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Chapter 26: The Cold War.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 26: The Cold War."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 26: The Cold War

2 Section 1: Origins of the Cold War

3 What is the Cold War? Think, Pair, Share Activity
Independently THINK about what you know about the Cold War. Maybe key people, events, dates etc. Pair up with the person next to you. Discuss what you know Share with the classroom.

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5 Crash Course

6 United States v. Soviet Union
Allies against Germany in WWII The enemy of my enemy is my friend America: Capitalist Soviet Union: Communist The two countries did not agree on most things VS.

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8 Leaders Truman: American President
Conference in Potsdam, Germany as the newest member of the Big Three Angry when Stalin would not keep promise and allow democracy in the Soviet controlled parts of eastern Europe Stalin: Communist leader of Soviet Union Wanted Communism to control all countries in his power; thought capitalism was wrong

9 Stalin Truman

10 United Nations Representatives from many countries who became a peace keeping body. Goal to maintain global peace The U.S. and U.S.S.R. use UN to promote their ideas to other countries and it made the Cold War worse

11 UN, 1945

12 Potsdam Conference July 1945
Meeting between major countries involved in WWII Stalin refused to allow democracy in countries he controlled Truman knew that there would be trouble between the U.S. and U.S.S.R. This was the start of the Cold War

13 Churchill Truman Stalin

14 Tension Mounts Satellite nations: Pro-communist governments controlled by the U.S.S.R Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, and Poland Communism and Capitalism could not work together and another war was inevitable Truman suggested Containment: stopping the spread of communism to other countries “Iron Curtain”: the division between communist eastern Europe and capitalist western Europe

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19 US Aims vs. Soviet Aims in Europe
Encourage communism in other countries Rebuild eastern European countries hurt during the war Control eastern Europe to balance US power in western Europe Keep Germany divided so it would not get too powerful again Create a new world order: all countries to have self-determination Gain access to raw materials and markets Rebuild stable gov’ts in Europe and new markets for American goods Reunite Germany so it would be more productive

20 Containment The name of the US foreign policy during the start of the Cold War We did not want to let communism spread, we wanted to contain it

21 Truman Doctrine The US would give money to Greece and Turkey so they could fight off any attempt at a Communist take-over

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23 Marshall Plan Sec. Of State Marshall’s plan to give aid to any country whose people were suffering from poverty after the war : a terrible winter made things even worse for people who were struggling to rebuild after WWII This made the US look like heroes and communism did not spread in Western Europe

24 US and USSR fight over Germany

25 Fight over Germany After WWII, Germany split into zones
Attempt to take over American controlled Berlin, Stalin closed off all access to the city Berlin Airlift: 327 days of British and American planes flying over Berlin and dropping supplies to the people stuck in the city (food, fuel, medicine, Christmas presents, etc.) By May 1949, Soviet Union admitted defeat and lifted the blockade

26 NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Belgium, Denmark, France, Great Britain, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, United States, and Canada A military alliance: All these countries agreed that they would defend each other if one was attacked Greece, Turkey, and West Germany joined in the 1950s

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28 NATO It had a standing army of 500,000 troops so other countries did not want to attack members of NATO

29 EQ: How did the policy of containment impact the Economic, Political, and Militaristic issues throughout the world?

30 Task read the 4 documents which relate to the policy of containment.
Once you have completed each reading, use the graphic organizer below to write down key quotes, ideas, and concepts which relate to our essential question. For each quote formulate 1 questions which relates to the quote. You should have at least 5 quotes for each document.

31 Section 2 The Cold War Heats Up

32 China Becomes a Communist Country
Chiang Kai-shek:  nationalist leader supported by America ($3 billion) Mao Zedong: Communist leader who led his side to victory and established a Communist government after the war The nationalists led by Kai-shek fled to Taiwan; America and the UN refused to accept the Peoples Republic of China (the communist government)

33 The Korean War Japan controlled Korea 1910-1945
1945: Japan surrendered North of 38th Parallel to Soviets and South of the 38th to Americans 1950: N. Korea led a sneak attack on S. Korea S. Korea asked UN for help; the Soviets boycotted the UN because Taiwan was recognized, not the P.R.C. Truman sent troops from occupied Japan to Korea

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36 The Korean War 16 nations sent 520,000 troops to help S. Korea (90% were American) 590,000 S. Korean troops Troops led by Gen. Douglas MacArthur The Chinese support the N. Koreans Both sides fought to hold the 38th Parallel : Peace talks last 2 years, war ends in stalemate Account:

37 MacArthur vs. Truman MacArthur wanted to wage full
scale war against China Truman refused to go along with this idea MacArthur tried to go around Truman by talking to the media and other politicians Truman fired MacArthur MacArthur was a WWII hero and many people backed him – he came home to a hero’s welcome

38 Reading Like a Historian
Korean War Read the two textbook accounts Complete the organizer

39 Follow-Up Discussion According to each textbook, how did the Korean War start? Which of these textbooks do you find more trustworthy? Why? Where else would you look in order to figure out how the Korean War started? Which textbook comes from North Korea? Which comes from South Korea?

