Key Terms Totalitarianism Totalitarianism A form of government that controls every aspect of its citizens’ lives. Citizens have no rights. No opposition. Militarism Militarism - Glorifying and building up your military. Using military force to promote your countries goals. Nationalism Nationalism – an extreme form of patriotism. Glorifying and increasing the influence of one’s own country (often at the expense of others)
Fascism Fascism Political system that places the importance of the nation over the individual. Nazism Nazism Political system that places the importance of the nation over the individual (Fascism) with the addition of racial superiority
Communist Soviet Union – Joseph Stalin Totalitarian Communist State Based on equality of all – but a lack of freedoms for all. State ownership of all property
Stalin’s Plan 2 Main goals: Raise agriculture production Modernize industry Five-Year Plan: Take private lands from farmers – collectivization (you’ll be a farmer whether you like it or not!) Export food for profit = famine
The Great Purge: Secret police Use of force against all other political parties and those who stood against him.
Difficulties in Germany High debts from WWI High unemployment Massive inflation in the 1920s
The Weimar Republic: discredited in the eyes of the world AND Germany discredited in the eyes of the world AND Germany Blame of communists, Jews and liberals for the problems of the Weimar Republic. Treaty of Versailles Political Extremism—Communist and fascist and extreme nationalist Economic disaster! The people are looking for SALVATION Germany--Weimar Republic- 1920’s
World War 1 and the Treaty of Versailles leaves Germany angry, poor and dangerous
Hitler & Germany Promised the people work and a stable government Increased his power through force Arrested enemies and opponents Built up the armed forces
Nazi Germany – Adolf Hitler Extreme nationalism and racism Militaristic expansionism Private property with strong government controls Anticommunist and Anti-Jew
January 1933: Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany
The Nazi State 1933-1945 Total State control techniques Total State control techniques propaganda masters mass demonstrations rearmament of the military – put everyone to work! Retake land SS control of police using terror based on Nazi ideology (secret police,camps execution and extermination)
1936-1939 Spanish Civil War Francisco Franco leads a military rebellion in Spain Italy and Germany send supplies, weapons and troops Franco wins and sets up a facist dictatorship
Japan Japanese islands – growing population but limited resources Need to conquer others obtain resources (oil, steel and rubber) As military gets more successful, they get more power eventually controlling entire government Hideki Tojo – Japan Imperialist Military Regime
1937 Japanese troops massacre civilians in Nanjing Japanese army invades Nanjing 300,000 dead 20,000 women raped “Rape of Nanjing” Roosevelt calls for “quarantine” against aggressive nations like Japan Japan invades Vietnam, Formosa, Korea, much of China and several Pacific Islands…
1938 German Anschluss with Austria Hitler pressures the Austrian Government to join with Germany. March – troops cross border without opposition League of Nations lodges a formal protest.
1939 Germany invades Czechoslovakia Hitler claims that Germans need “Lebensraum” – Living Space Wants to join the “Sudetenland” of Southern Czechoslovakia with Germany – threatens to invade British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain signs the Munich Pact September, 1938 Troops enter the Sudetenland… I Bring You Peace In Our Time!
On March 15, 1939… Hitler invades the rest of Czechoslovakia… Britain and France warn them not to invade anyone else…
1939 Germany Attacks Poland Early ‘39 Germany signs a “non-aggression” Pact with the Soviet-Union! (we thought Hitler hated Communism…) Pact allows German forces to invade Poland without Soviet interference Blitzkrieg tactics Soviets invade from the East
September 1, 1939 Germany invades Poland! France and Britain declare war on Germany. They are helpless to prevent the takeover of Poland… World War II BEGINS…
1940 Germany Invades Low Countries and France Hitler moves troops to Germanys western borders. He attacked and captured Denmark, Netherlands and Belgium Invades France trapping British and French troops Italy declares war on France and England
Reaction! Britain sends every boat possible to evacuate trapped allied forces at Dunkirk FRANCE SURRENDERS! FRANCE SURRENDERS!
1940 Germany attacks Britain (Battle of Britain) German planes flew raids against British ports, airfields and industry Later, bombing targets shift to large cities
British fighter pilots shoot down more than 600 aircraft. British citizens withstood bombing raids. U.S. begins sending aid to Britain under the Lend-Lease act
1941 Japan attacks Pearl Harbor 300 Japanese bombers and fighter planes attack the U.S. military base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii They cripple the U.S. fleet, damaging or sinking 18 ships and 300 aircraft
reaction! The Next Day, President Roosevelt asks Congress to declare war on Japan