ children
17School-Age Child Care (SACC) Programs School-age child care (SACC) programs provide care for 5- to 14-year-olds when school is outIncludes before and after school, holidays, vacations, and during the summerMajority affiliated with schools or programs serving youthcontinued
18School-Age Child Care (SACC) Programs Provide care, recreation, diversion (crafts, drama, field trips), education
19Trends in Child Care Programs More infant and toddler careGrowth in SACC programsGrowth in work-related child care programsGrowth in child care resource and referral (CCR&R) agencies, which promote local programs and help parents find child care
20Child Development Laboratories Child development laboratories provide education and physical care for children under age fiveformerly called nursery schoolsServe as research sites for child development expertspart of research and teaching universitiesDirected by child development experts
21Head StartHead Start is a federally sponsored program launched to meet the needs of children from low-income familiesIncludes an educational component for parentsEarly Head Start serves children from birth through 35 months
22Preschool ProgramsPreschool programs usually refer to state-funded programs for three- and four-year-olds from families of low-incomealso called pre-kindergartenscontinued
23Preschool ProgramsSome states offer universal preschools for all income levelsMajority of children in preschools are in public school settings, but some attend Head Start
24Montessori SchoolsMontessori schools encourage children to learn independently through the use of highly specialized materials rather than direct input from teachersself-correcting materials aid children’s independent workcontinued
25Montessori Schools Sensory learnings are a major focus Each child is in charge of his or her own learning
26KindergartensKindergartens are educational programs for four- and five-year-oldsIn the U.S., they are part of each state’s public education systemServes as an entrance to school education and gives children the chance to play and develop through various activitiescontinued
27KindergartensRooted in Friedrich Froebel’s German private programs (programs owned by individuals, churches, others)enrolled children from ages three to seven yearsprovided teaching suggestions for mothers with younger childrentaught children without the rote academic learning used for older childrencontinued
28Kindergartens planned many of the activities in use today examples: building blocks, beads, art materials, sand, fingerplays (poems/rhymes acted out with the hands)
29Primary School Programs Kindergarten to age nineU.S. mandates attendanceEach state sets learning standards
30What Do You Think?Why do you think it is helpful to study the history of child care programs?
31ObjectiveDescribe what to look for when choosing a quality program.
32Choosing a Group Program RegulationsHousing and equipmentStaffParent communication and participationProgram activitiesCultural diversitycontinued
33Choosing a Group Program Care for children with special needsOther considerationsQuality of group programs
34Regulations Regulations are standards that govern a group program some regulations apply to all programs, some only to public programs (those funded by government)Accredited programs have met even higher standards of quality through a professional organization
35Housing and Equipment Varies with the program goals Should meet the needs of the children in the programShould be safe and meet health standardsShould be sanitaryShould provide adequate space for comfort and activities
36Staff Adult-child ratio is the number of adults per number of children Numbers vary from state to stateNumbers for group size and children per adult should be reduced if children with special needs are includedcontinued
373 to 6 years (excluding first grade) StaffAge of childrenGroup sizeAdult-child ratio0 to 1 year61:31 to 2 years81:42 to 3 years121:63 to 6 years (excluding first grade)181:937
38Parent Communication and Participation Teachers and caregivers shouldconvey the importance of parentsknow about each family they servefind ways to work with parents as a teamknow the ways in which parents prefer to communicate with and participate in their children’s group program
39Program ActivitiesDevelopmentally appropriate practices (DAPs) uses knowledge ofchild developmenteach child’s strengths, needs, interests, and cultureOpposite of DAPs are developmentally inappropriate practices (DIPs)continued
41Program Activities Many programs invite adults to share special skills may be parents of children in programField trips take children to places off the program’s propertyfun way to learn about the community
42Cultural Diversity in Group Programs Affirm each child’s identityRespect diversity by making the program culturally richcultural shock may occur if children have an uncomfortable response to unfamiliar culturesHelp children learn that bias (unfair treatment) hurts
43Child Care and Education for Children with Special Needs Inclusion is practicedchildren with special needs are placed in classrooms with other children, while providing help for children who need itdiversity of all types is seen as positiveEnvironment must be arrangedSome activities must be adapted for children with special needs
44Other Considerations Special services may be needed Families often spend at least 10% of their total gross income on child carecontinued
45Other ConsiderationsHidden added costs are costs that add to the direct costs of child caretransportation, supplies, disposable diapers, services or items donated to a child care programHidden cost credits are credits that lower direct costs of child caremoney from a second income, child-care tax credits
46Quality of Group Programs Signs of low-quality programsparents cannot visit the program without asking in advancestaff members are not trained to work with young childrenprogram does not take special interest in children’s needsadults push children to perform above their abilities, causing them stress
47ObjectiveExplain the effects of group care and education on children’s development.
