2Candidate AA well-known critic of the government, this man has encouraged his fellow citizens to refuse to pay taxes.He has openly advocated secession, armed rebellion against the existing national government, and even the overthrow of that government.He is a known member of a militia group that was involved in a shoot-out with law enforcement authorities.He opposes the government’s gun-control efforts.He is a businessman who has earned his fortune from such businesses as alcohol, tobacco, retailing, and smuggling.Candidate BThis man is a decorated army war veteran.He supports government medical research, including research to find a cure for cancer.He opposes the use of animals in medical research.He has supported restrictions on the use of asbestos, pesticides, and radiation, and favors government-determined health and safety standards for workplaces.He encourages citizens to consume healthy foods such as whole-grain bread and soybeans.He supports government gun-control measures.A dedicated nonsmoker, he has supported increased restrictions on both the use of and advertising for tobacco products. Such advertising restrictions include:  not allowing tobacco use to be portrayed as harmless or a sign of masculinity;  not allowing such advertising to be directed to women;  not drawing attention to the low nicotine content of tobacco products; and,  limitations as to where such advertisements may be made.This man is a champion of environmental and conservationist programs.He believes in sending troops into foreign countries in order to help maintain law and order.
3Causes of World War II“Tori” by Victor Gunnis – The U.S. Marine Corps Museum, Washington D.C.
41. Political instability and economic devastation in Europe resulting from WWI The Granger CollectionU.S. II 7 a, b, c; 1c, d, h, i
5High war debt owed by Germany High inflation Massive unemployment Worldwide depressionHigh war debt owed by GermanyHigh inflationMassive unemploymentLibrary of Congress / The Bettmann Archive
6GERMANY’S WEIMER REPUBLIC FAILED: Opens Door to a Dictator The new democratic government in Germany was the Weimar Republic in Germany which was blamed for signing Treaty of VersaillesA German woman is seen here in 1923 feeding bundles of money into the furnace. . .why?This Konstanz 50 milliarden (billion) Mark overprinted on 5-Mark illustrates the extent of the inflation in Weimar Germany.
8Exchange rates, US Dollar to Mark, 1918-1923 Source : Gerald D Exchange rates, US Dollar to Mark, Source : Gerald D. Feldman, The Great Disorder, Oxford : UP 1997, p.5Jan Jan Jan Jan Jan April July Oct Jan Feb. 1923, , ,918.00Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec. 192321, , , , , ,620, ,860, ,260,000, ,193,600,000, ,200,000,000,000.00
9FAILURE OF THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES Failed to provide a “just and secure peace” as promisedGermany grew more and more resentful of the treaty that they felt was too harsh and punishingHitler promised revenge and an end to the terms of the treaty.The Versailles Treaty (above on crutches) took a beating in the U.S. and abroad.SAFARI Montage
102. Rise of FascismFascism is a political philosophy in which total power is given to a dictator and individual freedoms are denied and nationalism, and often racism are emphasizedThe Bettmann Archives
11How Fascism and Totalitarianism control people: The party-state/dictators determine what people should believe.There is no room for individual thinking, private moral judgment, or individual conscience.The individual possesses no natural rights that the state must respect.The state regards individuals merely as tools or building blocks that it can use to build a new social order.
12The Fascist dictators led the countries that came to be known as the Axis Powers Library of CongressMussolini Tojo Hitler(Italy) (Japan) (Germany)
13DICTATORS THREATEN WORLD PEACE For many European countries the end of World War I was the beginning of revolutions at home, economic depression and the rise of powerful dictators driven by nationalism and the desire to conqueror more land (Imperialism).
16Photograph from the USHMM, by Muzej Revolucije Narodnosti Jugoslavije
17German and Italian Dictators used Fascism, nationalism, propaganda and fear to control their people Adolph Hitler: Used Nazism to control peopleBenito Mussolini Seized power of Italy and banned all opposing political parties and invaded EthiopiaNational Archives
18THE RISE OF FASCISM IN ITALY Mussolini seized power, taking advantage of high unemployment.Mussolini was a strong public speaker who appealed to Italian nationalism.By 1921, Mussolini had established the Fascist Party –Fascism stressed nationalism and militarismand placed the interest of the state above the interests of the individual.Hitler and Mussolini signed an alliance known as the Rome-Berlin Axis
19MILITARISTS GAIN CONTROL OF JAPAN The military was taking control of Japan’s government.Like Hitler, they desired living space for their growing populationEmperor Hirohito’s reign lasted fromTojo began a military buildup with several attacks on China and a dream of controlling the Pacific
20The military led by Hideki Tojo took control of Japan Time Magazine Cover Illustration
21Japanese soldiers in Manchuria JAPAN ATTACKS CHINAIn 1931, Japan attacked the Chinese province of Manchuria and captured the province which is roughly twice the size of TexasJapanese soldiers in Manchuria
22RUSSIA: STALIN PLANS A TOTALITARIAN STATE By 1939, Stalin firmly established a totalitarian government in the USSRThe government gets rid of all opposition and has strict control over the citizens who have no civil rights.Ruled by fear.By 1937, Stalin had achieved his goal– USSR was the world’s 2nd largest industrial powerWho was Stalin Video 9 min.This 1932 poster championed the Soviet Defense industry
23STALIN MURDERS MILLIONS OF SOVIETS Purged (eliminated) anyone who threatened his power.Stalin was responsible for the deaths of million of his own Soviet citizensMillions more died of famine caused by his economic ideas.Labor camp workers in Siberia -- Stalin sent millions of political prisoners to labor camps
24Rise of Hitler: Early Years Adolf Hitler ( )Born in AustriaFailed art student in Austria, painting picture postcards.World War I :volunteered for the German army, fought bravely, twice receiving the Iron Cross.Germany’s defeat made Hitler want total victory over Germany’s enemies.
