8 Cash-and-Carry/Lend-Lease p.661,663 The Cash-and-carry said that in order for countries to trade with the United States, they would have to go to the United States, pay in cash, and ship and handle it themselves. This was enacted by The Lend-Lease allowed the United States government to lend or lease armaments to any nation deemed “pivotal to the defense of the United States. Congress enacted the bill in March 1941.Significance: These laws provided the Allies with needed supplies, and looked to help Great Britain and the Allies World War II. This kept Great Britain out of bankruptcy and in the war.
9 Attack on Pearl Harbor p.666-667 This was a Japanese bomb raid on Pearl Harbor on December 7, In this surprise attack on the United States, America lost major amounts of ships and aircraft, while Japan lost a very few number of airplanes.Significance: Even though this attack was a total blow out on the Americans, it actually had a positive affect on America and the Allies. Americans were now inspired to join the war effort in Europe, and they did after this attack. The Japanese also failed to take out any aircraft carriers, and they also did not take out other key aspects to America’s war effort. This attack led to the United States to join World War II, which would ultimately lead to the Allies’ victory.
10 Holocaust pThis was the name given to the Nazi campaign to exterminate the Jews of Europe. The Nazis blamed the Jews for losing World War I, and therefore looked to purify Europe of all Jews by starting World War II. This lasted fromSignificance: This was extremely immoral and cruel. The Jews were put in concentration camps which meant emanate death. America did not know how bad this prosecution was, and therefore they did not intervene into the Holocaust. They were criticized for being immoral and not caring about the Jews.
11 Battle of Midway p.671This was a battle on Midway Island which was not far from Hawaii. This was Japan’s last offensive against the United States in the Pacific Ocean in World War II. This victory for the United States was from June 3-6, 1942.Significance: Despite terrible losses, the United States held defeated the Japanese, and they totally decimate the Japanese navy. This gave the United States control of the Central Pacific. This was a major turning point in the battle in the Pacific.
12 D-Day Invasion p.689This is Allied forces (mainly Great Britain, Canada, and the United States) land on the French beaches of Normandy on June 6, They attacked with three million troops and perhaps the greatest array of naval armaments ever assembled.Significance: The Allies’ defeat and break throughout the German lines who had been ready for the attack. This started the Allies’ last offensive on the Eastern front which would eventually lead to the invasion of Germany and the end of the war.
13 Battle of the Bulge p.689This was Germany’s last offensive push against the Allies. In this battle (named for a large bulge that appeared in the American lines as the Germans passed forward), they drove 55 miles toward Antwerp before they were finally stopped at Bastogne. This battle happened from 16 December 1944 to 25 January 1945.Significance: This was the German’s last offensive push and their last hope to win the war. The Allies soundly defeat them and push them back into Germany. This battle was the last major battle on the Western front.
14 Battle of Leyte Gulf PG. 691Date: 23–26 October 1944SIG: The largest naval battle of World War II (4 Japanese aircraft carriers sunk), and by some considered the largest naval battle in history. This battle prevented Japan’s expansion into the South. The US successfully won this battle.
15 Battle of Okinawa PG. 691Date: 1 April – 22 June 1945SIG: Largest amphibious assault in the Pacific War of World War II. The battle was also Japan’s last offensive effort against the US. Kamikaze attacks were popular in this battle and lead to many casualties on both sides. The bombings on Hiroshima and Nagasaki caused Japan to surrender just weeks after the end of the fighting at Okinawa. The US won this battle.
16 Axis/Allies PGDate: 1939 – 1945SIG: These were the two powers that fought against each other in World War II. The Axis powers consisted of Germany (Hitler), Italy (Mussolini) and Japan. The Allied powers consisted of the US (Roosevelt), Britain (Churchill) and the Soviet Union (Stalin).
17 Manhattan Project PGDate: 1942 – 1946SIG: The best kept secret of WWII. This project was credited with the creation of the atomic bomb used at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Led by Robert Oppenheimer, with the project’s success of the creation of the atomic bomb, the US could finally and easily end the war against Japan by threatening them with the new weapon.
18 Containment Doctrine PG. 702-3, 708 Date:SIG: The policy created by the United States to prevent the spread of Communist subversion (attack from within) in the federal government. A component of the Cold War, this policy was launched in response to a series of moves by the Soviet Union to enlarge communist influence across the world. The doctrine also prevented Communism from increasing while instituting the basis of American foreign policy.
19 Alger Hiss/Rosenberg Case PG. 719 Date:SIG: Alger Hiss was involved in the establishment of the United Nations. He was later accused of being a Soviet spy in 1948 and convicted of perjury with this charge. Ethel and Julius Rosenberg were US citizens convicted of conspiracy to commit espionage during a time of war, and executed. Their charges were made on the account of passing info about the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union. Both Hiss and the Rosenberg’s lead to the growing fear of Communist subversion.
20 McCarthyism PG , 750-1Date:SIG: Joseph McCarthy’s practice of accusing people of being Communist, disloyal, or treasonous without actual evidence. The Wisconsin-based Republican fought against Communist subversion in the US government. McCarthy’s accusatory speeches led to the growing fear of subversive Communism in the American government. Although there was no proof to back up his accusatory claims, he became very popular among the American people.