3What is the Cold War? Think, Pair, Share Activity Independently THINK about what you know about the Cold War. Maybe key people, events, dates etc.Pair up with the person next to you. Discuss what you knowShare with the classroom.
8Leaders Truman: American President Conference in Potsdam, Germany as the newest member of the Big ThreeAngry when Stalin would not keep promise and allow democracy in the Soviet controlled parts of eastern EuropeStalin: Communist leader of Soviet UnionWanted Communism to control all countries in his power; thought capitalism was wrong
10United NationsRepresentatives from many countries who became a peace keeping body. Goal to maintain global peaceThe U.S. and U.S.S.R. use UN to promote their ideas to other countries and it made the Cold War worse
12Potsdam Conference July 1945 Meeting between major countries involved in WWIIStalin refused to allow democracy in countries he controlledTruman knew that there would be trouble between the U.S. and U.S.S.R.This was the start of the Cold War
14Tension MountsSatellite nations: Pro-communist governments controlled by the U.S.S.RAlbania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, and PolandCommunism and Capitalism could not work together and another war was inevitableTruman suggested Containment: stopping the spread of communism to other countries“Iron Curtain”: the division between communist eastern Europe and capitalist western Europe
19US Aims vs. Soviet Aims in Europe Encourage communism in other countriesRebuild eastern European countries hurt during the warControl eastern Europe to balance US power in western EuropeKeep Germany divided so it would not get too powerful againCreate a new world order: all countries to have self-determinationGain access to raw materials and marketsRebuild stable gov’ts in Europe and new markets for American goodsReunite Germany so it would be more productive
20ContainmentThe name of the US foreign policy during the start of the Cold WarWe did not want to let communism spread, we wanted to contain it
21Truman DoctrineThe US would give money to Greece and Turkey so they could fight off any attempt at a Communist take-over
23Marshall PlanSec. Of State Marshall’s plan to give aid to any country whose people were suffering from poverty after the war: a terrible winter made things even worse for people who were struggling to rebuild after WWIIThis made the US look like heroes and communism did not spread in Western Europe
25Fight over Germany After WWII, Germany split into zones Attempt to take over American controlled Berlin, Stalin closed off all access to the cityBerlin Airlift: 327 days of British and American planes flying over Berlin and dropping supplies to the people stuck in the city (food, fuel, medicine, Christmas presents, etc.)By May 1949, Soviet Union admitted defeat and lifted the blockade
26NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization Belgium, Denmark, France, Great Britain, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, United States, and CanadaA military alliance: All these countries agreed that they would defend each other if one was attackedGreece, Turkey, and West Germany joined in the 1950s
28NATOIt had a standing army of 500,000 troops so other countries did not want to attack members of NATO
29EQ: How did the policy of containment impact the Economic, Political, and Militaristic issues throughout the world?
30Task read the 4 documents which relate to the policy of containment. Once you have completed each reading, use the graphic organizer below to write down key quotes, ideas, and concepts which relate to our essential question.For each quote formulate 1 questions which relates to the quote. You should have at least 5 quotes for each document.
32China Becomes a Communist Country Chiang Kai-shek: nationalist leader supported by America ($3 billion)Mao Zedong: Communist leader who led his side to victory and established a Communist government after the warThe nationalists led by Kai-shek fled to Taiwan;America and the UN refused to accept the Peoples Republic of China (the communist government)
33The Korean War Japan controlled Korea 1910-1945 1945: Japan surrendered North of 38th Parallel to Soviets and South of the 38th to Americans1950: N. Korea led a sneak attack on S. KoreaS. Korea asked UN for help; the Soviets boycotted the UN because Taiwan was recognized, not the P.R.C.Truman sent troops from occupied Japan to Korea
36The Korean War16 nations sent 520,000 troops to help S. Korea (90% were American)590,000 S. Korean troopsTroops led by Gen. Douglas MacArthurThe Chinese support the N. KoreansBoth sides fought to hold the 38th Parallel: Peace talks last 2 years, war ends in stalemateAccount:
37MacArthur vs. Truman MacArthur wanted to wage full scale war against ChinaTruman refused to go along with this ideaMacArthur tried to go around Truman by talking to the media and other politiciansTruman fired MacArthurMacArthur was a WWII hero and many people backed him – he came home to a hero’s welcome
38Reading Like a Historian Korean WarRead the two textbook accountsComplete the organizer
39Follow-Up DiscussionAccording to each textbook, how did the Korean War start?Which of these textbooks do you find more trustworthy? Why?Where else would you look in order to figure out how the Korean War started?Which textbook comes from North Korea? Which comes from South Korea?
