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Chapter 31.  Continuation of WWI Treaty of Versailles Result of Germany being punished for WWI  Japan was the initial aggressors in Pacific 1931 invasion.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 31.  Continuation of WWI Treaty of Versailles Result of Germany being punished for WWI  Japan was the initial aggressors in Pacific 1931 invasion."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 31

2  Continuation of WWI Treaty of Versailles Result of Germany being punished for WWI  Japan was the initial aggressors in Pacific 1931 invasion of Manchuria 2 nd Sino-Japanese War (Rape of China)  Spanish Civil War (1936-39) Francisco Franco supported by Germany and Italy Soviet Union supported current government Both sides tested new weapons

3  Casualties(estimates) Axis Military and Civilian- 8,268,000* Allied Civilian and Military- 39,963,700*  USSR- 20 million & China 10 Million*  * Varies per source  Major use of airpower Ex. Battle of Britain  Extensive Naval Warfare Including amphibious landings

4  Nazis National Socialist (Nationalsozialist) Came to power in 1933  Hitler appointed Chancellor by President Hindenburg, then became Fuhrer after his death  Failed coup in 1923 and then jailed (time period of Mein Kampf) Claimed they were stabbed in the back by the Treaty of Versailles  Jews and Communist conspired against them  People believed it due to extreme economic depression  Promised to put everyone back to work and remilitarize  Set up the Third Reich

5  Racial breakdown as per Hitler Nordic -(blond, blue-eyed) Close to pure Aryan Germanic- (brown hair, blue-eyed, or less desirable, brown-eyed) Predominantly Aryan Mediterranean- (white but swarthy) Slight Aryan preponderance Slavic -(white but degenerative bone structure) Close to Aryan, half-Ape Oriental -Slight Ape preponderance Black African -Predominantly Ape Jewish- (fiendish skull) Close to pure Ape By the way, what did Hitler look like??

6  Hitler killed Jews and: Gypsies Homosexuals (pink triangles) Mentally handicapped Physically handicapped Religious leaders who refused to accept the Nazi cult


8  Did not join the war until Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Dec. 7, 1941. Japanese needed natural resources which helped lead to Asian expansion Japanese tried to wipe out Pacific fleet since US stopped selling them oil  Joined the British on Western Front Major aid to British  Major European battles Invasion of Normandy (D-day) Battle of the Bulge (German last ditch effort)

9  Pacific Battles Battle of the Coral Sea & Battle of Midway (major naval/air battles). Midway in June 1942 broke the back of Japanese navy / naval air power. Iwo Jima (Marines/Island hopping strategy) Pres. Truman decision to drop Atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki end war Sept. 1945

10  Originally signed a non-aggression pact with Germany Not ready for war but expected to be betrayed Still caught off guard by German invasion At first, Germany successful  SU Used large population and territory to its advantage Germany invaded too close to winter  Battle of Moscow and Stalingrad (broke back of German Army in East)  Were the ones to encircle the final German stronghold

11  Germany surrendered two weeks after Hitler killed himself. Soviet Union took Berlin.  Japan surrendered Sept. 2, 1945 shortly after the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August.  United Nations was formed More effective than League of Nations Headquarters in NY, NY  Germany divided up into spheres of influence by Allies Berlin then subdivided

12  Tehran Conference of 1944 Allied forces met to discuss how to defeat Hitler  France was focus  Soviet Union allowed to take over Eastern Europe  Yalta Conference 1945 Roosevelt gave Stalin Manchuria and parts of Japan in exchange for help defeating Japan  Potsdam July 1945 Final conference Confirmed Soviet control of Eastern Europe US occupies Japan and colonies returned US and Soviet Union divides Korea (North and South)

13  Allies allowed Soviet Union to gain too much power so that they could stop Germany/Japan (hindsight 20/20)  Try to limit power which results in the Cold War

14  Hitler’s Final Solution About 6 million Jews were killed Brought to light to the persecution of the Jews The Jews pushed for their own homeland  Israel became a state on May 14, 1948 Arabs were unhappy Suffered numerous invasions in the first year  Ended up increasing territory

15  Atlantic Charter of 1941 US pressured Britain to sign All people have the right to choose their government  India Quit India movement  Summer of 1942  Mass civil disobedience Muslim League  Muhammad Ali Jinnah  Gained favor for movement by supporting Brits Britain withdrew in 1947  Resulted in rioting and violence

16  African Colonizers humiliated by Nazis  Forced labor and supplying military greatly angered colonies  British Gold Coast Kwamee Nkrumah  Established Convention People’s Party  Boycotts, strikes and rallies  Ghana 1957

17  Kenya Land Freedom Army  Violently fought British in 1950’s  British allow Jomo Kenyatta to form Kenya in 1963  Algeria National Liberation Front Fought French (angry over Vietnam) Huge drain to France Secret Army Organization- guerilla warfare French 4 th Republic collapses- Forced to pull out Settlers and French sympathizers flee to France

18  South Africa Large white population Afrikaners set up laws to segregate colony  Apartheid Britain felt bad about the Boer War and gave Independence to South Africa

19  WWII left unresolved problems  Cold War/ Arms race resulted

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