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© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.. 23 Child Care and Education in Group Settings.

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Presentation on theme: "© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.. 23 Child Care and Education in Group Settings."— Presentation transcript:

1 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

2 23 Child Care and Education in Group Settings

3 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Key Terms child care programs in-home child care au pairs nannies family child care center-based child care for-profit programs not-for-profit programs work-related child care programs school-age child care (SACC) programs child care resource and referral (CCR&R) agencies child development laboratories Head Start continued

4 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Key Terms Montessori schools kindergartens private programs fingerplays regulations public programs adult-child ratio developmentally appropriate practices (DAPs) developmentally inappropriate practices (DIPs) field trips culture shock bias hidden added costs hidden cost credits

5 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objective Trace the history of the major types of group programs for young children.

6 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Types of Group Programs Child care programs Child development laboratories Head Start Preschool (pre-kindergarten) programs Montessori schools Kindergartens Primary schools

7 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Child Care Programs Child care programs are programs that operate to care for children for extended hours Child care programs – often operate between 9–12 hours a day – provide basic care for children when parents are not available Many programs are providing education as well as care services

8 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Historical Overview European Infant Schools – late 1700s to early 1800s – served poor children until age five or six when they entered the workforce U.S. programs for poor families – middle of nineteenth century, urban areas – included education for parents continued

9 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Historical Overview Federal funds aided programs during – Great Depression of 1929 – WWII (1941–1945 for U.S.) child care programs declined after WWII Women entered the workforce – 1960s – care programs increased, poor quality

10 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Types of Child Care Programs In-home child care Family child care Center-based child care School-age child care

11 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. In-Home Child Care In-home child care takes place in the child’s own home In-home child care May be provided by parents, relatives, or nonrelatives Among dual-career parents, – about 27% of children under age five are cared for by a parent – a little more than one-fourth of children are cared for by a relative continued

12 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. In-Home Child Care Small percentage of children receive in-home care from nonrelatives – housekeepers often take care of the children and clean the house – au pairs provide care for children as part of a cultural exchange program au pairs – nannies may live in the home or come to the home daily nannies generally have specific training in child care

13 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Family Child Care Family child care is provided by a person for a small number of children in his or her own home Family child care May be run like a child care center About 13% of children are in family child care May offer more flexible hours May not be regulated

14 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Center-Based Child Care Center-based child care is a large group program in which child care is provided in a center (not a home) Center-based child care continued

15 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Center-Based Child Care About 29% of children under age five with working parents are in center- based child care Centers differ in the number of children they serve State licensing laws set the standards for all aspects of center-based child care programs continued

16 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Center-Based Child Care For-profit programs are set up to make money For-profit programs Not-for-profit programs make only enough profit to pay expenses Not-for-profit programs Work-related child care programs are sponsored by businesses for their employees’ children Work-related child care programs

17 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. School-Age Child Care (SACC) Programs School-age child care (SACC) programs provide care for 5- to 14-year-olds when school is out School-age child care (SACC) programs Includes before and after school, holidays, vacations, and during the summer Majority affiliated with schools or programs serving youth continued

18 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. School-Age Child Care (SACC) Programs Provide care, recreation, diversion (crafts, drama, field trips), education

19 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Trends in Child Care Programs More infant and toddler care Growth in SACC programs Growth in work-related child care programs Growth in child care resource and referral (CCR&R) agencies, which promote local programs and help parents find child carechild care resource and referral (CCR&R) agencies

20 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Child Development Laboratories Child development laboratories provide education and physical care for children under age five Child development laboratories – formerly called nursery schools Serve as research sites for child development experts – part of research and teaching universities Directed by child development experts

21 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Head Start Head Start is a federally sponsored program launched to meet the needs of children from low-income families Head Start Includes an educational component for parents Early Head Start serves children from birth through 35 months

22 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Preschool Programs Preschool programs usually refer to state-funded programs for three- and four-year-olds from families of low-income – also called pre- kindergartens continued

23 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Preschool Programs Some states offer universal preschools for all income levels Majority of children in preschools are in public school settings, but some attend Head Start

24 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Montessori Schools Montessori schools encourage children to learn independently through the use of highly specialized materials rather than direct input from teachers Montessori schools – self-correcting materials aid children’s independent work continued

25 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Montessori Schools Sensory learnings are a major focus Each child is in charge of his or her own learning

26 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Kindergartens Kindergartens are educational programs for four- and five-year-olds Kindergartens In the U.S., they are part of each state’s public education system Serves as an entrance to school education and gives children the chance to play and develop through various activities continued

27 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Kindergartens Rooted in Friedrich Froebel’s German private programs (programs owned by individuals, churches, others) private programs – enrolled children from ages three to seven years – provided teaching suggestions for mothers with younger children – taught children without the rote academic learning used for older children continued

28 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Kindergartens – planned many of the activities in use today examples: building blocks, beads, art materials, sand, fingerplays (poems/rhymes acted out with the hands) fingerplays

29 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Primary School Programs Kindergarten to age nine U.S. mandates attendance Each state sets learning standards

30 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. What Do You Think? Why do you think it is helpful to study the history of child care programs?

31 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objective Describe what to look for when choosing a quality program.

