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Great Society & Civil Rights Movement

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Presentation on theme: "Great Society & Civil Rights Movement"— Presentation transcript:

1 Great Society & Civil Rights Movement

2 The New Frontier & Great Society
Kennedy’s vision of progress – medical care for aged, rebuild urban areas, education Practiced deficit spending to stimulate economy Increase defense budget by 20%

3 Increased minimum wage, extension of unemployment insurance
Established Peace Corps – volunteer assistance to developing nations Alliance for Progress – aid to Latin America ($12 billion) Investment in space program, race to the moon (Neil Armstrong 1969)

4 Johnson took over after Kennedy’s assassination
Convinced Congress to cut $10 billion in taxes: people spent more, businesses & tax revenue grew! “War on Poverty” – Economic Opportunity Act: youth programs, small business loans, job training, Head Start Civil Rights Act (1964): prohibited discrimination based on sex, religion, national origin, race

5 Won big (1964) vs. Barry Goldwater (fear of nukes, not escalating war in Vietnam)
Great Society: end poverty & racial injustice, higher standard of living & equal opportunity w/ support from democratic led Congress, Johnson able to push through laws on education, Medicare & Medicaid, Housing & Urban Development, immigration, environment

6 Warren Court: rulings protected rights of the accused: illegally attained evidence couldn’t be used, legal counsel to those who couldn’t afford it, lawyer present during questioning, rights read before questioning Impact of Great Society: extended power of federal gov’t, poverty fell from 21% to 11%, funding his programs increased federal deficit

7 Civil Rights Movement 1950s & 60s
Civil Rights Act (1875) declared unconstitutional 1883 Plessy v. Ferguson (1896): Supreme court ruled separate but equal didn’t violate 14th Amendment Southern states had passed Jim Crow laws, black facilities were always inferior WWII helped set stage for movement, labor shortage, 1 million African Americans joined military

8 Desegregation led by NAACP & Charles Houston
Focused on inequality in separated schools & placed Thurgood Marshall as leader of council Morgan v. Virginia (1964) – unconstitutional mandating of segregated seating on interstate buses

9 Brown v. Board of Education (Topeka): segregated schools unequal (unanimous decision)
Reaction was mixed & faced resistance in South (Miss & GA) Arkansas 1st southern state to admit African Americans to state university w/o order Governor ordered national guard to turn students away at Central High School federal judge ordered them in (Little Rock Nine)


11 Eisenhower placed Ark. guard under federal control
Rosa Parks (1955) arrested for not giving up seat on bus for white man African American leaders organized a bus boycott led by Martin Luther King Jr.

12 Boycott lasted 381 days until Supreme Court outlaws bus segregation in 1956
MLK based teachings & practices on Jesus, Thoreau, Phillip Randolph, Gandhi joined Southern Christian Leadership Conference that organized other protests & demonstrations

13 1960 students from NC A & T organized sit-in at Woolworth lunch counter covered by media
Movement spread, students formed picket lines at national chains that practiced segregation (48 cities, 11 states)

14 1961 freedom riders took a 2 bus trip across south to challenge interstate segregated facilities
Bus One was met by hostile mob in Birmingham, Alabama (chains, brass knuckles, pistols) Bus Two was followed out of Anniston, Alabama tire blew & fire bomb thrown in

15 New group joined in Birmingham & were beaten by police & driven to Tenn but returned
Bus driver refused to take them out of fear & riders protested in white only facility for 18hrs until call from Robert Kennedy

16 Alabama officials promised protection but riders faced violence in Montgomery, Alabama
President Kennedy used US Marshalls to protect them on their journey & ICC banned segregation in all interstate travel facilities James Meredith won court case for admittance into Ole Miss but Governor refused to let him register

17 Kennedy ordered marshals to escort him
Sep. 30, 1962 riots broke out 1963 March on Washington: MLK – “I have a dream” influenced public opinion to support civil rights laws, power of non-violent mass protest

18 Birmingham, Alabama considered most segregated city, King flew in & led demonstrations
King was arrested on April 12th, 1963 posted bail & organized a march on May 2 (over 900 arrested)

19 May 3rd another march, camera caught brutality
Continued protests, boycotts & negative media convinced officials to desegregate & Kennedy to push for new civil rights legislation Kennedy ordered troops to force Gov Wallace to desegregate Univ. of Ala

20 Convinced Congress to pass Civil Rights Act (1964): prohibited discrimination, desegregated public accommodations Volunteers went to Miss to register blacks to vote in 1964 known as Freedom Summer 3 murdered in Neshoba Jimmy Lee Jackson shot & killed in Selma, Ala

21 King organized 50 mile march (March 1965) demonstrators beaten as violence erupted, media captured mayhem Marchers organized again on March 21st w/ federal protection Voting Rights Act (1965): outlaws literacy tests, federal registrars sent to South


23 De facto segregation still existed & more difficult to change (economic & social power)
Urban blacks lived in decaying slums, rent to landlords who failed to comply w/ ordinances, schools deteriorated, unemployment 2x whites Urban riots erupted in major cities throughout 60s (100, 1967) Worst was Watts in LA (1965)

24 Malcolm X rose w/in Nation of Islam
taught that blacks should separate from white society & be able to defend themselves against white violence Went to Mecca & broke w/ Nation of Islam & changed some of his views, assassinated Feb. 1965

25 Black Power movement grew led by Stokely Carmichael who was arrested & beaten in Miss
Black Panther Party established in Oct 1966 Civil Rights Movement in Virginia: Oliver Hill – Legal defense team in VA massive resistance to ruling, closed some schools, established private academies, white flight from urban schools

26 King assassinated on April 4, 1968
March 1968 the Kerner Commission issued report on urban violence - named 1 cause: white racism helped end de jure segregation in schools, housing, transportation; passed Civil Rights legislation, graduation rates rose, pride & identity, increased voters/elected officials, lowered “colored bar” in entertainment

27 Image Sources (in order)

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