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Causes of WWII & The WWII Alliances

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1 Causes of WWII & The WWII Alliances

2 Candidate A A well-known critic of the government, this man has encouraged his fellow citizens to refuse to pay taxes. He has openly advocated secession, armed rebellion against the existing national government, and even the overthrow of that government. He is a known member of a militia group that was involved in a shoot-out with law enforcement authorities. He opposes the government’s gun-control efforts. He is a businessman who has earned his fortune from such businesses as alcohol, tobacco, retailing, and smuggling. Candidate B This man is a decorated army war veteran. He supports government medical research, including research to find a cure for cancer. He opposes the use of animals in medical research. He has supported restrictions on the use of asbestos, pesticides, and radiation, and favors government-determined health and safety standards for workplaces. He encourages citizens to consume healthy foods such as whole-grain bread and soybeans. He supports government gun-control measures. A dedicated nonsmoker, he has supported increased restrictions on both the use of and advertising for tobacco products. Such advertising restrictions include: [1] not allowing tobacco use to be portrayed as harmless or a sign of masculinity; [2] not allowing such advertising to be directed to women; [3] not drawing attention to the low nicotine content of tobacco products; and, [4] limitations as to where such advertisements may be made. This man is a champion of environmental and conservationist programs. He believes in sending troops into foreign countries in order to help maintain law and order.

3 Causes of World War II “Tori” by Victor Gunnis – The U.S. Marine Corps Museum, Washington D.C.

4 1. Political instability and economic devastation in Europe resulting from WWI
The Granger Collection U.S. II 7 a, b, c; 1c, d, h, i

5 High war debt owed by Germany High inflation Massive unemployment
Worldwide depression High war debt owed by Germany High inflation Massive unemployment Library of Congress / The Bettmann Archive

The new democratic government in Germany was the Weimar Republic in Germany which was blamed for signing Treaty of Versailles A German woman is seen here in 1923 feeding bundles of money into the furnace. . .why? This Konstanz 50 milliarden (billion) Mark overprinted on 5-Mark illustrates the extent of the inflation in Weimar Germany.

7 U.S. II 7 a, b, c; 1c, d, h, i

8 Exchange rates, US Dollar to Mark, 1918-1923 Source : Gerald D
Exchange rates, US Dollar to Mark, Source : Gerald D. Feldman, The Great Disorder, Oxford : UP 1997, p.5 Jan Jan Jan Jan Jan April July Oct Jan Feb. 1923 , , ,918.00 Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec. 1923 21, , , , , ,620, ,860, ,260,000, ,193,600,000, ,200,000,000,000.00

Failed to provide a “just and secure peace” as promised Germany grew more and more resentful of the treaty that they felt was too harsh and punishing Hitler promised revenge and an end to the terms of the treaty. The Versailles Treaty (above on crutches) took a beating in the U.S. and abroad. SAFARI Montage

10 2. Rise of Fascism Fascism is a political philosophy in which total power is given to a dictator and individual freedoms are denied and nationalism, and often racism are emphasized The Bettmann Archives

11 How Fascism and Totalitarianism control people:
The party-state/dictators determine what people should believe. There is no room for individual thinking, private moral judgment, or individual conscience. The individual possesses no natural rights that the state must respect. The state regards individuals merely as tools or building blocks that it can use to build a new social order.

12 The Fascist dictators led the countries that came to be known as the Axis Powers
Library of Congress Mussolini Tojo Hitler (Italy) (Japan) (Germany)

For many European countries the end of World War I was the beginning of revolutions at home, economic depression and the rise of powerful dictators driven by nationalism and the desire to conqueror more land (Imperialism).

14 Storm Clouds Gather


16 Photograph from the USHMM, by Muzej Revolucije Narodnosti Jugoslavije

17 German and Italian Dictators used Fascism, nationalism, propaganda and fear to control their people
Adolph Hitler: Used Nazism to control people Benito Mussolini Seized power of Italy and banned all opposing political parties and invaded Ethiopia National Archives

Mussolini seized power, taking advantage of high unemployment. Mussolini was a strong public speaker who appealed to Italian nationalism. By 1921, Mussolini had established the Fascist Party – Fascism stressed nationalism and militarismand placed the interest of the state above the interests of the individual. Hitler and Mussolini signed an alliance known as the Rome-Berlin Axis

The military was taking control of Japan’s government. Like Hitler, they desired living space for their growing population Emperor Hirohito’s reign lasted from Tojo began a military buildup with several attacks on China and a dream of controlling the Pacific

20 The military led by Hideki Tojo took control of Japan
Time Magazine Cover Illustration

21 Japanese soldiers in Manchuria
JAPAN ATTACKS CHINA In 1931, Japan attacked the Chinese province of Manchuria and captured the province which is roughly twice the size of Texas Japanese soldiers in Manchuria

