2End of WWII Sketch to Stretch As the Allied armies were sweeping across Europe, they werealso attacking Japanese forces that had been plaguing thePacific islands and Asia. The Allies greatly outnumbered theJapanese. Although the Allies did suffer about 14,000 casualtiesduring this Pacific campaign, the losses for the Japanese were farworse. The Japanese would lose almost every soldier theyhad in most battle, especially on the island of Saipan. Despitebeing outnumbered, the Japanese fought to the bitter end.Many charged to their deaths carrying nothing but spears, othersjumped off cliff sides to avoid capture. The surrender ofGermany left only Japan to defeat, and the actions of the Japaneseshowed the price of final victory would be immense.Brainstorm: Why do you think some Japanese chose suicideOver surrender?___________________________________
3End of WWII Sketch to Stretch The main goal of the US in Japan was to gain back control of thePhilippines and to invade Japan forcing their surrender. To gaincontrol of the Pacific Ocean the US forces used a strategy ofcapturing some Japanese-held islands and going around others.This was called “Island Hopping”. In this campaign as each islandwas won it became a stepping stone to Japan. The strategy wasdeadly. First a ship shelled an island then waded onto it slowlyriddling it with heavy gunfire. Many lives were lost. In addition,American forces had help in communication during these campaignsfrom the Native Americans of the US. Navajo Code-Talkers wereNative Americans of the US who transmitted verbal messages aboutthe island hopping strategy. The Japanese often intercepted suchmessages but they were unable to translate these foreign languages.Brainstorm: Why did the US want to regain control of thePhilippines? ________________________________________________________
4End of WWII Sketch to Stretch By 1944, the US had regained the Philippines and had gained control of Japanese islands of Okinawa and Iwo Jima. The Japanese fought on and stressed the Bushido code of “the way of the warrior” in their battle ethic. This code emphasized loyalty, honor, and sacrifice. To surrender was to “lose face” or to be dishonored. In suicide missions, known as kamikaze missions, pilots loaded old planes with bombs and would then deliberately crash them into the Allied ships.Brainstorm: How did the “Bushido” code of the warriorinfluence strategy and military ethic in Japan?
5End of WWII Sketch to Stretch While leaders of Britain (Churchill), the US (Truman), and SovietUnion (Stalin) met in Germany to negotiate the end of war inEurope the Allied leaders got news of the completion of a newweapon of mass proportions. The Atomic Bomb was createdand was ready for use. The leaders were meeting in Potsdam,Germany at the time and decided to issue the“Potsdam Declaration” to Japan warning them to surrender orfaced the deadly weapon. Not knowing of the power of thisnew Atomic bomb, Japan ignored the warning and fought on.On August 6 and 9, 1945 Atomic bombs were dropped on theJapanese cities of Hiroshima and then Nagasaki.Brainstorm: Do you think Japan regretted following their“Bushido” code after the Atomic bombings? Why or why not?
6End of WWII Sketch to Stretch The Atomic bombings on Hiroshima and Nagasaki hadcatastrophic effects on Japan. The blast in Hiroshima killed atleast 70,000 people and injuring an equal number.Approximately 40,000 died in Nagasaki and even more wereinjured there. The radiation produced by the bombs left aftereffects for generations to come in the form of deadly illnessesand birth defects. Despite the destruction, the bombings hadtheir desired effect. On September 2, the USS Missourientered Tokyo harbor and the emperor of Japan formallysurrendered on board. This day became known as V-J Day(“Victory in Japan” Day). Though too many died, the worldcelebrated. World War II was over.Brainstorm: Do you feel the use of the Atomic Bomb was necessary or justified? Why or why not?
7WWII and the Holocaust Fill in the Blank _____________, rulers who have complete power over a country were coming to power in Europe in the 1920’s and the 1930’s. _______________ was the leader of Italy and his political party _____________ believed in a strong national government and a strong sense of nationalism. ______________ was the leader of the Soviet Union and while he was in power he wanted to expand the idea of a ______________________ ____________ where a single party has control over the government and every aspect of the people’s lives. _______________ became the leader of Germany and the ____________ Party, the National Socialist German Workers’ Party. He was elected to be the leader of Germany and became their chancellor.
