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CST Review Terms P2 1920’s- WWII. 1920’s Government (return to Laissez-Faire end of Progressivism) – Return to Normalcy Americans want to return to isolationism.

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Presentation on theme: "CST Review Terms P2 1920’s- WWII. 1920’s Government (return to Laissez-Faire end of Progressivism) – Return to Normalcy Americans want to return to isolationism."— Presentation transcript:

1 CST Review Terms P2 1920’s- WWII

2 1920’s Government (return to Laissez-Faire end of Progressivism) – Return to Normalcy Americans want to return to isolationism and laissez- faire – Teapot Dome Scandal Worst scandal of Harding Admin (Navy oil leased to Rep. backers)

3 Fears at Home – KKK (Why did it become popular?) Xenophobia (fear of immigrants) and modernity (women have rights, lifestyle changes, technology) – Red Scare (define/ Who was the enemy?) Fear of Communism (spread by New Immigrants/Russians) Sacco and Vanzetti – 2 Italian immigrants executed for murder (innocent, guilty of being immigrants)

4 Palmer Raids – Gov. rounds up suspected Communists (deport thousands of immigrants, no evidence) Immigration Act of 1924 (define/What group did it target?) – Limits New Immigrants to US (1% based on 1890 census), no Japanese immigration

5 Harlem Renaissance (define) – Growth of Af/Am culture as different and beautiful (Langston Hughes) – Marcus Garvey UNIA- Back to Africa, black pride – Why Harlem? Great Migration- many blacks moved to NYC and it was large enough to support a separate black culture (no segregation)

6 Prohibition – 18 th Amendment Banned alcohol (Volstead Act) – Supporters? Opponents? Supporters- Christians (Fundamentalists- word for word belief in bible), women, rural areas Opponents- immigrants, urbanites (cities) – Crime (why? Al Capone/Chicago) Illegality increased the price of booze Al Capone/Chicago- largest bootlegger, control of Chicago meant control of alcohol in middle America

7 Popular Culture – National culture- Americans want to be like stars, loss of regional culture – Jazz Most popular music, invented by Af/Am – Radio Most popular form of entertainment (brought into home) – Charles Lindbergh 1 st to fly across the Atlantic (shows air travel is possible) Industry (industry becomes more efficient) – Henry Ford/Model T/Assembly Line 1 st affordable car b/c each worker had only one task manufacturing car (more cars=lower price)

8 1930’s Rugged Individualism (gov. role in helping?) Great Depression Hoover Presidency (Laissez-Faire- did not know how to solve such a huge crisis) – Stock Market Crash (define) Prices of stocks plunge (investors lose money, banks go out of business, depositors lose savings) Buying on Margin – 10% down, borrow 90% to buy stocks » Problem- helped artificially raise prices, people could not pay back debt when market crashed – Hoover felt charities should help people, Gov. welfare would make people lazy

9 – Bonus Army WWI veterans who marched on Wash. D.C. to demand war bonuses early (chased out by Hoover and army, made Hoover look like he did not care about ordinary people) – Hoovervilles Name given to slums mocking president – Dust Bowl Farms dry up (drought, overgrazing), – Okies- farmers from Ok. Who lose farms and move to CA. » Grapes of Wrath- book depicting their plight

10 President FDR – New Deal (change in role of gov.?) – Gov. becomes a safety net to help people in need (not just to protect your rights), gov. creates jobs and services CCC – Young people to work on conservation projects (forests, campgrounds) » Meant to get young hoods out of cities AAA – Paid farmers not to grow, destroyed crops and livestock to increase food prices » Problem- people are starving and food is being destroyed Social Security – Old age pension » Meant to get elderly to retire and hire younger workers (prevent elderly homelessness)

11 FDIC – Gov insures deposits in banks » Meant to get people in banks so money can circulate TVA – Gov builds dams and brings electricity to backwards area » Some afraid of creeping Socialism (Gov. involvement in industry) – Court Packing Scheme FDR tries to add judges to Supreme Court to get SC to support his New Deal programs – FDR’s biggest mistake (becoming a bit totalitarian)

12 World War II Beginning of War – Poland Invasion by Germany marks beginning of war (1939) – US neutrality US stays out of war but provides supplies to Eng and Fr but they need to pay first (cash and Carry) – Atlantic Charter Eng and US promise not to take land and instead fight for freedom (Four Freedoms) – Lend Lease Act US supplies Eng. With all of the supplies it needs to hold off Germany – Pearl Harbor Dec. 7,1941 Jap. surprise attack on US navy, US declares war – Holocaust Nazis kills 7 mil. Jews

13 War at Home – African-Americans Great Migration – Af/Am leave S. and move west (LA, Oak.) and North Segregation – Af/Am. Fought in separate units from whites » Pres Truman desegregates the army after WWII (1 st act by a Pres. since Civil War for civil rights) – Tuskeegee Airmen » Only Af/Am. Fighter plane squad (highly decorated) – Women Rosie the Riveter – Symbol of women factory workers

14 – Japanese Interment (Why?) – Jap. attacked US, easy to isolate (CA, diff. looking) – Korematsu vs. US » Allowed Gov. to arrest Jap. and put them in concentration/internment camps 442 Unit – Jap/Am. Army unit (most decorated in war/brave) – Mexicans (deferment?) Farm labor (Bracero program) not subject to draft Zoot Suit Riots – Sailors beat up Pachucos (cool, young Mex.) in oversized suits, Mex. arrested – Rationing Limits on what people could purchase

15 Fighting – Strategy Europe first, then Japan (explain, how did this strategy change?) – US started winning against Japanese (at Midway), begin fighting both at same time Island Hopping – Strategy to get close enough to Japan to bomb and invade by taking islands across the Pacific – D-Day Invasion of Europe by Allies (largest amphibious and multi- national assault ever) – Battle of the Bulge Ger. last offensive (huge casualties), Ger. about to lose

16 – Midway Turning point of was in Pacific (June 42), all naval air battle – Kamikazee Suicide Jap. pilots End of War – Atomic Bomb Manhattan Project – Project to build bomb (Robert Oppenheimer- leader) Hiroshima, Nagasaki – 2 cities destroyed by A-Bomb Reason to drop the bomb – End war (save US lives by not invading Japan) – Scare Stalin- prevent USSR time to take land in Asia

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