1935: Hitler violates Treaty of Versailles. 1937: Japan invades China 1939: Germany invades Poland. Britain and France declare war. 1941: USA enters war after Japan attacks Pearl Harbor. 1942: Nazi death camps in full operation. 1944: D-Day in European Theatre. 1945: USA drops atomic bombs on Japan. Germany surrenders.
1. WWI & WWII linked—failure of Versailles Treaty Interwar period merely an armistice Nothing truly resolved by Versailles Treaty Left with national ambitions and insecurities 2. WWII was caused by one man: Adolf Hitler Megalomaniac!! Mad genius who captured German insecurities and national arrogance. “Germ” Theory—He created a brain washed cult like environment where Germans could do no wrong. 3. WWII was all about the timing and unavoidables. Too many things aligned just right…failed Versailles Treaty, Great Depression, need for power, unstable Europe, rise of dictatorial regimes, naïve citizens, etc.
Allies also included… Poland Indonesia India Yugoslavia French Indochina (present day Vietnam, Cambodia, etc.) Lithuania Czech Republic Greece Burma Latvia
Significant changes and advances in military technology and tactics. Fought on land, at sea, and in the air. Global, Total War to the max. Total war—everyone is involved or impacted. Change in combat motivation… Fighting for God/Country. Fighting for survival. Fighting for/with buddies.
Squad: 10 men, Sergeant Platoon: 40 men, Lieutenant Company: 120 men, Captain Battalion: 500 men, Lt. Colonel Brigade/Regiment: 1500 men, Colonel Division: 15,000 men, Major General Corps: 50,000 men, Lt. General Army: 200,000 men, General Army Group: 500,000 men, General of the Army SHAEF ( Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Forces), Eisenhower
Blitzkrieg: The Beginning of the War Blitzkrieg—“lightning war”- Germany takes over central Europe in less than a year. September 1, 1939: Invade Poland. Sept 3: France and Britain declare war against Germany April 1940: Denmark and Norway. May 1940: Netherlands, Belgium, and France. Maginot Line —French/British line of defense to stop the Germans located in eastern France. Germany went around this line to take over France. France signed armistice June 22, 1940.
Germany invades Britain Battle of Britain 15 min. video—5 Facts Battle of Britain—German amphibious invasion of Britain. August 1940. Bombings of air and naval bases, harbors, communication centers, and war industries. Key to British stopping Germans…technology! Effective radar system to detect German troops. U.S. steered away from isolationism—began favoring the Allies.
1940 Germany controls most of Europe France under control of Germany Even though Britain defeated Germany, they were seriously threatened & damaged via Battle of Britain Should the United States join WWII to help France, Britain, and the rest of the Allies?
Attack on the Soviet Union British troops mobilized support in Mediterranean to slow the spread of Italian and German troops. Germany invades Soviet Union in June 1941. Germans planned for spring invasion—had no winter uniforms. Soviet counterattack in December 1941 put a gruesome end to Germany’s plan. First time in the war German army had been stopped.
Japan at War.. The Pacific Theater USA remained isolated and “neutral” until December 7, 1941…Japan attacks Pearl Harbor. Japan thought attack on Pearl Harbor would weaken America. Instead it unified America. Four days after Pearl Harbor, Germany declared war on the US. Spring 1942, Japan attacked and controlled much of the Pacific islands.
The Pacific Theater Fall 1942, US had two plans. 1. move into Philippines through New Guinea and South Pacific Islands. 2. “island-hopping” –strategy used by US to one by one take control of islands that put them closer to Japan. By the end of 1942, US was on the offense in the Pacific and Japan’s fortunes were fading.
Allies take control of the Pacific Theatre after Battle of Coral Sea (May 1942) and the Battle of Midway (June 1942). Battle of Midway (Sea)—5 Facts
What have the following countries done in the war so far? As of 1942, where do they stand in the war? Axis Powers Germany Italy Japan Allied Powers US Soviet Union Britain & United Kingdom France China
Half-Way Point in the War Fall 1942 Germany still holds the center of Europe. Italy is focusing on the Balkan peninsula and North Africa. Japan is losing control of the Pacific islands, but still controls much of China
Half-Way Point in the War US – massive boost to Allied Powers. Took control in Pacific, advancements in North Africa, and provide support to the Soviet front. Soviet Union holding on, but losing many men. Britain and United Kingdom continuing to lead the Allied operation with the US. France split in two—Free France helping the Allies even with Germans in their country. Vichy France, Nazi puppet gov’t, helping the Axis. China still controlled by Japan. Suffering major destruction in northern Manchuria area.