8WWII and the Holocaust Fill in the Blank The Nazis were extremely __________-_____________ which means prejudice against the Jews. Hitler used the Jews as a _________________ for why Germany was in a Depression during the 1930’s. Hitler’s secret police, the ________________ ruthlessly terrorized people during the 1930’s and 1940’s. They put Jews into horrible, run-down neighborhoods called ______________. They had to live there before being sent to ______________________ ______________. The Nazis wanted to commit _______________ by attempting to kill the entire race of Jewish people. The time when Hitler and the Nazis killed the Jews is called the __________________.As threats of war in Europe grew, a strong isolationist mood gripped the country. Isolationists were determined to keep the US out of any war. Isolationists passed a series of ___________________ ___________ which banned arms sales or loans to countries at war.
9WWII and the Holocaust Fill in the Blank Hitler was made angry by the ____________ _______ ____________________ which punished Germany for WWI. He vowed to return Germany to the way it was before WWI. He began to rebuild the German _______________ and take back some ___________ that Germany had lost in the treaty. Hitler took the Rhineland, an area near France and Belgium, annexed Austria, and took part of Czechoslovakia. All of these were violations of the Treaty of Versailles. Hitler called a meeting with leaders from Britain and France called the _____________ ______________ in which Hitler promised that he did not want any more land.
10WWII and the Holocaust Fill in the Blank The leaders discussed the __________________(warlike acts by one country against another without just cause) of Hitler, but listened to his promises and __________________ him because they wanted to avoid war. Hitler and Stalin signed the ___________-_____________ ____________ where they agreed not to attack each other. Now Hitler could attack Poland and only have to worry about France and Great Britain attacking Germany from the ___________, and didn’t have to worry about the Soviet Union attacking from the ____________.
11WWII and the Holocaust Fill in the Blank Germany’s invasion of ______________ triggered WWII. Germany defeated Poland easily using its _________________ or lightening war. The ______________ fought against Germany and eventually consisted of Britain, France, the Soviet Union, the United States, and Italy (1943). The ______________- ______________ ____________ allowed for the sales or loans of war materials to any country whose defense the President deemed vital to the defense of the US, so the US sold weapons to Britain and France before the US entered the war.
12WWII and the Holocaust Fill in the Blank The US was pulled into WWII when ______________ ______________ was attacked by the Japanese. They used _______________ ______________ where they loaded their planes with bombs and crashed them into Allied ships. Because Americans were afraid that Japanese-Americans were going to be spies, they were put into ____________________ _______________ where they were guarded and surrounded by barbed wire._____________ ______________ used their language to send vital messages throughout the war. Probably the most important victory of the war for the Allies was _____ - _________. Allied soldiers came across the English Channel landing in France to begin the invasion of Europe, eventually pushing Germany out of France.
13WWII and the Holocaust Fill in the Blank On the Homefront, Americans did what they could to help in the war effort by recycling and conserving. Certain goods were in limited supply called _______________ _____________ and you had to have ____________ ______________ in order to buy these goods. The _________ ___________________ _____________ told factories what to produce during the war. Also in America, scientists were developing and testing the atomic bomb in the __________________________ _________________.The Soviet soldiers advanced toward Germany from the East; British, French & US troops advanced toward Germany from the West. Eventually the Soviets closed in on Hitler & he committed suicide before they could capture him. A week later the Germans surrendered to the Allies, so the Allies celebrated ____-____ ________ on May 7, Then in July of 1945, Allied nations issued a warning to Japan to surrender or face “prompt and utter destruction” in the __________________ ____________________.
14WWII and the Holocaust Fill in the Blank The Japanese government was not aware that the US had built an atomic bomb, so they did not surrender. President ______________ decided to use the atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan, because a ground invasion would risk too many American lives. When the Japanese did not surrender another bomb was dropped on Nagasaki in Japan. On August 14, 1945 Japan surrendered and the Allies celebrated _____ - _____ _________. World War II was now over. The _______________ _________________ was established as an international peacekeeping organization, so that future wars could be avoided. Nazis were tried for their crimes against humanity at the ___________________ ___________. Twelve Nazi leaders were sentenced to death and thousands of others were sent to prison. Thousands of others escaped without being tried for their crimes.