2 Overview When? Where? Who was involved? What happened? (in Europe), (in the Asia)Where?Fighting took place primarily in Europe, North Africa, the Atlantic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, East Asia (China, Japan, Korea), Oceania (Indonesia, Polynesia, Australia), and India.Generally speaking, fighting is divided into two areas: 1-Europe, 2-PacificWho was involved?Allied Powers (Grand Alliance, United Nations): US, UK, USSR, and many other countries, plus the colonies of these countries (South Africa, Australia, India, for example)Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, other Axis occupied territories (Austria, Czechoslovakia, Korea, Manchuria, etc.)What happened?
3 WWII in the Pacific: 1941-1943 Three phases: Japanese Expansion Japanese expansion stopped:Allied expansion:Japanese ExpansionJapanese surprise attack on Pearl Harbor combined with surprise attacks all over the PacificJapanese quickly captured US/Allied territories throughout the PacificGuam, Wake Island, Indonesia, Singapore, Hong Kong, Malaysia, PhilippinesJapanese Expansion StoppedBattle of the Coral Sea 1942Battle of Midway 1942Battle of Guadalcanal
4 Allied Plan in the Pacific Strategy for expansion in the Pacific: Island HoppingJapanese held thousands of islands and territories throughout the PacificIt would be almost impossible to recapture every islandAllied goal was to defeat the Japanese by “cutting off the head”Problem: the Japanese home islands were located thousands of miles from the nearest Allied positionsSolution: capture islands close to the mainland to use as bases for the eventual invasion of JapanBeginning in Hawaii and Australia the US would hop from island to island, bypassing most Japanese possessions, only capturing the ones they needed until they could get close enough to launch an attack on Japan
5 WWII in the Pacific: 1943-1945 Allied Expansion Key battlesLeyte Gulf 1944 (Allies retook the Philippines)Iwo Jima 1945 Okinawa 1945 (Allies captured islands only a few hundred miles from the Japanese home islands, high casualties)Allied losses and Japanese resistance increased dramatically the closer the Allies got to the home islandsFears rose of the cost of an invasion of the home islands—people began to search for an alternative way to win. . .By 1945 the US was bombing Japanese cities virtually around the clockFire-bomb raids destroyed entire Japanese cities and killed tens of thousands at a time
6 WWII in Europe and the Atlantic: 1941-1945 Three phases of the war in EuropeAxis expansion:Axis expansion stopped:Allied expansion:Axis ExpansionGermans had control of most of western, central, and eastern Europe by 1941Spring/summer of 1941: Axis powers conquered the Balkans, Greece, and Crete, Hitler launched a surprise invasion of the Soviet UnionWinter of 1941/1942 Hitler had almost succeeded in capturing MoscowAxis Expansion StoppedRussia: Stalingrad , Russians stop German advance in southern RussiaNorth Africa: El Alamein 1943, British stop German advance into EgyptAtlantic Ocean: Battle of the Atlantic US and British navies defeat German submarines
7 WWII in Europe Allied Strategy in Europe US and UK support the Russians with military aidUS and UK need to open up a second front to take pressure off the Russians as soon as possibleProblem: US military ill-prepared and untrained, British military too small to open a second front on its ownSolution:Start out in Africa, move into Italy, gain experience, then invade western Europe (France) – problem: this took a lot of time. . .US and British invasion of western Europe/France D-Day June 6, 1944Allied Expansion1943 US and UK capture North Africa, invade Sicily and then mainland ItalyD-Day June 1944: US and UK open second front in Europe—Germany now fighting on two sides west (US and UK) and east (Soviet Union)
8 End of the War: VE and VJ Days Spring/Summer 1945 British/Americans and the Russians met in the middle of GermanyBerlin captured soon after, WWII in Europe over—VE Day: May 7, 1945War in the PacificAllied demand for unconditional surrender meant that an invasion of Japan was necessary in order to finish the warProblems:Invasion of Japan would involve a massive loss of life for everyone involved (Americans, and Japanese alike)Invasion of Japan would require the military aid of the Soviet Union, US didn’t want to increase the influence of the Soviets once the war was overSolution: Atomic WeaponsHad been developed by the US during the war (Manhattan Project)Decision was made to drop the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and NagasakiWhat factors do you think influenced this decision?Bombs dropped August 6 and August 9, 1945 Japan surrendered August 15, 194590, ,000 killed in Hiroshima, 60,000-80,000 in Nagasaki
9 The Human Toll of WWII: The Holocaust Systematic and deliberate killing of European Jews by the Nazi state6 million European Jews killed (2/3rds of total Jewish population of Europe)Jews in occupied countries were forced into ghettos and concentration camps, from there they were sent to death campsWhy?How related to nationalism?Why didn’t the allies do more to stop it, is there anything they could have done?Why is it important to remember the Holocaust?
10 The Human Toll of WWII: Europe Eastern EuropeNazi plan was to kill or remove the Slavic population of Eastern Europe, replace with ethnically German “colonists”Slavic leaders targeted for death by the Nazis4 million Slavs died as slave laborersRoma (Gypsies)Also targeted as an “inferior race” by the NazisAbout 400,000 killed in death campsPrisoners of WarPrisoners from the western allies (Great Britain, US) were generally treated well by the GermansPrisoners from the Soviet Union were not—3 to 4 million Soviet prisoners died in captivityResistanceMany people who lived in countries that were occupied by the Axis powers (Norway, France, Yugoslavia, Poland) actively fought against the NazisWhen these people were captured they were often killed or sent to death camps as wellOther GroupsAnyone who resisted Nazi party rule, challenged the Nazi totalitarian state, or the value system of the Nazis was targetedJehovah’s witnesses, communists, political dissidents, homosexuals, etc.
