Presentation on theme: "Chapter 12. After the invasion of Poland FDR increased the # of soldiers in the U.S. More than 60,000 men enlisted in the month after the attack of."— Presentation transcript:
After the invasion of Poland FDR increased the # of soldiers in the U.S. More than 60,000 men enlisted in the month after the attack of Pearl Harbor In 1940 the Agricultural Dep. Transferred more than 350,000 acres to the War department (Department of Defense). New naval bases were built ….Jacksonville Fl.”Naval Air Station”
New recruiters were given special medical treatment against infections/diseases They were given basic training (8 weeks), boots, available equipment's. African Americans were given different roles…such as construction… Double “V”: African American newspaper urged leaders to support the war to win a double victory over Hitler's racism abroad and at home. AA and Minorities: - 1 st AA unit 99 th Pursuit Squadron - Japanese Americans were not allowed to serve at first; as the war progressed many served as part of the 442 nd Regimental Combat Team - 500,000 Hispanics Americans served as well - 1/3 of Native American men b/w ,000 Jewish
Administrative and clerical – freed more men for combat. Congress first allowed women in the military in 1942 creating the Women's Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC) Oveta Culp first director …. She became a coronel later About 68,000 served as nurses in the army and navy About 300 women served as Women Air Force Pilots (WASPs) made more than 12,000 flights to deliver planes to the war effort.
U.S. produced thousands of warplanes FDR believed that the government and business had to work together to prepare for war. Government created the cost-plus contract, agreed to pay a company the cost to make the product plus a percentage as profit. Under this system, the more products they produced the more $ they made. By the end of 142, almost all major industries converted to produce war materials. The automobile industry began making trucks, jeeps, and tanks, helmets, rifles…ect ….TANKS REPLACED CARS!!!!!!! Henry Kaiser’s shipyards became popular…Liberty ship.
War changes American society…. Ended the Great Depression and created about 19 millions new jobs. In Europe WWII created a devastation and depression. Families had to move to where their jobs/ factories were located. Factories only wanted to hire white men (but since they were in the army) they began hiring women and minorities for the first time.
The early battles of the war required change in strategy from all sides. In the Pacific, the Battle of Midway was a major turning point against the Japanese. After that American victory, Admiral Nimitz and General MacArthur led American forces in a steady advance across the Pacific.
Few hours after bombing Pearl Harbor, Japanese attacked American airfield in the Philippines. Commander Gen Douglas MacArthur retreated to the Bataan Peninsula and troops stayed for more than 3 months Desperation and starvation On April 9, 1942 the American soldier in Bataan surrendered…they were force to march to Japanese camp. About 10,000 troops died ….this became known as Bataan Death March. Also, other American soldiers in other parts of the Philippines (Corregidor) also surrendered and Japanese took over.
FDR wanted to bomb Tokyo but American planes could reach only if a carrier brought them close enough. Japanese ships prevented U.S. carriers to get close enough Military planners in the U.S. started using B-25 bombers but although they could take off from a shot carrier they could not land on a short deck and would have to land in China On April 28, American bombs fell on Japan for the first time.
Japanese believed their operations was secret…. A team of American in HI found a way to decode their missions in They found about New Guinea attack…Admiral Nimitz sent 2 carriers the Yorktown to intercept at Coral Sea. Japanese sank Lexington and badly damaged Yorktown but they were not able tot get to New Guinea.
Admiral Minitz Complete success for Americans on June 4, 1942 American knew all strategies and were reedy to attack Turning point Japanese navy lost 4 carriers- the heart of its fleet….just 6 months after Pearl Harbor
By the fall of 1942, the navy as ready to launch its island-hopping attacks. Problem: Reef always not deep enough/ troops had to swim to the beach. Amphtrac: tractor used to move troops from one place to other…only had 20 of them…invented to rescue people from the Florida swamps If more had been available more soldier could have been rescued. American began using B-29 (heavy bombers) Admiral Nimitz decided to invade three island…American troops captured all 3 by August A few month later B-29 began bombing Japan.
Battle of Leyte Gulf…. More than 80,000 Japanese were killed; 1,000 surrendered Manila captured after left the city in ruins but at the end Japanese forces surrendered as well as Japan.
British and Americans troops won victories over the Axis powers in North African and Italy. Next, Allied leaders made plans for an invasion of Europe.
FDR decided to invade for 2 reasons: (Africa) 1. Would give the army some experience w/o a lot of troops 2. Would help the British troops fight the Germans in Egypt Atlantic: After German declared war on the U.S. (for helping Britain) Germans submarined entered American coastal waters. American ships were targets, to protect the ships Americans dimmed their lights and used "blackout curtain” and if they had to drive they would do so with the headlights off. German sunk 360 submarines The U.S. Navy created a convoy system (merchant ships traveled with naval vessels for protection) to protect the ships traveling. In may and June 1942 about 1.2 million tons of new shipment were sunk Americans planes began to use new technology to locate and attack submarines…. The battle turned in favor of the Allies.
Hitler was convinced that to defeat the Soviet Union he needed to defeat their economy. In may 1942 he ordered army to capture oil fields, factories and farmlands The city of Stalingrad controlled the Volga river and was a major railroad junction was the key to attack. If they could control the city Hitler plan could work. Stalin ordered his troops to hold the city at all cost. Germans lost thousands of soldiers about 91,000 Germans surrendered however each side lost half a million soldiers.