40 26-3 The Cold War at Home

41 Fear of Communist Influence
Loyalty Review Board: a group that investigated gov’t workers and their possible disloyal behavior : 3.2 Million employees reviewed. Dismissed 212 as being security risks. 2,900 people resigned

42 Fear of Communist Influence
House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) – investigated communist activity in the movie industry Hollywood Ten: movie industry workers who refused to testify because of their civil liberties Blacklist: list of movie industry workers who were suspected communists who couldn’t get work https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nJzV6-wJ3SQ

43 Spy Cases The secret of how to make an Atomic Bomb had been leaked to the Soviets by spies Alger Hiss: was accused of spying by a convicted spy, no hard evidence, was convicted of perjury and sent to jail Richard Nixon gained fame from prosecuting this case Ethel and Julius Rosenberg: were implicated by a scientist of espionage (spying) and were sentenced to death even though they plead the 5th Amendment during their trial

44 Hollywood v. HUAC Activity
How did influential people respond to the threats of McCarthyism? Why were some witnesses “friendly” and some “Unfriendly”? Read the testimonies of your character Complete the graphic organizer as it relates!

45 Joseph McCarthy Republican senator from Wisconsin Anti-communist
Charged that Communist were taking over the government

46 McCarthy’s Tactics McCarthyism: unfair tactic of accusing people of disloyalty without providing evidence Claimed that he had 57, 81, and 205 names of Communists in the State Department

47 McCarthy’s Downfall Accusations made against the U.S Army
Seen as bullying service men Loss of support Senate condemned him for improper conduct “tended to bring the Senate into dishonor and dispute.” Died of alcoholism

48 Causes and Effects of McCarthyism
Millions of Americans forced to take Loyalty Oaths Activism by labor unions decline People afraid to speak out on public issues Anti-Communism drives foreign policy Soviets successfully establish Communist regimes after WWII Soviets develop Atomic bomb Korean War ends in stalemate Causes Effects

49 McCarthy Political Cartoon Activity
Complete the student analysis worksheet Be prepared to share details with the classroom about the political cartoon. We will discuss in 10 minutes

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56 What people did McCarthy find suspicious? Why these people?
What groups did McCarthy find suspicious? Why? What aspects of daily life were affected by the fear of communism in America? What constitutional rights were affected by this fear generated by Joseph McCarthy? Why were people so willing to believe Joseph McCarthy’s accusations?

57 McCarthyism in 10 minutes

58 26-4 Two Nations Live on the Edge

59 Brinkmanship Our policy of being on the edge of all out war with the Soviets during the beginning of the Cold War H-Bomb: hydrogen bomb; 67 times stronger than the A-Bomb dropped on Hiroshima Dwight D. Eisenhower: President from John Foster Dulles: Sec. of State under Eisenhower

60 Cold War Throughout the World
CIA: Central Intelligence Agency; investigated issues for the American government that occurred in other countries Use of Spies to gather information Installed governments

61 Warsaw Pact Thawing of relations w/ Soviets after Stalin's Death- 1953
1955 West Germany joins NATO Soviet Union Responds with Warsaw Pact Military Alliance with 7 Eastern European countries- Buffer States

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63 Suez War 1955; Egypt tried to play the Soviet Union and USA against each other for control over the Suez Canal US discovers they were working w/ Soviets Withdraw loan offer Nationalize Suez Canal

64 Suez War Egyptian Leader Gamal Abdel-Nasser wont allow ships to travel to Israel British, French, and Israeli troops unite UN resolved conflict, allowing all ships to pass through, however; Egypt continues to control canal

65 Eisenhower Doctrine The US will defend the Middle East against any attempt at Communist take-over

66 Cold War / Space Race Nikita Khrushchev: took over the Soviet Union after Stalin’s death in 1953 Sputnik: The Soviet launched satellite that orbited the earth This prompted America to invest heavily in our space program and science \ math in public schools U-2 Incident: When Francis Gary Powers was shot down over the Soviet Union in his U2 spy plane


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