48Effects of Group Care on Children Effects on healthcenters that enroll more than 50 children seem to have more illnessesEffects on mental developmentlittle effect on the mental development of children from middle-class homesprograms targeting children from low-income homes need follow-upcontinued
49Effects of Group Care on Children Effects on social developmentbonds between children and families are not affectedcontact with peers tends to increase aggression in childrenteachers’ response to aggression is keyparents can reduce possible aggression-promoting influences by limiting exposure to media portrayals of aggression
50ObjectiveDescribe ways to help children adjust to group settings.
51Helping Children Adjust to Group Care Make adjustment seem casualExplain the program to childrenIf children do not adapt, the cause of stress should be investigatedunannounced visitsdiscussion with teachers
52What Do You Think?What do you think are the five most important considerations when choosing child care?
53Glossary of Key Termsadult-child ratio. Number of adults per number of children in a group setting.au pairs. Professionals who provide child care for host families as part of a cultural exchange program.bias. Belief or feeling that results in unfair treatment of another person or makes such treatment seem right.
54Glossary of Key Termscenter-based child care. Large group program in which child care is provided in a center rather than in a home.child care programs. Programs that operate to care for children for extended hours (usually between 9 and 12 hours a day).
55Glossary of Key Termschild care resource and referral (CCR&R) agencies. Agencies that promote local child care programs and help parents find child care.child development laboratories. Child care programs for children under age five that serve as research sites for child development experts.
56Glossary of Key Termsculture shock. Uncomfortable response to an unfamiliar culture.developmentally appropriate practices (DAPs). Child care and education that uses knowledge about child development and considers each child’s strengths, needs, interests, and culture.
57Glossary of Key Termsdevelopmentally inappropriate practices (DIPs). Child care and education that do not use knowledge about child development and focus mainly on the group instead of each child.family child care. Care provided by a person for a small number of children in his or her own home.
58Glossary of Key Termsfield trips. Outings that take children to places away from a child care program’s property.fingerplays. Poems and rhymes that are acted out with the hands.for-profit programs. Programs set up to make money.
59Glossary of Key TermsHead Start. Federally sponsored program that was launched to meet the needs of children from low-income families.hidden added costs. Costs of child care that add to the direct costs.hidden cost credits. Credits that lower the direct costs of child care.
60Glossary of Key Termsin-home child care. Child care that takes place in the child’s own home.kindergartens. Programs publicly and privately operated for four-and five-year-old children; serve as an entrance to school education.
61Glossary of Key TermsMontessori schools. Schools that encourage children to learn independently through the use of highly specialized materials.nannies. Professionals who contract with a family to provide in-home child care.not-for-profit programs. Child care programs in which income only covers costs.
62Glossary of Key Termsprivate programs. Programs owned by individuals, churches, or other nongovernment groups.public programs. Child care programs funded by local, state, or federal government.regulations. Standards that govern a group program.
63Glossary of Key Termsschool-age child care (SACC) programs. Programs that provide child care for 5- to 14-year-olds when school is not in session.work-related child care programs. Child care programs funded by businesses for their employees’ children.