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121. Direct v. Indirect Relief Pages (unspecified)

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1 121. Direct v. Indirect Relief Pages (unspecified) 620-641
During the Great Depression, there were two types of relief for the American people, direct and indirect. Direct relief focused on providing aid firsthand to individuals and/or businesses, whereas indirect relief focused on creating programs to help people fend for themselves and, thus, not be dependent on other entities. President Hoover favored indirect relief, urged people to work harder (help themselves),and proposed many acts that functioned as loosed frameworks or crutches, including the Agricultural Marketing Act and the Hawley-Smoot Tariff. He also attempted a few direct relief programs such as the RFC, which provided large loans, but only to equally large financial institutions (banks, railroads, etc.). Overall, Hoover was in favor of indirect relief, whereas FDR (when elected) was in favor of direct relief. Eventually, a series of both direct and indirect relief programs, such as the SEC, AAA, FDIC, NRA, TVA, CCC, etc., would pull the U.S. out of the Great Depression and restore American confidence in the economy and federal government. (No specific date, but most used during the Great Depression ) © 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

2 122. Election of 1932 Pages This election was primarily between Herbert Hoover (Republican) and Franklin Delano Roosevelt (Democrat). FDR ran on the platform that he would offer more energetic efforts to help end the Great Depression than Hoover had done. Nobody doubted that FDR would win the election and, in 1932, FDR won by a landslide. He received 57.4% of the popular vote to Hoover’s 39.7% and won every state except Delaware, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine. The election of 1932 saw the American people mandate change and they would soon find it in the New Deal. © 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

3 123. Fireside Chats Page 628 During FDR’s Presidency, he introduced the concept of holding fireside chats. These were radio broadcasted speeches that Roosevelt gave while sitting fireside in the Whitehouse. He used these chats to explain his programs and plans to the people in simple terms. The fireside chats helped restore people’s confidence in the government, as they could now hear the president speak to them personally in their own homes, and produced a good image for the Roosevelt Administration. These chats occurred throughout FDR’s presidency. © 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

4 124. New Deal Legislation Pages 628-634
Legislation passed by the New Deal had one primary goal, helping to pull America out of the Great Depression and rebuild it. Emergency Banking Act (1932) Helped restore faith in the banks Glass-Steagall Act (1933) Created the FDIC and helped restore faith in the banks Securities & Exchange Commission (1933) Restored faith in the stock market Agricultural Adjustment Act (1933) Promoted agriculture and helped revive the industry and created the AAA National Industrial Recovery Act (1933) Helped promote socioeconomic growth and created the NRA Tennessee Valley Authority (1933) Revitalized the Tennessee Valley, improved water transportation, eliminated flooding in the area, and provided electricity to thousands who did not have it Federal Emergency Relief Administration (1933) Provided cash grants to prop up bankrupt relief agencies Civilian Conservation Corps (1933) Provided temporary jobs and thus aided in increasing economic flow © 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

5 125. “100 Days” Pages “100 Days” refers to FDR’s first one hundred days in office. During Franklin Roosevelt’s first “100 days,” he saw to the passage of many acts and the creation of many government-funded programs. He passed many acts in his attempts to relieve America from the Great Depression, including the Emergency Banking Act, the Glass-Steagall Act, and the National Industrial Recovery Act. The Emergency Banking Act helped to reform America’s banking system, by requiring federal inspection of banks and providing federal support to failing banks. The Glass-Steagall Act also helped to reform the banking system, by curbing irresponsible speculation by banks and creating the FDIC, which insured all bank accounts for up to $2,500. The National Industrial Recovery Act reformed the American working condition, by setting a minimum wage, setting a maximum work week, and banning child labor. Programs such as the SEC, AAA, and CCC helped society and the economy as well; the SEC provided stock market reform, the AAA provided helped to promote agriculture, and the CCC helped provide temporary jobs to the unemployed and raised environmental awareness. In short, FDR’s first “one hundred days” were extremely productive and showed the American public that he truly planned to help with the Great Depression, thus raising their confidence in both the government and in the economy. Date: The 100 Days after FDR’s Inauguration © 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

6 126. Social Security Pages 639-640
In 1935, FDR aided in the passage of the Social Security Act. It created several programs focused on need-based assistance. Helped increase the economic flow and restore confidence in the American government. Elderly Could receive up to $15/month Pension System Employers and employees contribute to a trust that provides them with monthly checks upon retirement. Unemployment Insurance Worked basically the same way as welfare People With Disabilities Received monthly aid due to their inability to perform well in workplaces Mothers Received monthly aid to help raise their children © 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

7 127. Court-Packing Plan Pages 642-643
In February 1937, FDR proposed an overhaul of the federal courts, wishing to add six new judges to the supreme court. He wanted to do this in order to give control of the Judicial Branch to the Democrats, as he had the power to choose the new judges. This created a large amount of dissent in the federal government and hurt FDR’s public image because people began to see him as power-hungry. Eventually, the issue was quelled by the Supreme Court, who voted on the topic and terminated it. © 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

8 Cash-and-Carry/Lend-Lease p.661,663
The Cash-and-carry said that in order for countries to trade with the United States, they would have to go to the United States, pay in cash, and ship and handle it themselves. This was enacted by The Lend-Lease allowed the United States government to lend or lease armaments to any nation deemed “pivotal to the defense of the United States. Congress enacted the bill in March 1941. Significance: These laws provided the Allies with needed supplies, and looked to help Great Britain and the Allies World War II. This kept Great Britain out of bankruptcy and in the war.

