Presentation on theme: "Causes of WWII The world at war…again. Main Causes of WWII Treaty of Versailles Great Depression Totalitarianism Policy of Appeasement Nazi-Soviet."— Presentation transcript:
Causes of WWII The world at war…again
Main Causes of WWII Treaty of Versailles Great Depression Totalitarianism Policy of Appeasement Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact
Treaty of Versailles Allied powers met in early 1919 (at the end of WWI) to discuss Germany’s fate Purpose-prevent another world war Harsh on Germany Germany had to admit they started the war Pay reparations $33 billion Limited army to 100,000 Germany lost territory and colonies
Germany and the Great Depression Germany’s econ went down the tubes To pay for the war the govt. printed TONS of money in the 20’s lowering the value of German $$ The world depression in the late 1920’s & 30’s made it worse for Germany They were unable to make the payments back from the war
Totalitarianism Totalitarian dictatorship: A dictatorship in which the government uses intimidation, violence, and propaganda to rule all aspects of social and political life of its citizens. Modern weapons made it possible for dictators to control the populations Germany and Italy were fascist (militarism and extreme nationalism) totalitarian regimes: The government controlled econ and resources One leader has all power
Hitler In the 20s Nazi’s gained support by criticizing the democratic government in Germany and the Treaty of Versailles 1933 Hitler became Chancellor of Germany He banned all political parties other than Nazis Used Gestapo (secret police) to enforce rules Defied terms of the treaty by using money to build up his military
Stalin’s Communist Soviet Union 1924 Stalin became the leader 5 year plans to industrialize the country & give the government control of the economy Seized privately owned land & controlled media Strict censorship & travel restrictions Arrested anyone who was a threat The great purge of the 30s: Stalin eliminated anyone who opposed communism-many executed Many died of starvation COMMUNISM
Mussolini’s Italy After WWI, Italy struggled economically & politically Mussolini established the fascist party challenging democracy. Created “black shirt” gang who attacked communists and socialists in the streets 1922 March of Rome: 26,000 black shirts & demanded government be turned over to him After taking over Italy he brought all communications under fascist control
Appeasement Appeasement: policy of satisfying or giving into demands. When a country becomes aggressive, other countries give the aggressor what it wants to prevent war. The treaty of Versailles forced Germany to give up Rhineland March 1936 Hitler violated it and sent troops to Rhineland 1938 troops moved into Austria and made it apart of Germany GB & France did nothing
Appeasing Hitler cont. 1938 Hitler threatens to invade Sudetenland (W. part of Czech., bordering Germany) GB & France panic & call a conference in Munich, Germany They tried to negotiate with Hitler to try to avoid war Hitler wanted Sudetenland so they gave it to him if he promised not invade the rest of Czech. …That promise didn’t last long. He invaded in March 1939
Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact Soviets played no role in appeasement Because Soviet Union was communist GB & Fr. Wanted nothing to do with them Stalin tried to form a pact with them to instill fear in Hitler His proposal was rejected Stalin feared Nazi Germany because Hitler declared he would take them down
Non-Aggression Pact Hitler approached Stalin about pact Agreed that neither would attack the other 1939 Hitler was trying to avoid two-front war Split Poland between the two countries Both sides knew the other was lying and would not keep pact Signing the pact cleared the way for Hitler to invade Poland September 1, 1939 Hitler invades Poland and WWII begins
Alliances Axis-Germany, Italy and Japan Allies-Great Britain, France, Russia and US
How does Japan fit into this? Japan was severely affected by the Great Depression Japan needed more land and resources for its expanding population Japanese military leaders thought territorial expansion was the best solution By 1931 Japanese forces invaded Chinese region of Manchuria By 1937 Japan and China at war 1940 Japan signed an alliance with Germany and Italy entering WWII
Why the Jews? The Jews were the ‘scapegoat.’ The Nazis said the Jews were responsible for them losing the war and the economic crisis. All problems caused by the Jews Hitler believed in the the superiority of the German or Aryan race. Wanted racial “purity” Hitler had been open about his views of Jews since 1925 when he wrote Mein Kampf When he came to power he spread these beliefs and acted upon them
Propaganda in the War Propaganda: information of a biased or misleading nature, used to promote or publicize a political cause or point of view Purpose: 1) To demonize the enemy 2) Encourage viewers to buy war bonds 3) Help rally people behind the war 4) Help to relieve the tension from the war
What message is this poster trying to send? How does it portray the enemy? Who is the message intended for?
What message is it trying to send? How does it portray the enemy? Who is the message intended for?
What message is it trying to send? Who is the message intended for?
Propaganda Video What did you see in the video? How did they portray the Nazis and Germany? What was the message of the video? Why would they use propaganda in kid cartoons? Do you think it was effective?
German Aggression Hitler uses blitzkrieg: means “lightening war” take by surprise and with speed. Hitler invades Poland, Denmark, Norway, Belgium, The Netherlands and France and took all very quickly Attacked Britain from the air- was never able to overcome GB air force Unsuccessfully invaded the Soviets. Had to retreat. This was the downfall of Germany’s war effort. Didn’t learn from Napoleon.
Italy Italy invaded Greece and North Africa. The Greek campaign was a failure Allies win victory in N. Africa Japan Leader Tojo expanding empire Organized attack on Pearl Harbor which officially brought the US into the war US eventually used the atomic bomb on Japan and they surrendered in 1945
Normandy (D-Day) June 6, 1944 “D-Day” Landing of Allied forces on the coast of France which lead to a German retreat France was liberated and Allied troops push eastward into Germany that leads to German surrender in 1945
End of the War 1945 Allies close in on Berlin Hitler commits suicide, Germans surrender Yalta Conference between Churchill, Stalin, and FDR in Feb planned to create the United Nations as a peacekeeping body Potsdam Conference between Stalin, Churchill and Truman outlined hopes for justice against war criminals from the Nazi regime Germany got split into four sections-Berlin wall Nuremberg Trials-trail of Nazis for their war crimes some to prison and some death