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Mr. Ermer U.S. History Honors Miami Beach Senior High.

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Presentation on theme: "Mr. Ermer U.S. History Honors Miami Beach Senior High."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mr. Ermer U.S. History Honors Miami Beach Senior High

2 Strategic Bombing Allied aircraft bomb industrial cities in Germany Dresden, Leipzig, and Berlin—Dresden almost completely destroyed Luftwaffe heavily damaged, no longer able to control skies Bombings clear way for Allied invasion of Europe German moral weakened, infrastructure destroyed Allies crack “Enigma Code,” better understand German plans Massive invasion force built up in England over two years The Tehran Conference: FDR wants to meet with Stalin, the two meet with Churchill in Tehran, Iran U.S. & U.K. will attack France, U.S.S.R. will attack also Stalin promise to help U.S. against Japan, after Germany Post-war international peace keeping organization


4 “D-Day”: Operation Overlord Germans expect invasion at Calais, narrowest strait Allies reinforce misconception by placing Patton as decoy June 5, 1944: Allied paratroopers dropped behind German lines to secure roads and bridges for push inland June 6, 1944: Invasion of Normandy Allied battleships and airplanes bombard German defenses Mass armada of vessels land troops on five beaches Omaha, Utah, Gold, Sword, Juno Utah, Gold, Sword, Juno beaches won with superior manpower, weapons Gen. Bradley leads U.S. First Army at Omaha, 2,500 dead, but victorious Inland progress is slow, Bradley and Patton push forward August 25: Free French forces liberate Paris

5 Past Normandy, battle continues in France The Battle of the Bulge Germans try one last effort to cut off Allied supplies/move German lines bulge outwards by German border, surprise attack General Eisenhower orders General Patton to the rescue Weather prevents aircraft support, but then clears German fuel supply interrupted, Americans break German lines January 8, 1945 Germany pulls back

6 Soviet forces push toward Germany from the east February 1945: Soviets are 35 miles outside Berlin March 1945: American troops enter Germany Gen. Bradley’s First Army captures bridge over Rhine R. British General and Allied Commander of Ground Forces Bernard Montgomery brings 1 million troops across Rhine into Northern Germany Patton’s Third Army pushes into Central Germany Americans and British can beat Soviets to Berlin and Prague, but decide to await Soviet advance April 21: Soviets enter Berlin April 30: Hitler commits suicide in underground bunker May 8, 1945: Germany surrenders unconditionally “V-E Day”—Victory in Europe—official end of European war


8 April 12, 1945: FDR dies of stroke in GA Vice-President Harry S Truman sworn in as president Bombing of Tokyo had been unsuccessful U.S. needed closer airfields to accurately bomb Tokyo: Island of Iwo Jima is perfect location One of the hardest fought battles in the pacific “Uncommon valor was a common virtue”~ Admiral Nimitz General Le May orders B-29s to “firebomb” Napalm firebombs controversial b/c of civilian casualties


10 Invasion of Okinawa After firebombing, Japan not ready to surrender Okinawa seen as perfect spot from which to ready invasion of the Japanese homeland Japanese take defensive position in mountains Japanese want surrender with conditions, U.S. refuses No surrender with Hirohito remaining in power Manhattan Project may offer way out of invasion Szilard & Einstein petition FDR FDR commissions study of atomic energy Oppenheimer leads bomb team at Los Alamos, NM

11 Truman faced with tough choice: Use a new weapon with unknown effects, or Invade Japan and lose countless American lives Allies warn Japan of “prompt and utter destruction” Japan does not reply to request for surrender August 6, 1945: B-29 Enola Gay drops “Little Boy” atomic bomb on Japanese city of Hiroshima August 9, 1945: “Fat Man” dropped on Nagasaki Soviet Union joined war earlier the same day Japan surrenders six days later—V-J Day



14 U.S., U.K., U.S.S.R., & France form International Military Tribunal (IMT) to put Germans and Japanese leaders on trial for war crimes Nuremberg Trials 22 German leaders tried (3 freed, 7 imprisoned, 12 hanged) In Japan, Emperor Hirohito allowed to remain in power 18 Japanese imprisoned, 7 hanged U.S. and U.K. hope to build a better world…

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