25Hitler, far left, shown during WWI Start of the NazisAt the end of WWI he was a jobless soldier drifting around GermanyIn 1919, he joined a struggling group called the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazis)Hitler, far left, shown during WWISAFARI Montage
26Hitler Gains Power for the Nazis In 1923, Hitler attempted to seize power in MunichImprisoned for 9 months.Prison gave Hitler attentionIn prison, he wrote Mein Kampf (My Struggle) about his goal to conquer EuropeWhen Hitler left prison in 1924, he tightened his hold on the Nazi party.The Nazi party grew27,000 members in 1925178,000 members in 1929
27He alone, who owns the youth, gains the Future! His BeliefsUnite all German-speaking people under one great EmpireRacial purity – “inferior” races such as Jews, Slavs and all non-whites were to form a work force for the “master race” – blond, blue-eyed “Aryans”“Anti-Semitism”For this new race: Germany must acquire Lebensraum (living space) by expanding eastward. (Imperialism)Blamed the Jews for German problems.He alone, who owns the youth, gains the Future!-- Adolf Hitler, speech at the Reichsparteitag, 1935
28Rise of the Nazi PartyThe Depression of 1930, however, created the unrest needed for people to increasingly turn to Hitler and the Nazi Party.The Nazi party went from 810,000 votes in 1928 to 6.4 million in 1930.The German people wanted, a better economy, protection against the Communist threat, and revenge for the Treaty of Versailles.Hitler promised all of these things and more, hope and jobs.
29Rise of the Nazi Party was because of Hitler Public speaker/brain washer and organizer drew many followersBecame the Nazi Party leader.“Der Fuhrer”Aging President Paul von Hindenburg ( ) was pressured into naming Hitler as Chancellor/Prime Minister: head of law makers.
30Hitler Takes PowerHitler took office in 1933 and quickly moved to assume dictator powers.Hindenburg dies and Hitler becomes President and Prime Minister: Total PowerReplaced the Weimar Republic with a totalitarian government.Hitler was appointed chancellor by the aging President Hindenburg of the Weimar Republic
31Hitler becomes Dictator March 1933, Hitler passed the Enabling Act of 1933, giving himself unlimited authority.Hitler had used democracy to destroy the republic and create a dictatorship.
32Nazi Germany - The Leader-State: Hitler exerts his power. Propaganda helped the Nazis come to power. Now it would be used to cement their hold on the German nation.The Ministry of Popular Enlightenment – Joseph Goebbels, controlled the press, book publishing, the radio, the theater, and the cinema
35Hitler & Prosperity 1936The economy was doing well, people were working, preparing for war. Germany was rearming and breaking the Treaty of Versailles.Hitler was rebuilding Germany’s power in the world and the people like this.
36ALLIED POWERS (“ALLIES”) WWII ALLIANCESALLIED POWERS (“ALLIES”)AXIS POWERSDemocratic nationsAND the Soviet Union (after being invaded by Germany).United StatesFranklin D. Roosevelt, thenHarry S. TrumanGreat BritainWinston ChurchillCanadaSoviet Union (Communism)Joseph Stalin (dictator)Governments run byFascist dictators.JapanHideki TojoItalyBenito MussoliniGermanyAdolf Hitler
37The “Allies” started as only Democratic nations: the United States, Great Britain, France, and Canada. The Soviet Union later joined the Allies after being attacked by Hitler (meaning that there was a dictator in our alliance).Library of Congress
38Famous Allied Leaders United States Great Britain Soviet Union Franklin D. RooseveltHarry S. TrumanGreat BritainWinston ChurchillSoviet UnionJoseph Stalin