9 Attack on Pearl Harbor p.666-667
This was a Japanese bomb raid on Pearl Harbor on December 7, In this surprise attack on the United States, America lost major amounts of ships and aircraft, while Japan lost a very few number of airplanes. Significance: Even though this attack was a total blow out on the Americans, it actually had a positive affect on America and the Allies. Americans were now inspired to join the war effort in Europe, and they did after this attack. The Japanese also failed to take out any aircraft carriers, and they also did not take out other key aspects to America’s war effort. This attack led to the United States to join World War II, which would ultimately lead to the Allies’ victory.

10 Holocaust p This was the name given to the Nazi campaign to exterminate the Jews of Europe. The Nazis blamed the Jews for losing World War I, and therefore looked to purify Europe of all Jews by starting World War II. This lasted from Significance: This was extremely immoral and cruel. The Jews were put in concentration camps which meant emanate death. America did not know how bad this prosecution was, and therefore they did not intervene into the Holocaust. They were criticized for being immoral and not caring about the Jews.

11 Battle of Midway p.671 This was a battle on Midway Island which was not far from Hawaii. This was Japan’s last offensive against the United States in the Pacific Ocean in World War II. This victory for the United States was from June 3-6, 1942. Significance: Despite terrible losses, the United States held defeated the Japanese, and they totally decimate the Japanese navy. This gave the United States control of the Central Pacific. This was a major turning point in the battle in the Pacific.

12 D-Day Invasion p.689 This is Allied forces (mainly Great Britain, Canada, and the United States) land on the French beaches of Normandy on June 6, They attacked with three million troops and perhaps the greatest array of naval armaments ever assembled. Significance: The Allies’ defeat and break throughout the German lines who had been ready for the attack. This started the Allies’ last offensive on the Eastern front which would eventually lead to the invasion of Germany and the end of the war.

13 Battle of the Bulge p.689 This was Germany’s last offensive push against the Allies. In this battle (named for a large bulge that appeared in the American lines as the Germans passed forward), they drove 55 miles toward Antwerp before they were finally stopped at Bastogne. This battle happened from 16 December 1944 to 25 January 1945. Significance: This was the German’s last offensive push and their last hope to win the war. The Allies soundly defeat them and push them back into Germany. This battle was the last major battle on the Western front.

14 Battle of Leyte Gulf PG. 691 Date: 23–26 October 1944 SIG: The largest naval battle of World War II (4 Japanese aircraft carriers sunk), and by some considered the largest naval battle in history. This battle prevented Japan’s expansion into the South. The US successfully won this battle.

15 Battle of Okinawa PG. 691 Date: 1 April – 22 June 1945 SIG: Largest amphibious assault in the Pacific War of World War II. The battle was also Japan’s last offensive effort against the US. Kamikaze attacks were popular in this battle and lead to many casualties on both sides. The bombings on Hiroshima and Nagasaki caused Japan to surrender just weeks after the end of the fighting at Okinawa. The US won this battle.

16 Axis/Allies PG Date: 1939 – 1945 SIG: These were the two powers that fought against each other in World War II. The Axis powers consisted of Germany (Hitler), Italy (Mussolini) and Japan. The Allied powers consisted of the US (Roosevelt), Britain (Churchill) and the Soviet Union (Stalin).

17 Manhattan Project PG Date: 1942 – 1946 SIG: The best kept secret of WWII. This project was credited with the creation of the atomic bomb used at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Led by Robert Oppenheimer, with the project’s success of the creation of the atomic bomb, the US could finally and easily end the war against Japan by threatening them with the new weapon.

18 Containment Doctrine PG. 702-3, 708
Date: SIG: The policy created by the United States to prevent the spread of Communist subversion (attack from within) in the federal government. A component of the Cold War, this policy was launched in response to a series of moves by the Soviet Union to enlarge communist influence across the world. The doctrine also prevented Communism from increasing while instituting the basis of American foreign policy.

19 Alger Hiss/Rosenberg Case PG. 719
Date: SIG: Alger Hiss was involved in the establishment of the United Nations. He was later accused of being a Soviet spy in 1948 and convicted of perjury with this charge. Ethel and Julius Rosenberg were US citizens convicted of conspiracy to commit espionage during a time of war, and executed. Their charges were made on the account of passing info about the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union. Both Hiss and the Rosenberg’s lead to the growing fear of Communist subversion.

20 McCarthyism PG , 750-1 Date: SIG: Joseph McCarthy’s practice of accusing people of being Communist, disloyal, or treasonous without actual evidence. The Wisconsin-based Republican fought against Communist subversion in the US government. McCarthy’s accusatory speeches led to the growing fear of subversive Communism in the American government. Although there was no proof to back up his accusatory claims, he became very popular among the American people.

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