32 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Choosing a Group Program Regulations Housing and equipment Staff Parent communication and participation Program activities Cultural diversity continued

33 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Choosing a Group Program Care for children with special needs Other considerations Quality of group programs

34 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Regulations Regulations are standards that govern a group program Regulations – some regulations apply to all programs, some only to public programs (those funded by government)public programs Accredited programs have met even higher standards of quality through a professional organization

35 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Housing and Equipment Varies with the program goals Should meet the needs of the children in the program Should be safe and meet health standards Should be sanitary Should provide adequate space for comfort and activities

36 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Staff Adult-child ratio is the number of adults per number of children Adult-child ratio Numbers vary from state to state Numbers for group size and children per adult should be reduced if children with special needs are included continued

37 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Staff Age of children Group size Adult-child ratio 0 to 1 year61:3 1 to 2 years81:4 2 to 3 years121:6 3 to 6 years (excluding first grade) 181:9

38 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Parent Communication and Participation Teachers and caregivers should – convey the importance of parents – know about each family they serve – find ways to work with parents as a team – know the ways in which parents prefer to communicate with and participate in their children’s group program

39 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Program Activities Developmentally appropriate practices (DAPs) uses knowledge of Developmentally appropriate practices (DAPs) – child development – each child’s strengths, needs, interests, and culture Opposite of DAPs are developmentally inappropriate practices (DIPs) developmentally inappropriate practices (DIPs) continued

40 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Program Activities DAPs include Language learnings Social learnings Math learnings Creative fun Science learnings Motor skills continued

41 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Program Activities Many programs invite adults to share special skills – may be parents of children in program Field trips take children to places off the program’s property Field trips – fun way to learn about the community

42 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Cultural Diversity in Group Programs Affirm each child’s identity Respect diversity by making the program culturally rich – cultural shock may occur if children have an uncomfortable response to unfamiliar cultures cultural shock Help children learn that bias (unfair treatment) hurtsbias

43 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Child Care and Education for Children with Special Needs Inclusion is practiced – children with special needs are placed in classrooms with other children, while providing help for children who need it – diversity of all types is seen as positive Environment must be arranged Some activities must be adapted for children with special needs

44 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Other Considerations Special services may be needed Families often spend at least 10% of their total gross income on child care continued

45 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Other Considerations Hidden added costs are costs that add to the direct costs of child care Hidden added costs – transportation, supplies, disposable diapers, services or items donated to a child care program Hidden cost credits are credits that lower direct costs of child care Hidden cost credits – money from a second income, child- care tax credits

46 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Quality of Group Programs Signs of low-quality programs – parents cannot visit the program without asking in advance – staff members are not trained to work with young children – program does not take special interest in children’s needs – adults push children to perform above their abilities, causing them stress

47 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objective Explain the effects of group care and education on children’s development.

48 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Effects of Group Care on Children Effects on health – centers that enroll more than 50 children seem to have more illnesses Effects on mental development – little effect on the mental development of children from middle-class homes – programs targeting children from low- income homes need follow-up continued

49 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Effects of Group Care on Children Effects on social development – bonds between children and families are not affected – contact with peers tends to increase aggression in children teachers’ response to aggression is key parents can reduce possible aggression- promoting influences by limiting exposure to media portrayals of aggression

50 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objective Describe ways to help children adjust to group settings.

51 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Helping Children Adjust to Group Care Make adjustment seem casual Explain the program to children If children do not adapt, the cause of stress should be investigated – unannounced visits – discussion with teachers

52 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. What Do You Think? What do you think are the five most important considerations when choosing child care?

53 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. adult-child ratio. Number of adults per number of children in a group setting. au pairs. Professionals who provide child care for host families as part of a cultural exchange program. bias. Belief or feeling that results in unfair treatment of another person or makes such treatment seem right. Glossary of Key Terms

54 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. center-based child care. Large group program in which child care is provided in a center rather than in a home. child care programs. Programs that operate to care for children for extended hours (usually between 9 and 12 hours a day). Glossary of Key Terms

55 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. child care resource and referral (CCR&R) agencies. Agencies that promote local child care programs and help parents find child care. child development laboratories. Child care programs for children under age five that serve as research sites for child development experts. Glossary of Key Terms

56 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. culture shock. Uncomfortable response to an unfamiliar culture. developmentally appropriate practices (DAPs). Child care and education that uses knowledge about child development and considers each child’s strengths, needs, interests, and culture. Glossary of Key Terms

57 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. developmentally inappropriate practices (DIPs). Child care and education that do not use knowledge about child development and focus mainly on the group instead of each child. family child care. Care provided by a person for a small number of children in his or her own home. Glossary of Key Terms

58 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. field trips. Outings that take children to places away from a child care program’s property. fingerplays. Poems and rhymes that are acted out with the hands. for-profit programs. Programs set up to make money. Glossary of Key Terms

59 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Head Start. Federally sponsored program that was launched to meet the needs of children from low- income families. hidden added costs. Costs of child care that add to the direct costs. hidden cost credits. Credits that lower the direct costs of child care. Glossary of Key Terms

60 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. in-home child care. Child care that takes place in the child’s own home. kindergartens. Programs publicly and privately operated for four-and five- year-old children; serve as an entrance to school education. Glossary of Key Terms

61 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Montessori schools. Schools that encourage children to learn independently through the use of highly specialized materials. nannies. Professionals who contract with a family to provide in-home child care. not-for-profit programs. Child care programs in which income only covers costs. Glossary of Key Terms

62 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. private programs. Programs owned by individuals, churches, or other nongovernment groups. public programs. Child care programs funded by local, state, or federal government. regulations. Standards that govern a group program. Glossary of Key Terms

63 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. school-age child care (SACC) programs. Programs that provide child care for 5- to 14-year-olds when school is not in session. work-related child care programs. Child care programs funded by businesses for their employees’ children. Glossary of Key Terms


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