4 How do the Ojibwe come to be on the reservations? Series of treaties cedes land to governmentDefinition: to relinquish (hand over) lands in your possession
5 1837 “Pine Tree Treaty” Results: ~1/2 of WI ceded Why: Govt. wants pine in north woodsTerms:Govt. pays Indians - $19,000Indians retain “traditional” rights to landsProblemsDivision of $Understanding meaning of languages
6 View from Lake Superior shoreline 1842 “Copper Treaty”Cession of lands for mining around Lake SuperiorIndians need money… agreeTreaty hints at removalView from Lake Superior shoreline
7 Indians React Ojibwe send delegation to D.C. Issues to discuss Leader: Chief BuffaloInterpreter Benjamin ArmstrongIssues to discussRemoval orderWrongs done to Indians“traditional rights” agreed upon in ceded areas
9 “Symbolic Petition of the Chippewa Chiefs, 1849” Delegation to Washington carried this pictograph with them indicating theirwants. The animals represent the various Lake Superior clans traveling alongLake Superior. Their unity of purpose is depicted by the lines linking togetherTheir hears and eyes to a chain of wild rice lakes in ceded territory south ofLake Superior.
11 Indian pictograph that was sent to Washington to show the president how the Indians felt about him and what they were willing to do.
12 Result of trip: 1854 Treaty at La Pointe Terms of TreatyRefuse to cede more land until reservations in WI establishedTakes 20 yrs for land to be chosen & givenAllotment of individual Indian landsIndividual Indians earn titles to landIndians forced to sell lands… don’t understand TAXES
13 Life on the Reservations 1922 Lac du Flambeau IndianIndustrial Survey
14 What is the 1922 Industrial Survey? Government wanted to know how Indians on the reservations were doingSent workers out to visit Indians to find outDocument is housed in the Regional National Archives in Chicago
15 AssignmentWith a partner read your section of the 1922 survey and in your journals complete the following three parts:1.What did you learn about the Lac du Flambeau Indians living on the reservation during this time?- be specific with your observations & be sure to look at various aspects of their lives… what can you learn about them
16 Assignment continued2. What questions do you have when looking at this document? What would you like to learn more about?3. Make a comparison of life for the Indians on the reservations and life for white people not part of the reservations that we have learned about.Create a Venn diagram to complete your comparison of the different cultures
17 1922 Industrial Survey Discussion What did you learn about life on the reservations during the 1920s?What questions did you have while reading this survey?What did you find particularly interesting about the survey?Do you think that the surveyors held any bias while completing the survey of the Indians? If so explain.
18 The Depression and Indian New Deal What are the conditions in Indian reservations at this time?Government commissions a study to find out:The Problem of Indian Administration, 1928 (the Meriam Report)Actions after study:Revised Bureau of Indian Affairs and the Indian Reorganization Act
19 AssignmentRead the segment of the Meriam Report that is handed out and answer the six worksheet questions
20 Meriam Report: “The Work of the Government in Behalf of the Indians” “The work of the government directed toward the education and advancement of the Indian himself… is largely ineffective.”
21 Some Findings on Government Management (Meriam Report) Poorly trained educators for school & lifeLack of $ = poor health care systemEducation in boarding schools most commonPoor diets, crowded living quartersUnder-trained teachersInflexibility of curriculum – expect same from all students (even those who don’t speak English)Little Economic development on reservationsLittle agricultural trainingFew jobs on/off reservation1. Lack of well trained professionals and lack of good broad educational programs. Education includes school training for children but also activities for the training of adults to aid them in adjusting themselves to the dominant social and economic life which confronts them. The educational program should include education in economic production & in living standards necessary for the maintenance of health and decency.Lack of adequate funding has lead to a poor public health administration and medical relief work for Indians. The number of doctors, nurses, and dentists is insufficient. These health professionals can make more money in other areas of government work or the private sector. This lack of trained personal has lead the Indians to allow under-trained or poorly trained health professionals to treat their communities. Hospitals, sanatoria and sanatoriums are under equipped and under staffed. There also seems to be a lack of preventative health care among the Indians as little has been done to combat the two major health problems of TB and Trachoma.Although the general policy of the Indian service has been directed away from the boarding school for Indian children and toward the public schools and Indian day schools it is still the fact that the boarding school, either reservation or non-reservation, is the dominant characteristic of the school system maintained by the national government for its Indian ward. The survey staff found that the provisions for the care of the Indian children in boarding schools are grossly inadequate. Many of the children are below normal health. The diet is deficient in quantity, quality, and variety. Major diseases also spread because of the poor diet and crowded living conditions (TB & Trachoma).Lack of properly trained leadership on reservations. With the idea of making the Indians into farmers, there has been little training of the Indians and therefore little success in becoming farmers.