Allies take the Offensive in the European Theatre 1942-1944 The First Front: Soviet Union The Second Front: Mediterranean/North Africa The Third Front: Normandy, France
The First Front: Soviet Union Hitler went in confident and left weakened. Stalingrad: August 1942-February 1943 Bloodiest most brutal battle in Soviet Union. Stalingrad Video (Land)—Five Facts.
Timeline on Page 818 Axis or Allies?? According to the timeline, who controls the war until mid-1942? Who takes control mid-1942 and on?
1. The following men are leaders of what countries? A. HitlerE. Charles de Gaulle B. MussoliniF. Hirohito C. Winston ChurchillG. Chang kai-Shek D. FDRH. Joseph Stalin 2. When and where did the war begin? 3. Name three Axis Power countries. 4. Name three Allied Force countries. 5. Name a turning point of the war and why the event was a turning point.
Battle for control over North Africa included Resources—OIL. Land—control of the Mediterranean and the Suez Canal. Main reason for Allies to focus on North Africa was to open a second front to take some German forces away from fighting the Soviets. Operation Torch: November 1942 North Africa Video—Five Facts. The Second Front: Med/North Africa
The Allies Close In. 1943--Allied advances made from North Africa into Italy. Mussolini removed from office by Italians. Hitler sets up Nazi puppet gov’t in Italy. Allied forces battle against Germans resulting in heavy casualties. Rome falls to Allied forces June 4, 1944. Allies move to the Third Front..
The Third Front: Normandy Goal: Move the Germans out of France and advance until Germany surrenders. D-Day: June 6, 1944 (D-Day video — 5 facts ) Eisenhower and allied forces planning D-Day since Fall of 1943. Began Third Front by crossing English Channel and invading beaches of Normandy. Effect—Downfall of German army. Beginning of the end for the European Theater.
The end of the European Theater Allies met Soviets in Germany in April 1945. Mussolini killed April 28, 1945. Hitler commits suicide April 30, 1945. Germany surrenders May 7, 1945.
Pacific Theater 1943-1945 Leyte Gulf (Oct 1944) Greatest naval battle of WWII Iwo Jima (Feb-March 1945) Allies captured small island. Okinawa (March-June 1945) Largest amphibious assault in Pacific Theater.
Potsdam Declaration—July 26, 1945. Message sent to Japan from Allied leaders asking Japan to surrender or face destruction
Japanese Mentality Die for the Empire. Being captured or surrendering is dishonorable. Kamikaze—Japanese suicide pilots crashed their planes into American ships, means “divine wind” Japanese willingness to fight to the death led to drastic plans for the U.S.
Pacific Theatre, 1945 August 6, 1945—atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima 130,000 people killed instantly. Still Japan does not surrender. August 9, 1945—second bomb dropped on Nagasaki 74,000 people killed instantly. More will die, in both cities, in the future from radiation poisoning and other side effects. Aug 14, 1945—Japan surrenders. V-J Day (Victory over Japan) Joseph MacArthur—U.S. General & commander of the Pacific Theatre—accepted Japan’s surrender on Sept 2, 1945 aboard the USS Missouri. WWII is finally over.
Holocaust Packet: Read through and find things you did not already know.
1933—concentration camp Dachau opens, Jews are targeted 1934—Hitler declares himself Fuhrer and now has all control 1935—Jews lose citizenship 1936—Jewish doctors barred from practicing 1937—Jewish schools closed, Jewish passports invalid 1938—Jews must carry i.d., 17,000 Jews forced to Poland, Kristallnacht—synagogues & shops destroyed, Jewish males sent to concentration camps, Jews expelled from schools, businesses must be given to Aryans. 1939—ghettos open to segregate Jews, Jews ordered to wear yellow badge with Star of David
1940—More Jews sent to concentration camps, WWII intensifies 1941—mass deportation of Jews begins, extermination camps open. 1942—plans for “final solution” discussed, Gas extermination begins. 1943—ghettos are liquidated, Jews sent to camps. 1944—continuation of death camps, concentration camps, few revolts attempted, death marches begin 1945—death marches continue, Hitler commits suicide, Germany surrenders, Camps are discovered by Allies, Nuremberg Trials begin.
