2Main Causes of WWII Treaty of Versailles Great Depression TotalitarianismPolicy of AppeasementNazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact
3Treaty of VersaillesAllied powers met in early 1919 (at the end of WWI) to discuss Germany’s fatePurpose-prevent another world warHarsh on GermanyGermany had to admit they started the warPay reparations $33 billionLimited army to 100,000Germany lost territory and colonies
4Germany and the Great Depression Germany’s econ went down the tubesTo pay for the war the govt. printed TONS of money in the 20’s lowering the value of German $$The world depression in the late 1920’s & 30’s made it worse for GermanyThey were unable to make the payments back from the war
5TotalitarianismTotalitarian dictatorship: A dictatorship in which the government uses intimidation, violence, and propaganda to rule all aspects of social and political life of its citizens.Modern weapons made it possible for dictators to control the populationsGermany and Italy were fascist (militarism and extreme nationalism) totalitarian regimes: The government controlled econ and resourcesOne leader has all power
6HitlerIn the 20s Nazi’s gained support by criticizing the democratic government in Germany and the Treaty of Versailles1933 Hitler became Chancellor of GermanyHe banned all political parties other than NazisUsed Gestapo (secret police) to enforce rulesDefied terms of the treaty by using money to build up his military
7Stalin’s Communist Soviet Union 1924 Stalin became the leader5 year plans to industrialize the country & give the government control of the economySeized privately owned land & controlled mediaStrict censorship & travel restrictionsArrested anyone who was a threatThe great purge of the 30s: Stalin eliminated anyone who opposed communism-many executedMany died of starvationCOMMUNISM
9Mussolini’s Italy After WWI, Italy struggled economically & politicallyMussolini established the fascist party challenging democracy.Created “black shirt” gang who attacked communists and socialists in the streets1922 March of Rome: 26,000 black shirts & demanded government be turned over to himAfter taking over Italy he brought all communications under fascist control
10AppeasementAppeasement: policy of satisfying or giving into demands. When a country becomes aggressive, other countries give the aggressor what it wants to prevent war.The treaty of Versailles forced Germany to give up RhinelandMarch 1936 Hitler violated it and sent troops to Rhineland1938 troops moved into Austria and made it apart of GermanyGB & France did nothing
11Appeasing Hitler cont.1938 Hitler threatens to invade Sudetenland (W. part of Czech., bordering Germany)GB & France panic & call a conference in Munich, GermanyThey tried to negotiate with Hitler to try to avoid warHitler wanted Sudetenland so they gave it to him if he promised not invade the rest of Czech.…That promise didn’t last long. He invaded in March 1939
12Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact Soviets played no role in appeasementBecause Soviet Union was communist GB & Fr. Wanted nothing to do with themStalin tried to form a pact with them to instill fear in HitlerHis proposal was rejectedStalin feared Nazi Germany because Hitler declared he would take them down
13Non-Aggression Pact Hitler approached Stalin about pact Agreed that neither would attack the other 1939Hitler was trying to avoid two-front warSplit Poland between the two countriesBoth sides knew the other was lying and would not keep pactSigning the pact cleared the way for Hitler to invade PolandSeptember 1, 1939 Hitler invades Poland and WWII begins
15Alliances Axis-Germany, Italy and Japan Allies-Great Britain, France, Russia and US
16How does Japan fit into this? Japan was severely affected by the Great DepressionJapan needed more land and resources for its expanding populationJapanese military leaders thought territorial expansion was the best solutionBy 1931 Japanese forces invaded Chinese region of ManchuriaBy 1937 Japan and China at war1940 Japan signed an alliance with Germany and Italy entering WWII
17Why the Jews?The Jews were the ‘scapegoat.’ The Nazis said the Jews were responsible for them losing the war and the economic crisis.All problems caused by the JewsHitler believed in the the superiority of the German or Aryan race.Wanted racial “purity”Hitler had been open about his views of Jews since 1925 when he wrote Mein KampfWhen he came to power he spread these beliefs and acted upon them
18Propaganda in the WarPropaganda: information of a biased or misleading nature, used to promote or publicize a political cause or point of viewPurpose: 1) To demonize the enemy2) Encourage viewers to buy war bonds3) Help rally people behind the war4) Help to relieve the tension from the war
19What message is this poster trying to send What message is this poster trying to send? How does it portray the enemy? Who is the message intended for?
20What message is it trying to send. How does it portray the enemy What message is it trying to send? How does it portray the enemy? Who is the message intended for?
21What message is it trying to send? Who is the message intended for?
22Propaganda Video What did you see in the video? What did you see in the video?How did they portray the Nazis and Germany?What was the message of the video?Why would they use propaganda in kid cartoons?Do you think it was effective?
23German AggressionHitler uses blitzkrieg: means “lightening war” take by surprise and with speed.Hitler invades Poland, Denmark, Norway, Belgium, The Netherlands and France and took all very quicklyAttacked Britain from the air- was never able to overcome GB air forceUnsuccessfully invaded the Soviets. Had to retreat. This was the downfall of Germany’s war effort. Didn’t learn from Napoleon.
24Italy Japan Italy invaded Greece and North Africa. The Greek campaign was a failureAllies win victory in N. AfricaJapanLeader Tojo expanding empireOrganized attack on Pearl Harbor which officially brought the US into the warUS eventually used the atomic bomb on Japan and they surrendered in 1945
25Normandy (D-Day) June 6, 1944 “D-Day” Landing of Allied forces on the coast of France which lead to a German retreatFrance was liberated and Allied troops push eastward into Germany that leads to German surrender in 1945
28End of the War 1945 Allies close in on Berlin Hitler commits suicide, Germans surrenderYalta Conference between Churchill, Stalin, and FDR in Feb planned to create the United Nations as a peacekeeping bodyPotsdam Conference between Stalin, Churchill and Truman outlined hopes for justice against war criminals from the Nazi regimeGermany got split into four sections-Berlin wallNuremberg Trials-trail of Nazis for their war crimes some to prison and some death