Presentation on theme: "Like a good neighbor… Its not Statefarm…. Backing up 8 years, we’ll look at FDR’s foreign policy in Latin America. Examine the state of Europe prior."— Presentation transcript:
Backing up 8 years, we’ll look at FDR’s foreign policy in Latin America. Examine the state of Europe prior to American entry to the war. Begin examining WWII once American forces enter the battle.
Let’s consider the facts we already know about what America has done to protect countries in the western hemisphere.
Asks European powers to stay out of the New World. No more colonies!
“The United States would intervene as a last resort to ensure that other nations in the Western Hemisphere fulfilled their obligations to international creditors, and did not violate the rights of the United States or invite ‘foreign aggression to the detriment of the entire body of American nations.’”
Ends the possibility that European powers would intervene in Central and South American affairs. Allows the U.S. to go into these countries and take care of business.
When FDR takes office, his goal is to establish good relations with the western hemisphere. Goal is global neutrality. The US would not act as a police force and intervene in internal politics. Remained American foreign policy in South America… then WWII became a global distraction.
No… not Bill Nye the Science Guy… A Senate Committee that investigates why America got involved in WWI. Conclude that, while little evidence truly suggested this, that bankers and arms manufacturers had influenced American intervention in the war. American reaction = isolationism
FDR’s Sec/State from 1933 – 1944. Helps in the creation of the United Nations after WWII.
We mentioned that on Sept. 1, 1939, Hitler invaded Poland. Hitler uses the blitzkrieg, “lightning warfare,” to quickly attack Poland.
An alliance! Hitler invades Poland from the west Stalin sends in Soviet forces from the east By the end of the month, Polish forces are defeated or effectively destroyed.
Poland falls; Europe is quiet until the spring of 1940. Hitler conquers Denmark and Norway in under a month. Conquers country after country, with the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg all falling quickly.
Hitler pushes west through his newly conquered territory. French expected Hitler to enter through Belgium as was done in WWI. Thought the Maginot Line would help defenses. They thought wrong.
While Hitler conquered all of France, he held Paris and the north. Southern France remains French (German influenced). Eiffel Tower continues use as a radio transmitter. Allows Hitler to turn his eyes on Britain.
Britain had been preparing for war on the homefront. Largely an air battle, although London remains under siege for one month. Residents required to have blackout curtains. A failure for Hitler. Turns his back on Britain.
Japan signs the Tripartite Pact, officially entering WWII. FDR embargoes important supplies Fuel Iron Ore Oil Steel Rubber
Roosevelt defeats Wendell Wilkie in the election of 1940, carrying 38 of 48 states and winning an unprecedented 3 rd term.
Effectively ends American isolationism in 1941 when FDR pledges to send wartime supplies to countries in need – the allies. "What do I do in such a crisis? I don't say... 'Neighbor, my garden hose cost me $15; you have to pay me $15 for it' …I don't want $15 — I want my garden hose back after the fire is over.” - FDR in a press conference
First extended to Great Britain Months later, extended to USSR Sen. Robert Taft: “Lend- lease is a lot like chewing gum… You don’t want it back.” Sept. 11, 1941 – “shoot on sight”
A military genius Commander of all Japanese forces in WWII. Mastermind of the Pearl Harbor attacks
Congresswoman Women’s Army Corps The Women in WWII group did an excellent job outlining what this group did and what opportunities it provided women with. Clerks, drivers, technicians, nurses
WWII production was maximized by government efforts. Acknowledgements by allies for being a key factor in the war effort.
Japanese forces focus on the Philippines, another American stronghold in the Pacific. General Douglas MacArthur does not fully understand how powerful the Japanese forces are. 75,000 troops surrender in May, 1942, in the single largest surrendering of troops under American control in history.
Prisoners are forced to march from the coast to inland POW camp. Marched 80 miles. Many prisoners die of starvation, exhaustion, or disease.
An American military strike against Tokyo. Minimal damage done, minimal gain, but the Americans finally see something good in the Pacific.
The US attempts to block the Japanese from gaining territories too close to Australia in the Pacific. Battle of Coral Sea is immediately inconclusive, yet effectively terminates the Japanese threat in the Pacific basin.