Nazism based on racism & anti-Semitism (anti Judaism) Jews became Hitler’s scapegoat Scapegoat—a person who is blamed or punished without cause Holocaust—Hitler’s “final solution” was to eliminate the unwanted & to take care of “the Jewish problem”. Mass slaughter of Jews, Poles, Slavs, Gypsies, communists, homosexuals, people with physical/mental disabilities, etc. Genocide—deliberate attempt to wipe out an entire nation or group of people. http://www.history.com/photos/remembering-the-holocaust/photo6# http://www.history.com/photos/remembering-the-holocaust/photo6#
Holocaust Death Toll ~10-13 million Total VictimsKilled Jews6 million Soviet POWs2-3 million Ethnic Poles2 million Romani1 million Disabled250,000 Homosexuals10,000 Jehovah’s Witnesses2,500-5,000 Gypsies500,000
Nazis ordered all Jews to live in ghettos. Nazis ordered deportations from ghettos. 1,000 people per day loaded in trains & sent to a concentration camp or a death camp. Prisoners forced to do hard physical labor, given tiny rations. Slept 3+ per wooden bunk (no mattress or pillow). Torture was common and death frequent. Auschwitz largest camp built. 1.1 million people were killed at Auschwitz.
The Nazis killed approximately two-thirds of all Jews living in Europe. An estimated 1.1 million children were murdered. Babies were thrown in the air and shot into ditches for games for the soldiers. Dr. Mengele conducted cruel, inhumane experiments on Jewish people (torture: break bones until can't break and heal any more, surgeries with no pain relievers or medicines, etc.) Variety of goods made from “valuables” taken from prisoners (hair, gold teeth, gold rings, clothing made into pillows, furniture, etc.)
Axis Death Toll CountryMilitaryCivilianTotal Germany3.5 million700,0004.2 million Japan2 million350,0002.35 million Italy330,00080,000410,000 Other Axis752,000556,0001.3 million Axis Total~6.6 million~1.7 million~8.3 million
Allied Death Toll CountryMilitaryCivilianTotal Great Britain326,00062,000388,000 France250,000350,000600,000 Soviet Union10 million 20 million China2.5 million7.5 million10 million USA400,000zero400,000 Allied Total~14.3 million~25.7 million~40 million
War Crime Trials Nuremberg : German War Crimes. 12 sentenced to death. Other 12 went to jail, were acquitted, or committed suicide before trials. Tokyo Trials : Japanese War Crimes. 7 sentenced to death. 16 sentenced to life in prison— paroled between 1954-1956. United Nations— world peace agreement. October 24, 1945-present day.
Over 60 million dead. Lost generation? Germany surrenders May 1945. Japan surrenders August 1945. How does the world move forward? Death camps, concentration camps, displaced people, P.O.W.s. discovered in Europe, Asia, and U.S. What to do with all the people? Complete destruction of cities and countryside. How to rebuild the world?
Decolonization throughout Pacific and Middle East Countries gaining independence. New countries? Economic Recovery Transitioning from war industry back to homeland production. Who keeps jobs? Women/minorities? New Attitudes Women believed they had a spot in the work force. African Americans come back from fighting in the war to fighting for their rights.
Shift in World Powers Who becomes number 1? Soviet Union or USA?
UN’s goal is to stop wars between countries and provide platform for dialogue. Currently 192 member countries.
The Cold War was the period of conflict, tension, and competition between the United States and the Soviet Union and their respective allies from the mid-1940s until the early 1990s. Democracy vs. Communism.
Development of the Cold War Iron Curtain— Churchill coined this term to describe the division of Europe. NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) vs. Warsaw Pact (Soviet Union and Eastern Europe)
Periods of time during Cold War when tension was reduced as both sides sought détente. Détente: relaxation of tensions and improved relations between two superpowers. Direct military attacks on adversaries were discouraged by the potential for mutual assured destruction using deliverable nuclear weapons.