22 Indian Boarding School – Tomah, WI Date: 1912Date:
23 Life on the Reservations Lac du Flambeau family – notice what’s in the background.
24 Discussion… speculation!! How do you think the Great Depression affects Indians on the reservations?Why do you think life on the reservations was so poor at this time?
25 “Indian New Deal” 1924 – Indians received full citizenship John Collier – commissioner of Indian affairs (appointed by FDR)Indian Reorganization Act 1934Moves away from assimilation toward Indian autonomyHelps restore some reservation lands to tribal ownershipIndian New Deal1924 – receive full citizenship by law1933 – FDR appoints John Collier as commissioner of Indian affairsCollier helps create Indian Reorganization Act of 1934This act marks an extreme change in government policyMoves away from assimilation and toward Indian autonomyalso helps to restore some reservation lands to tribal ownership
27 “Indian New Deal” continued… Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 (IRA)Mandates changes in 3 areasEconomic – Indian lands would belong to entire tribe… prevents lands from being sold offCultural - # of boarding schools cut & children allowed to attend reservation schoolPolitical – tribes given permission to elect tribal councils to rule their reservations1. Economic – Lands belong to an entire tribe. This provision strengthened Indian land claims by prohibiting the government form taking over unclaimed reservation lands and selling them to people other than Indians.2. Cultural – The number of Indian boarding schools is finally reduced and now Indian children can attend schools on their home reservations instead of being shipped out to these boarding schools.
28 Mixed Reactions to IRA: 174 tribes accept / 78 tribes reject LikeRegained lost reservation landsMoved forward in education / cultural preservationMore control over affairsDislikeIndians disliked changes of govt. structureUnderestimates diversity of tribeswhite men still telling Indians what’s best for them
30 WWII – Iconic Images Turn to page 788 in your text. Class reading & discussion of questions
31 A Closer Look at Ira Hayes Pima Indian (Arizona)Chief told him to be a “honorable warrior”Joined Marines – parachutist“Chief Falling Cloud” – respected marineBecame part of Iwo Jima battle & helped raise flagPlay Johnny Cash’s “Ballad of Ira Hayes”
32 The Picture Changed His Life… Traveled country as heroStruggled w/ “hero” statusAfter publicity tour returned to his reservationWants anonymity… people write hundreds of letters / stop by to see himUses alcohol to ease painDies of exposure at age of 333 of 6 flag raiser were killed shortly afterHayes goes home a hero but struggles w/ the concept… At the White House, President Truman told Ira, "You are an American hero." But Ira didn't feel pride. As he later lamented, "How could I feel like a hero when only five men in my platoon of 45 survived, when only 27 men in my company of 250 managed to escape death or injury?"Couldn’t understand why people insisted he was a hero when he “hadn’t done very much” – plus b/c of the positive publicity the photo had for military he couldn’t say anythingEventually even stated he wished he hadn’t been one of the men in the photoBecomes an alcoholic & gets into trouble, arrestedSays he’s “cracked” just thinking about all of his buddies that never made it back homeNever married… buried at Arlington Cemetery a “hero to everyone except himself”
33 How involved were Indians in WWII? No group that participated in World War II made a greater per capita contribution, and no group was changed more by the war.44,000 Indians saw service / 350,000 Indians in U.S. (Roughly 12% of the Indian Pop.)This represented 1/3 of all able-bodied Indian men from 18 to 50 years of ageHow involved were Indians (as a whole) in WWII? Is the story of Ira Hayes one that we learn just because he was on a famous picture?- Yes & No: Yes specifically we look at Ira Hayes because of this picture and his recognized status as a “hero” but there is also a larger story here we should recognize – the role of Indians in WWII and it’s effect on them.
