Island Hopping Securing island by island to ensure shorter/safer routes for bombing campaigns against Japan. Resources needed: –S–Strong Navy / Effective engineering of bases
U.S. Evacuates the Philippines: Dec. 22, 1941 U.S. forced to evacuate when they were overran. 200,000 POW’s forced to march to Camp ‘O Donnell -5-5 Day trip / 25% died -3-37% of POW’s died in Japanese camps.
DOOLITTLE RAID: APRIL 18, 1942 In response to: Pearl Harbor Length of aircraft carriers: 490 ft. Min. # of feet it took a bomber to take off: 600 ft. – Modified the planes Objective: Bomb key factory areas of Japan – Little damage but proved to the Japanese they could be attacked and our carriers needed to be sunk.
BATTLE OF MIDWAY: JUNE 4-6, 1942 U.S. controlled airstrip on the island. U.S. broke the Japanese code = totally caught off guard Japan lost four carriers U.S. lost the Yorktown Turning point of the war in the Pacific. By late 1942, Japan was losing both in the air and on the water.
GUADALCANAL (Island of Death): AUG. 7, 1942 Japanese airstrip already on island. – Taken w/o a fight Japanese let them come inland before attacking If held by the Japanese, Australia and supply lines would be under Japanese control 1,600 U.S. killed / 4,700 wounded 24,000 Japanese dead 6 month battle
Leyte Gulf (Philippines): Oct. 23–26, 1944 Largest naval battle in history Japan threw the entire fleet into the fight – Japan lost its last four carriers, three battleships, 13 cruisers and 400 planes First use of Kamikaze attacks Philippines taken back- General MacArthur freed our prisoners Last effort for Japan to dictate how the Pacific war would be fought.
Iwo Jima Iwo is considered part of Japan – 650 miles from Tokoyo No foreign army in Japan’s 5000 year history has been successful on Japanese soil 7.5 miles (1/3 the size of Manhattan) 3 Major airfields
Iwo Jima: February 19, 1945 Gen. Kuribashi: “A million men could not take this island in 100 years.” “No survivors!” Japanese strategy: Let the Americans into the mainland of the island – 1500 underground rooms were connected by 16 miles of tunnels – Kill 10 Americans before you can kill yourself. Iwo was officially part of Japan 21,000 Japanese at the on-set / 1,100 survived 6,800 U.S. casualties/28,000 wounded U.S. inching closer to Japan
Okinawa: April 1, 1945 Last stepping-stone for an invasion of the Japanese home islands – Guarded by 80,000 Japanese – Bloodiest battle America fought in the Pacific (7,600 Americans died/110,000 Japanese) Kamikazes heavily used (1900 attacks) By mid-May, beginning of surrender = Japanese morale was fading. FDR died of a stroke before this battle was over
U.S.S. Indianapolis Delivered the 1 st test A- bomb to Tinian Sank by Japanese sub. 1,196 men on board 900 men left 4 days in the water 316 survived