41Fear of Communist Influence Loyalty Review Board: a group that investigated gov’t workers and their possible disloyal behavior: 3.2 Million employees reviewed. Dismissed 212 as being security risks. 2,900 people resigned
42Fear of Communist Influence House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) – investigated communist activity in the movie industryHollywood Ten: movie industry workers who refused to testify because of their civil libertiesBlacklist: list of movie industry workers who were suspected communists who couldn’t get workhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nJzV6-wJ3SQ
43Spy CasesThe secret of how to make an Atomic Bomb had been leaked to the Soviets by spiesAlger Hiss: was accused of spying by a convicted spy, no hard evidence, was convicted of perjury and sent to jailRichard Nixon gained fame from prosecuting this caseEthel and Julius Rosenberg: were implicated by a scientist of espionage (spying) and were sentenced to death even though they plead the 5th Amendment during their trial
44Hollywood v. HUAC Activity How did influential people respond to the threats of McCarthyism?Why were some witnesses “friendly” and some “Unfriendly”?Read the testimonies of your characterComplete the graphic organizer as it relates!
45Joseph McCarthy Republican senator from Wisconsin Anti-communist Charged that Communist were taking over the government
46McCarthy’s TacticsMcCarthyism: unfair tactic of accusing people of disloyalty without providing evidenceClaimed that he had 57, 81, and 205 names of Communists in the State Department
47McCarthy’s Downfall Accusations made against the U.S Army Seen as bullying service menLoss of supportSenate condemned him for improper conduct “tended to bring the Senate into dishonor and dispute.”Died of alcoholism
48Causes and Effects of McCarthyism Millions of Americans forced to take Loyalty OathsActivism by labor unions declinePeople afraid to speak out on public issuesAnti-Communism drives foreign policySoviets successfully establish Communist regimes after WWIISoviets develop Atomic bombKorean War ends in stalemateCausesEffects
49McCarthy Political Cartoon Activity Complete the student analysis worksheetBe prepared to share details with the classroom about the political cartoon.We will discuss in 10 minutes
56What people did McCarthy find suspicious? Why these people? What groups did McCarthy find suspicious? Why?What aspects of daily life were affected by the fear of communism in America?What constitutional rights were affected by this fear generated by Joseph McCarthy?Why were people so willing to believe Joseph McCarthy’s accusations?
59BrinkmanshipOur policy of being on the edge of all out war with the Soviets during the beginning of the Cold WarH-Bomb: hydrogen bomb; 67 times stronger than the A-Bomb dropped on HiroshimaDwight D. Eisenhower: President fromJohn Foster Dulles: Sec. of State under Eisenhower
60Cold War Throughout the World CIA: Central Intelligence Agency; investigated issues for the American government that occurred in other countriesUse of Spies to gather informationInstalled governments
61Warsaw Pact Thawing of relations w/ Soviets after Stalin's Death- 1953 1955 West Germany joins NATOSoviet Union Responds with Warsaw PactMilitary Alliance with 7 Eastern European countries- Buffer States
63Suez War1955; Egypt tried to play the Soviet Union and USA against each other for control over the Suez CanalUS discovers they were working w/ SovietsWithdraw loan offerNationalize Suez Canal
64Suez WarEgyptian Leader Gamal Abdel-Nasser wont allow ships to travel to IsraelBritish, French, and Israeli troops uniteUN resolved conflict, allowing all ships to pass through, however; Egypt continues to control canal
65Eisenhower DoctrineThe US will defend the Middle East against any attempt at Communist take-over
66Cold War / Space RaceNikita Khrushchev: took over the Soviet Union after Stalin’s death in 1953Sputnik: The Soviet launched satellite that orbited the earthThis prompted America to invest heavily in our space program and science \ math in public schoolsU-2 Incident: When Francis Gary Powers was shot down over the Soviet Union in his U2 spy plane