Presentation on theme: "Before the War Dictators in Europe and Asia became aggressive Violating the Treaty of Versailles and acquiring new land What will the Allied Powers do."— Presentation transcript:
Before the War Dictators in Europe and Asia became aggressive Violating the Treaty of Versailles and acquiring new land What will the Allied Powers do about this Aggression??
Allies attempt to avoid war
Great Britain and France Appeasement- a policy of granting wishes of a potential enemy in the hope to maintain peace Why?? Damaged by WWI, Also afraid of U.S.S.R, lack of commitment from United States Munich Pact- Allowed Hitler to have the Sudetenland in exchange for a promise to not acquire any more territory
Soviet Union The Soviet Union and Germany sign a Non- Aggression Pact. – Germany does not want to fight a war on two fronts – Russia is playing both sides of the war – They agree to split Poland
War Breaks out in Europe Appeasement does not work Hitler continues to advance throughout Europe adding to his territory After Hitler invades Poland, France and Great Britain declare war WWII has begun
The United States Intervention vs. Isolation Majority of Americans favored Isolation – Damaged by Great Depression – Believed WWI was a mistake – Congress passed Neutrality Acts to limit Americans during times of war FDR inches towards Involvement – Waits until he is safely reelected (3 rd term)
United States Moves Towards War War has broke out in Europe FDR makes “Four Freedoms” Speech to gain support Passes Lend-Lease Act – The United States would sell, lend, or lease war supplies to any government fighting for democracy – Economic declaration of war
Pearl Harbor Japan launches a surprise attack on American Naval bases at Pearl Harbor No longer debate about joining war Roosevelt delivers “Day in Infamy” speech US declares war on Japan – Germany and Italy declare war on US (alliances) United States will fight a war on two fronts EUROPE & PACIFIC – Europe first strategy
WAR IN EUROPE By the time US joined the war Hitler had conquered much of Europe – France was concurred – Great Britain was barely hanging on! United States industry changes the game! – Turned out enough supplies to keep Allies fighting for years! Allies try to create a “two front war” putting pressure on Germany from multiple fronts – Through North Africa and Italy – Through Russia – Through the air (bombing campaigns) – Not ready to go through France
Holocaust Hitler Targets the Jewish People – Anti-Semitism existed for centuries in Europe – Hitler blamed the Jews for Germany’s problems and the German population accepted his idea – Jews were gradually stripped of their rights Were identified by the Star of David – Many tried to leave Germany, but immigration was restricted in many countries After the Holocaust was revealed, the U.S. relaxed on it’s immigration policy for Jews
Holocaust, cont’d The “Final Solution” – The Nazis turned to genocide to eliminate Jews – Hitler condemned all non-Aryans to slavery/death Jews, Gypsies, Jehovah’s Witnesses, freemasons, homosexuals, and the handicapped – Concentration Camps were built to handle Hitler’s “enemies of the state” Those who could work preformed slave labor Those who could not work were executed – Death camps were built to expedite the process Prisoners were shot, injected, gassed, or hanged Bodies were buried in mass graves, later were burned – The extent of the Holocaust was not known until the end of the war.
Nuremberg Trials Trials held after WWII, that prosecuted prominent members of the political, military, and economic leadership of Nazi Germany; first time in history held people responsible for crimes against humanity
War in Europe: End D-Day: Major turning point, finally opening up a second front through France – Massive invasion – Planned by General Eisenhower – Stormed the beaches of Normandy France Allies slowly advance and close in on Germany Hitler runs out of supplies and strategies – Hitler commits suicide and Germany surrenders!
Home Front American factories and industries focus all of attention on war supplies – No country can keep up with American industry – Women and minorities work in factories New opportunities American people support the war effort – Rationing – War bonds Japanese Internment is taking place on West Coast In 1940, before joining the war, Congress passed the first peacetime draft
War in Pacific: History Japan was building it’s Empire, “reign of Terror and Lawlessness” United States placed an embargo on trade with Japan Japan Attacked Pearl Harbor United States declares war on Japan Japan: wants to expand territory and control U.S.: wants to avenge Pearl Harbor and stop them from gaining territory
Beginning Battles Japan quickly advanced through the Pacific and Indian Ocean Japan invaded and took over the Philippines with little resistance from American forces By summer of 1942 Japan dominated the Central Pacific Seemed like nothing could stop them
Middle Battles Battle at Midway: Japan was planning a HUGE take over of America’s main naval base in the Pacific. – American intelligence intercepted plans – America was able to defend Midway and stop Japan’s advance through the Pacific – America is now on the OFFENSIVE!
Middle Battles As America forces planned their advance to Japan they used an Island Hoping strategy. – Picking and choosing different islands to attack – Fighting got more and more difficult the closer they got to Japan MacArthur retakes the Philippines Iwo Jima and Okinawa – Two of the deadliest battles in the Pacific
The End America had to decided if they wanted to invade Japan or use new technology to bomb Japan Atomic Bomb: developed by the Manhattan Project was complete and ready for use President Truman decided to drop the first Atomic Bomb on Hiroshima and the second on Nagasaki Japan surrendered August 15, 1945
Costs of WWII Lives Lost – Estimates of 60,000,000 – Over 11 million in the Holocaust – Soviets (25.5 million) & China (11.3 million) were hit the hardest in combined casualties Dollars Spent – Estimates of over $1,000,000,000,000 Dollars per life lost – $16,666.67/life lost
Effects of WWII Yalta Conference (Big Three) – Discussed final strategy concerning postwar Europe and Asia – Poland, Romania, and Bulgaria would hold “free elections” – Stalin later reneged – U.S. needed Russia’s help in finishing the defeat of Japan Potsdam Conference (Big Three) – Germany was divided into four occupation zones – Recognized the Soviets right to claim reparations from the Germans for war damage
Effects of WWII, cont’d Changing of World Map – Majority of Eastern Europe under Soviet control – Chinese “civil war” continued after Japanese occupation ended – Douglas MacArthur oversaw the writing of a new Japanese constitution Decline of Imperialism – Western Europe’s domination of the world ended – Asian and African colonies began to gain independence Shifting of the Balance of Power – The U.S. and Russia became the new “superpowers” – Both had played the most decisive role in defeating the Axis powers
Effects of WWII, cont’d International Cooperation – Geneva Convention and Nuremberg Trials – GATT (1948) reduced tariffs and created financial and economic security globally – UN (1945) set up on cooperation of Great Powers, not on equality of all nations Gave the Jewish people “Israel” New American Identity – U.S. assumes global leadership – abandoned the policy of isolationism – Growth of a commitment to Civil Rights movements – Postwar economy created increased economic growth