Casablanca Conference : FDR and Churchill agreed to step up the bombing of Germany. Strategic Bombing: Before the conference British navy dropped about 2,300 tons of explosives on Germany every month for more than 3 years and the U.S. Navy about 1,500 After they conference they dropped more than 53,000 tons every month They also planned on attacking Italy Gen. Dwight Eisenhower (later U.S. President) commanded the invasion… began on July 10, 1943 8 days later American had control of the island of Sicily (Italy) and later Germans evacuated the island. Mussolini ended right after…no soldier support and became most hated…. Arrested by the king. Government began negotiations to surrendered to the Allies German troops sized control of Rome and return Mussolini the power. Took 5 month for the Allies to break Germans power in Italy and in late May 1944 Germans retreated.
In late 1943, FDR, Churchill and Stalin met before the Allies invaded France. 1. Stalin promised to launch full-scale offensive against the Germans when the Allies invaded France in FDR and Stalin agreed to divide Germany after the war so that it will never again threaten world peace. 3. Stalin promised that once Germany was defeated he would help the U.S. against Japan 4. International peacekeeping organization.
After the conference FDR went to Cairo Egypt, where Churchill planned an invasion of France to force Germany to again fight the war on two fronts. Major decision: FDR had to choose the commander for Operation Overlord- the code name for the invasion….FDR selected Gen. Eisenhower. Hitler had control of the French coast but did not know when the Allies where going to land. They believed it would be close to Pas-de-Calais (close to Britain)… they placed imitation equipment along the coast. By the spring of 1944, more then 1.5 million American soldiers 12,000 airplanes, and 5 million tons of equipment had been sent to England. Invasion had to begin at night when all the right conditions. The first opportunity was from June 5-7, 1944… Eisenhower's planning staff referred to the day any operation began by the letter D…. The invasion became known as D-DAY! However, heavy cloud cover, strong winds and heavy wades made June 5 impossible…the channel between Britain and France was very rough After midnight on June 6,1944 Eisenhower gave the final “OK, we’ll go.”
Nearly 7,000 ships with more than 100,000 soldiers headed for Normandy’s coast. 23,000 paratroopers were dropped inland (east and west of the beach). At down, Allied warships began a tremendous bombardment …. Used code names :Utah, Omaha, Sword, Juno The German defenses were weak, and in less than three hrs the troops capture the beach and moved inland Omaha Beach, was a different story …Germans had a full view of the beach …they dug trenches and built concrete bunkers for machine guns at the top of a cliffs. Under intense German fire, the American assault almost disintegrated. General Omar Bradly, commander of the American forces landing ta Omaha and Utah, began making plan to evacuate. Slowly the American troops began to knock out the German defenses. By the end of the day, nearly 35,000 American troops had landed at Omaha and another 23,000 had landed at Utah. More than 75,000 British and Canadian troops were on shore as well…...the invasion had succeeded.
The Third Reich Collapses Although D-Day had been a success, it was only the beginning Surrounding many fields in Normandy were hedgerows (dirt walls, several feet thick) built to fence in cattle and crops allowed the Germans to defend their positions The battle ended July 25, 1944 when 2,500 U.S. bombers blew a hole in German lines, enabling US tanks to race through the gap. As the Allies broke out of Normandy, the French Resistance (French civilians who had secretly organized to resist the Germans occupations) played a rebellion in Paris. When the Allies liberated Paris on August 25 the streets were filled with French citizens celebrating their victory.
As the allies damaged the German border, Hitler decided to stage one last depurate offensive. Goal: to cut off Allied supplies coming though the port in Belgium The attacked began just before dawn in De, ; 6 inches of show covered the ground. Germans caught Americans by surprise Eisenhower ordered Gen. Patton to the recue….3 days later Patton's troops slammed into the German lines. Fighting lasted 3 weeks…. On Jan the Germans began to withdraw ….suffered more than 100,000 casualties. They had very few resources to prevent the Allies from entering Germany.
FDR did not leave to see the defeat of Germany … on April 12,1945 vacationing in Warm Spring, GA he died of a stroke. His VP Harry Truman became president…. He made decisions about the war… later Germans surrendered. Japan was still a threat … Battle of Iwo Jima On November 24, 1944 bombs fell on Tokyo Iwo Jima was perfectly located between Marianas and Japan…on Feb 19,1945 about 60,000 marines landed and destroyed all Japanese resources. Invasion of Okinawa Despite the massive damage in Tokyo (bombing using B-29) Japan was not ready to quit. American troops landed in Okinawa on April 1, 1945…Japanese took control of the mountains …American has to fight their way up….more than 12,000 Americans dies but Okinawa had finally been captured.
Hirohito (emperor) tried to find a way to end the war…..however, Pre. Truman knew U.S. was ready to test a new weapon to force Japan to surrender without any conditions. In 1939 Leo Szilard a German physicist who has fled Nazi persecution learned that Germans had split the uranium atom. He has was the first to suggest that splitting the atom might release enormous energy… worried about this he convinced Albert Einstein to sign a letter Szilard has drafted and send it to FDR…. He later responded and the study began! On August 6, 1945…A B-29 bomber dropped the bomb on Hiroshima, Japan (an important industrial city) Destroyed about 63% of the city between 80, ,000 people died and more died later from burn and radiation 3 days later on August 9 the Soviet Union declared war on Japan…later that day, the U.S. dropped another atomic bomb on Nagasaki…killing between 35,00-74,000 people With the massive destruction and USSR joining the war, Hirohito ordered government to surrender. On August 15,1945-V-J Day-Japan the war was over.
August 1945, U.S., Britain, France, and the Soviet Union created the International Military Tribunal (IMT) to punish Germany and Japan leader for war. Held in Nuremberg, Germany were Hitler had staged Nazi Party rallies. 22 German leaders were prosecuted…similar trials were held in Tokyo (25 leaders).. They did not indict Hirohito b/c of fear of an uprising.