By 1939, Stalin firmly established a totalitarian government in the USSR The government gets rid of all opposition and has strict control over the citizens who have no civil rights. Ruled by fear. By 1937, Stalin had achieved his goal– USSR was the world’s 2nd largest industrial power Who was Stalin Video 9 min. This 1932 poster championed the Soviet Defense industry

Purged (eliminated) anyone who threatened his power. Stalin was responsible for the deaths of million of his own Soviet citizens Millions more died of famine caused by his economic ideas. Labor camp workers in Siberia -- Stalin sent millions of political prisoners to labor camps

24 Rise of Hitler: Early Years
Adolf Hitler ( ) Born in Austria Failed art student in Austria, painting picture postcards. World War I :volunteered for the German army, fought bravely, twice receiving the Iron Cross. Germany’s defeat made Hitler want total victory over Germany’s enemies.

25 Hitler, far left, shown during WWI
Start of the Nazis At the end of WWI he was a jobless soldier drifting around Germany In 1919, he joined a struggling group called the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazis) Hitler, far left, shown during WWI SAFARI Montage

26 Hitler Gains Power for the Nazis
In 1923, Hitler attempted to seize power in Munich Imprisoned for 9 months. Prison gave Hitler attention In prison, he wrote Mein Kampf (My Struggle) about his goal to conquer Europe When Hitler left prison in 1924, he tightened his hold on the Nazi party. The Nazi party grew 27,000 members in 1925 178,000 members in 1929

27 He alone, who owns the youth, gains the Future!
His Beliefs Unite all German-speaking people under one great Empire Racial purity – “inferior” races such as Jews, Slavs and all non-whites were to form a work force for the “master race” – blond, blue-eyed “Aryans” “Anti-Semitism” For this new race: Germany must acquire Lebensraum (living space) by expanding eastward. (Imperialism) Blamed the Jews for German problems. He alone, who owns the youth, gains the Future! -- Adolf Hitler, speech at the Reichsparteitag, 1935

28 Rise of the Nazi Party The Depression of 1930, however, created the unrest needed for people to increasingly turn to Hitler and the Nazi Party. The Nazi party went from 810,000 votes in 1928 to 6.4 million in 1930. The German people wanted, a better economy, protection against the Communist threat, and revenge for the Treaty of Versailles. Hitler promised all of these things and more, hope and jobs.

29 Rise of the Nazi Party was because of Hitler
Public speaker/brain washer and organizer drew many followers Became the Nazi Party leader. “Der Fuhrer” Aging President Paul von Hindenburg ( ) was pressured into naming Hitler as Chancellor/Prime Minister: head of law makers.

30 Hitler Takes Power Hitler took office in 1933 and quickly moved to assume dictator powers. Hindenburg dies and Hitler becomes President and Prime Minister: Total Power Replaced the Weimar Republic with a totalitarian government. Hitler was appointed chancellor by the aging President Hindenburg of the Weimar Republic

31 Hitler becomes Dictator
March 1933, Hitler passed the Enabling Act of 1933, giving himself unlimited authority. Hitler had used democracy to destroy the republic and create a dictatorship.

32 Nazi Germany - The Leader-State: Hitler exerts his power.
Propaganda helped the Nazis come to power. Now it would be used to cement their hold on the German nation. The Ministry of Popular Enlightenment – Joseph Goebbels, controlled the press, book publishing, the radio, the theater, and the cinema


34 U.S. II 7 a, b, c; 1c, d, h, i

35 Hitler & Prosperity 1936 The economy was doing well, people were working, preparing for war. Germany was rearming and breaking the Treaty of Versailles. Hitler was rebuilding Germany’s power in the world and the people like this.

WWII ALLIANCES ALLIED POWERS (“ALLIES”) AXIS POWERS Democratic nations AND the Soviet Union (after being invaded by Germany). United States Franklin D. Roosevelt, then Harry S. Truman Great Britain Winston Churchill Canada Soviet Union (Communism) Joseph Stalin (dictator) Governments run by Fascist dictators. Japan Hideki Tojo Italy Benito Mussolini Germany Adolf Hitler

37 The “Allies” started as only Democratic nations: the United States, Great Britain, France, and Canada. The Soviet Union later joined the Allies after being attacked by Hitler (meaning that there was a dictator in our alliance). Library of Congress

38 Famous Allied Leaders United States Great Britain Soviet Union
Franklin D. Roosevelt Harry S. Truman Great Britain Winston Churchill Soviet Union Joseph Stalin

39 U.S. II 7 a, b, c; 1c, d, h, i

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