11 The Human Toll: AsiaJapanese occupation of Asian countries was equally as brutal as the Nazis in EuropeSlave labor was used on a wide scalePrisoners of war were not treated well—some were killed, many were used as slave labor, many died due to overwork and lack of food and medical attentionMillions of Chinese civilians were killed during Japan’s war in China ( )
12 The Human Toll: The Allies Allied countries also were responsible for killing hundreds of thousands of civilians during the warUS and UK bombing of German and Japanese citiesDresden 100,000 people died in single nightTokyo—100,000 people diedAtomic Bombs—Hiroshima and Nagasaki 150,000 to 250,000 estimated deathsSoviet UnionTreated German prisoners very harshly--500,000 died in captivityMass rapes of German womenUS internment of Japanese Americans100,000 Japanese Americans forced to relocate to camps in the interior of the country
13 Wartime MobilizationWWII was a total war—total mobilization of military, economy, and civilian population to fight the warUS, UK, USSRGovernment control of economy, prices, laborMassive expenditures to fund the military—less resources available for consumer goodsWidespread employment of womenUSSR only—use of women as frontline soldiersUK and US—women in the military (non-combatants)Germany and JapanSame government control of economy and widespread economic mobilization as the alliesNever fully mobilized their female population, why?Effects of Total War after WWIIIncreased rights for women, minoritiesGreater acceptance of government involvement and control of aspects of the economy—welfare state in UK
14 Shaping the Postwar World: Wartime Conferences Wartime Conferences: Tehran, Yalta, and PotsdamTehran Conference 1943US, UK, USSR (Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin)Allies agreed to cooperate to fight the war, western allies agreed to open a second front (invade France) as soon as possibleYalta April 1945US, UK, USSRAgreed to the partition of Germany after the warFree elections in Poland after the warGeneral agreement to form the United NationsUSSR would join the war against Japan 90 days after the surrender of GermanyUSSR would receive compensation in east Asia for declaring war against Japan (influence in Manchuria and Korea, annexation of some Japanese territories)Potsdam May 1945US (Truman), UK (Clement Atlee), USSR (Stalin)Division of Germany into 4 zones finalizedBorders of Poland alteredUltimatum issued to Japan to surrender or face annihilation (nuclear weapons)
15 Origins of the Cold War: Late 1940’s Cold War: unofficial rivalry and conflict between the Soviet Union and its allies and the United States and its alliesWhy the COLD War? Hot War=actual armed conflict, Cold War=conflict without official declaration of war and armed hostilitiesThe Cold War was the single most influential reality of US domestic and foreign policy and of world history in general since the end of WWIIWhat started the Cold War?Rival economic and political systemsUSSR: totalitarian, communist, dictatorshipUS: liberal, capitalist, democracyTwo most powerful countries in the world militarily and economically (natural rivals)MisunderstandingsUS western Europe wanted to secure peace through spreading democracy and capitalism, USSR wanted to secure peace by building a buffer between themselves and Western EuropeUS and the West viewed the creation of a series of “buffer states” in Eastern Europe as acts of aggression by the Soviet Union, Soviets viewed spread of capitalism into central Europe as US imperialism
16 Germany Divided Yalta and Potsdam conferences Germany (and Austria) would be divided after WWIIBerlin and Vienna would also be dividedAmerican, British, Soviet, and French zonesPlan was to eventually reunite these zonesAustria eventually unified into one country—didn’t side with USSR or USASoviets and western allies couldn’t agree on how to reunify GermanyEventually two Germanys emergedWest Germany: Federal Republic of Germany (FRG)Sided with westDemocracyCapital=BonnEast Germany: German Democratic Republic (GDR, or DDR)Sided with SovietsDictatorshipCapital=East Berlin
17 Partition and Occupation of Germany and Austria
19 Picking Sides in the Cold War The 1st WorldUSA and its allies: Western Europe, Asia, etc.The 2nd WorldSoviet Union and its allies in Eastern Europe, Asia, etc.The 3rd WorldCountries that didn’t side with the USA or the USSRMost of these countries were recently independent former colonies in Africa, Asia, etc.Usually poor underdevelopedNATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organization 1949-presentCreated by the US and its allies in western Europe to discourage Soviet Invasion of EuropeAn attack against one is an attack against allWarsaw PactCreated by Soviet Union and its allies in Eastern Europe as the Communist equivalent to NATO
21 Picking Sides in Asia Yalta and Potsdam Conferences China Korea Japan Soviets would occupy Manchuria (Northwest China) and Northern KoreaUSA would occupy Japan and Southern KoreaChinaCommunist influence in Manchuria eventually helped the Chinese Communists to defeat the Chinese nationalistsChina became a communist country in 1949: People’s Republic of ChinaKoreaPlan was to eventually reunify KoreaSoviets and USA couldn’t agree on how to do itTwo separate Koreas emergedNorth Korea: Communist, allied with USSRSouth Korea: Non-communist, allied with the USAJapanNew constitution written by US armyBecame a major American ally after WWII
23 The United Nations Created in April of 1945 in San Francisco Structure of the UNSecurity CouncilCan vote to use military force5 permanent members with veto power (big 5): US, Russia, China, France, UK10 other members without a veto (rotates from country to country)Resolutions are technically bindingGeneral AssemblyEvery country has a representativeNo vetoesVotes not bindingTrusteeship CouncilEstablished to help colonies gain their independenceEconomic and Social Council (ECOSOC)Deals with human rights issues, humanitarian issuesSecretariatRuns the day to day affairs of the UNSecretary General=head of the Secretariat/head of the UNQuestion: How is the UN different than the League of Nations?