Each of the three axis powers sought to establish an empire in their own sphere in the world. They worked together, separately. The allies worked to put down the axis powers; considered Germany the most dangerous power to contend with.
After Pearl Harbor, Americans grow increasingly fearful of what persons of enemy descent might be capable of (ie: communicating with ships off shore) Executive Order 9066 allows for the creation of internment camps around the country.
Relocation centers (camps) opened around the country. Many of them were not fully finished at the time of their opening. Fort Lincoln (ND) originally opened to house German sailors and would come to hold Italians and Japanese. Removal overseen by the War Relocation Authority.
A memoir by Jeanne Wakatsuki Houston. Two accounts of conditions in the camp and an insight into Japanese culture.
A very cautious and narrow Supreme Court decision. Upheld that Exec. Order 9066 was legit. Said that relocation was a separate matter.
Ordered the detainment of sworn citizens to cease
In June 1941, Hitler sends forces into the USSR to capture major cities, including Moscow. Hitler did not account for brutal Russian winters. Slash and burn tactics by retreating Soviets left little resources for massive armies to use.
Hitler’s armies are unable to further invade the USSR USSR moves westward towards German border.
Allies agree that an invasion of Sicily would be their way into Europe. July 1943 Dwight Eisenhower, Joint Commander of US/British Forces After 5 weeks, Italy surrenders, Mussolini is ousted, and Italy declares war on Germany.
Allies bombed around the clock to strike strategic German positions or facilities. Bombers suffer high casualty rates Tuskegee Airmen lost no one Battle of Midway in the Pacific turns the tide of war in the Pacific. At Guadalcanal, Americans go on the offensive in the Pacific.
Military codes could be broken in as a little as two hours. Developed by Philip Johnston Recruits 29 Navajo speakers to the armed forces. It remains the only unbroken code in modern military. Successful – stumps Japanese, brings about a faster end to Pacific war.
Women were able to secure employment in many industries, from blue collar factory jobs to white collar office jobs. Emergence of Day Care Centers Women held jobs for husbands WWII set women’s employment on an increasing trend thru the 40s and 50s.
For African Americans, victory from fascism and victory from discrimination Championed by A. Philip Randolph http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iJ7sa7 x0h6w http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iJ7sa7 x0h6w To quell Civil Rights concerns, Roosevelt issues Exec. Order 8802, ensuring non- discriminatory practices in gov’t jobs.
After 8802, many African Americans champion equal rights. NAACP membership = half million CORE founded in 1942 Randolph can be credited with providing the impetus for ending segregation in the armed forces. (Truman)
Detroit sees racial violence over housing (summer 1943) Zoot Suit Riots – Mexicans/Mexican Americans and white Americans. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HsFN 2fMLL-s http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HsFN 2fMLL-s
The Teheran Conference was the first time Stalin, Churchill, and FDR met in person. Agree to invade France
Eisenhower is appointed as Supreme Commander of Allied Forces Leads Canadian, British, and American forces on an invasion of five beaches along the Normandy coast. Set up false invasion plans at Calais so that Hitler would send more troops there.
Troops land on the beaches and meet stiff resistance from German fighters. Encounter mine fields along the beach. Ultimately proves successful, although thousands of soldiers would die.
An assassination attempt was made on Hitler’s life on July 20, 1944. Captured in the movie Valkyrie; although Valkyrie was not the specific operation to kill Hitler.
As American troops advance across France into Belgium and Germany, Hitler wants to create confusion. Puts a “Bulge” in the American line American troops persevere Ends up crippling German army
Germany surrendered to Eisenhower. Known as V-E Day. FDR had died one month earlier. Truman is President. Hitler commits suicide on April 30.
Island hopping was main strategy Capture one island, move to next Slowly weakens Japan Major increase in kamikaze attacks 36 days for Marines to capture Iwo Jima Okinawa is next major battle, allows Americans to capture/bomb other Japanese cities.
6-Hiroshima 9-Nagasaki 15- V-J Day, Emperor Hirohito surrenders Final death toll in WWII was 60 million (many civilian casualties)