34 Navajo code talkers in the Pacific - USMC Indians in WWIIPearl Harbor awakens “warrior spirit” among IndiansMany volunteerIndian Nations declare war on Axis powersIndians distinguish themselves as warriorsNavajo “code talkers” allow U.S. to send messages that would never be broken by JapaneseIndian men look at wars (WWI & WWII) as a way to prove themselves as warriors. In Indian tribes being a warrior really defined a young man’s statusIndians also look at this as an economic opportunity – both in the service and working in the factories at home for the war effortA 1942 survey indicated that 40 percent more Native Americans voluntarily enlisted than had been drafted.Because Indian tribes were considered sovereign nations they declared war on Germany and the Axis powers b/c of thatAccording to the Selective Service in 1942, at least 99 percent of all eligible Indians, healthy males aged 21 to 44, had registered for the draft.If you’ve seen the movie “Wind Talkers” w/ Nick Cage you should understand that the personal body guards assigned to the code talkers were not supposed to kill them before falling into the hands of the Japanese, but to protect them from their own… Many soldiers hadn’t seen Indians before and there could be some mistakes about what a “Jap” looked like or to make sure prejudice didn’t get in the way of letting the code talkers do their work.Also you should realize that the Navajo language wasn’t the first Indian language used in war… WWI they used the Chactow language for code (Michigan & Wisconsin Indians were involved in this unit during WWI)Even the Germans were aware of this… between WWI & WWII they sent Germans posing to be anthropologist to Indian reservations in the U.S. so that they could learn the language and culture of the Indians so when war broke again they’d be prepared.Navajo code talkers in the Pacific - USMC
35 Indians in WWIINot all served in the military… many were in the factories~40,000 Indians work in factoriesPurchase war bondsDonated money to Red CrossWomen learn new roles – on & off reservations
36 WWII Impact on Indians Causes Indians to move to cities Exposes Indians to white man’s world…+ Learn about education, health care, economic possibilities, many opportunitiesDon’t want to lose tribal identity & custom… work to further promote their interests** Begin to work within both worlds
37 Navajo Code Activity GOOD LUCK!! Complete the Navajo Code Activity SheetGOOD LUCK!!
38 Ojibwe Treaty Rights… Today The Wisconsin Spearfishing Controversy
39 What was the issue?During the 1980s many Ojibwe Indians decided to use their off-reservation hunting rights as given to them by mid-19th Century treatiesSome non-Indians felt that this would lead to the closing of certain bodies of water to sport fishers who wanted to fish walleye and eventually hurt tourism in Northern Wisconsin
40 This is an example of the spear used by today’s Indians Spear fishing takes place at night w/ use of a lightBoat landings become prime spot for protests… they become increasingly violentThis is an example of the spear used by today’s IndiansTraditional spearfishing took place at night with the use of a spear and fire
42 The State ActsGov. Thompson – wants an injunction to stop Ojibwe from spearfishing to prevent more violenceJudge rules that Ojibwe broke no laws and therefore should not be punished… more severe punishments were applied to militant protestersJudge does require Ojibwe to limit & monitor fish harvested
43 This is an example of an Ojibwe spearfishing permit. The Great Lakes Indian Fish and Wildlife Commission (GLIFWC) was created to regulate and restock the lakes – both on and off the reservation.This is an example of an Ojibwe spearfishing permit.Indians go to the game warden (GLIFWC) and get permission to fish each day they want to fish. They will also be directed to a specific lake and are required to keep specific records as to what they catch.
44 How are things today?Peace has returned to the Northwoods, but what are today’s issues?Read the assigned article for tomorrow: From Enemies to Allies: Native Americans and whites transformed violent treaty conflicts into a powerful environmental movement in Wisconsin.