Presentation on theme: "Quick-Write 3/6 Based on your knowledge of Hitler, Mussolini, and Stalin, predict how the actions of these dictators led to the start of World War II."— Presentation transcript:
Quick-Write 3/6 Based on your knowledge of Hitler, Mussolini, and Stalin, predict how the actions of these dictators led to the start of World War II. How do you think Western democracies such as France, Britain, and the U.S. will respond to these dictators actions?
Objective: Analyze the threat to world peace posed by dictators in the 1930s and how the Western democracies responded. Be able to list specific actions of dictators that led to World War II.
Japanese Aggression Japanese military leaders thought Japan should have an empire equal to those of the Western powers. So, Japan seized Manchuria in 1931. League of Nations struck down this aggressive move- Japan withdraws Japanese also take over much of Eastern China and defeat China easily in the Second Sino-Japanese War.
Italian Aggression In 1935, Mussolini invaded Ethiopia. Ethiopian defense was no match for Mussolini’s tanks, machine guns, poison gas, and airplanes Ethiopian king appeals to the League of Nations for help, and they impose sanctions (penalties) on Italy. However, the League had no power to enforce the sanctions and by 1936, Italy conquered Ethiopia.
German Aggression Hitler defies (goes against) the Treaty of Versailles and builds up the German military He then sent his troops into the “demilitarized zone” of the Rhineland, another Treaty violation. The Western democracies denounced Hitler, but instituted a policy of appeasement- giving into the demands of an aggressor in order to keep the peace.
Appeasement Reasons for appeasement: France was demoralized from political divisions at home British wanted nothing to do with fighting Hitler, thought Germany was somewhat justified in their response Great Depression took the energy from all of the Western democracies Pacifism- opposition to all war Neutrality Acts- Forbade the sale of arms to any nation at war. Americans could also not travel on ships of warring nations. (Avoid involvement- not prevent) Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis is an agreement by Germany, Italy, and Japan (Axis Powers in WWII) to fight Soviet Communism
Spanish Civil War Francisco Franco leads the fascist Nationalists against the Loyalists, supporters of the republic. Supporters of the Nationalists: Germany (Hitler) Italy (Mussolini) Supporters of the Loyalists: Soviet Union (Stalin) Britain France U.S.
More German Aggression Hitler stayed aggressive, keeping in mind his goal of bringing all German-speaking people into the Third Reich. Hitler wanted to engineer the union of Austria and Germany, but the Austrian chancellor refused to give into Hitler’s demands. Hitler invades and annexes Austria. There was opposition and support of this move, but Hitler easily got his way since there was no action from Western democracies
More German Aggression After annexing Austria, Germany turns its attention to Czechoslovakia. Czechoslovakia and Finland were the only two democracies left in Europe. Hitler wanted the three million Germans in the Sudetenland (Western Czechoslovakia) to be given autonomy. At the Munich Conference (1938) British (Chamberlain) and French convince Czechs to give into Hitler’s demands and to surrender the Sudetenland without a fight.
Europe Moves Toward War In 1939, Hitler breaks his promises and takes over the rest of Czechoslovakia. Nazi-Soviet Pact- Bound Hitler and Stalin to peaceful relations (nonaggression) Also divided Poland and other parts of Eastern Europe between them. Advantage for Hitler- Did not want to fight war with Western democracies and Soviet Union at the same time. Advantage for Stalin- Protected the Soviet Union from the threat of war with Germany. Also, potential to gain land in Eastern Europe.
Invasion of Poland On September 1, 1939, a week after signing the Nazi- Soviet Pact, Germany invades Poland. Two days later, Britain and France end their policy of appeasement and declare war on Germany. This event marked the beginning of World War II as we know it.
Review Question #1 Giving into the demands of an aggressor in order to keep the peace is known as: A. Pacifism B. Neutrality C. Appeasement D. Militarism
Review Question #2 The opposition of all war is known as: A. Pacifism B. Neutrality C. Appeasement D. Nationalism
Review Question #3 The Primary purpose of the Neutrality Acts, passed by the United States Congress in the mid 1930s was to: A. Help bring a peaceful solution to the growing tension in Europe before war erupted B. Warn hostile nations that the United States would retaliate against aggression of any warring nation. C. Prepare the nation for their eventual involvement in the coming war in Europe. D. Avoid involvement in a European war altogether.
Review Question #4 Which of the following countries made up the Axis Powers? A. Great Britain, France, Russia, United States B. Japan, Germany, Italy C. Russia, Germany, Italy D. United States, Great Britain, France
Review Question #5 Adolf Hitler and Josef Stalin established a peaceful relationship between their nations in which historic agreement? A. Lend-Lease Act B. Fascist-Communist Pact C. Nazi-Soviet Pact D. Neutrality Acts
Review Question #6 One of the earliest signs of the threat posed by the Japanese was their 1931 invasion of: A. Korea B. Manchuria C. Russia D. Pearl Harbor
Review Question #7 Adolf Hitler Violated the Treaty of Versailles by: A. Refusing to pay reparations to the Allies B. Building up the German military C. Refusing to relinquish control of his colonies D. Dropping out of the League of Nations.
Review Question #8 At the Munich Conference of 1938, A. The British and the French convinced Czechoslovakia to give up the Sudetenland B. The United States allied with Britain and France to defend against German aggression C. The French gave control of the regions of Alsace and Lorraine to Germany D. Italy agreed to withdraw from Ethiopia, and Germany agreed to with draw from the Sudetenland
Review Question #9 Which country did Germany and the Soviet Union agree to divide up between them as a result of the Nazi-Soviet Pact? A. Czechoslovakia B. Poland C. France D. Hungary
Review Question #10 Which African country did Mussolini invade in 1935 that announced their aggressive intentions? A. Nigeria B. Libya C. Sudan D. Ethiopia
Exit Slip- In Depth Questions 1. What specific actions of Hitler, Stalin, and Mussolini led Europe into World War II. List one action for each dictator. 2. How did the Western democracies respond to the aggression of the Axis powers during the 1930s? 3. List three ways in which life be different if you were a citizen of Germany during the 1930s.