Presentation on theme: "Chapter 18. FDR’s statement of WHY the US needed to be involved in the war. Stressed the idea that we were protecting these for ourselves- rather than."— Presentation transcript:
FDR’s statement of WHY the US needed to be involved in the war. Stressed the idea that we were protecting these for ourselves- rather than bringing them to other nations (opposed to Wilson’s idealism in WWI Freedom of Speech Freedom of Worship Freedom from Want Freedom from Fear Famously illustrated by Norman Rockwell
A lot of economic and social trends were born in the war : military industrial complex (the idea that arms manufacturing in a big part of econ) civil rights, women’s liberation, movement to Sunbelt And of course- it makes America a superpower….
As Europe begins to get tense- FDR decides it’s important to bring western hemisphere together, and recognized lingering resentments from American imperialism So… declare policy of non intervention and cooperation “A good neighbor respects himself and the rights of others”. Pull troops out of Nicaragua and Haiti, repeal the Platt Amendment (keep Guantanamo)
Aggression began during depression (remember- Japan and Germany will end theirs through militarization) Japanese invasion of Manchuria 1931. Invasion of China 1937 (Rape of Nanking – 300K civilians killed) German annexation of Rhineland 1936, Austria and Sudetenland 1938 (Appeasement) Italian invasion of Ethiopia 1937 Spanish Civil War 1936-38
US emerged from WWI as a world leader- but refused to step and shape world events AFTER the debacle of the Versailles treaty. US fatally weakened the League of Nations by not joining 1935 Neutrality act- forbid Americans from traveling on any vessel owned by a “belligerent nations” (anyone at war- don’t want Lusitania) Most Americans were far more concerned about Communism that Fascism- Henry Ford built a plant in Germany that used slave labor. FDR did worry about Hitler- and recognized USSR in 1933.
For Europe- the “Great War” had been a cataclysmic event, and, people were worried about the spread of communism from Russia (after all, remember what happened after those French Revs) Plus there was the Depression to worry about In a time of chaos and fear- radical solutions seemed like good options. If we are afraid of the left…. Let’s turn WAY right instead Both the Communism of Stalin and the Fascism of Mussolini/Hitler are forms of totalitarianism- just with different angles….
Mussolini actually invented the word – from the Fasces, an ancient Roman symbol of strength. Took power in Italy 1922 Il Duce used mass culture and propaganda to spread his message- a promise of security (in exchange for freedom) and a return to glory
But if you’re talking fascists- Hitler’s the man. Germany was a HOT mess, and the Nazi’s offered a solution and someone to blame Plan was to create a new world order based on the “Master” Aryan race- social darwinism on crack Came to power legally (they fudged some election results and set a building on fire, but other than that) Their success is the best example of how psychologically damaging wwi really was for Germany
Won the power struggle after Lenin died in 1924. Actually the most successful of the totalitarians- he dominates the USSR from 1927-1953. Big move in the 30s was modernizing USSR. Collectivization and Industrialization- which resulted in the death of 10-20 million Russians BEFORE the war started
Was a newly powerful country- having rapidly transformed themselves into a modern nation by government supported industrialization (Meiji Restoration) Their lack of industrial resources, and desire to be taken “seriously” by European powers will push them towards aggression
It wasn’t hard to see another war coming…but boy did we try… Some were pacifists, some isolationists, some resented the extra $$ which would take focus from domestic issues Preparing for neutrality- FDR signed a series of acts to protect commerce. Most important was idea of “Cash and Carry” that US would only sell for cash to nations at war, and those nations had to transport their own goods. (and he starts quietly preparing for war… building up navy, and instituting a peacetime draft )
Nazi Soviet Pact allowed Hitler to attack w/o worrying about a two front war (for the time being) invaded Poland on Sept 1, 1939. Blitzkrieg very effective- allowed the Nazis to overrun Poland, Denmark, Norway, Belgium, the Netherlands, and France Tripartite Pact united Japan with Germany/Italy (Rome Berlin Axis) Never really coordinated war efforts/aims, but did ensure that it would be the allies fighting in multiple directions this time. Britain stood alone for almost a year- resisting the Blitz in the Battle of Britain.
US response to Invasion of Poland. Like wwi, it’s not like people don’t know whose side we are on…but this allowed us to sell arms to any nation. FDR also outlines “danger areas” where Americans cannot travel. FDR gives “Arsenal of Democracy” speech saying we would help all those who were fighting for freedom (meaning the British) BUT Congress will only allow arms sales on a “Cash and Carry” basis- and the British have to transport them themselves
In an uncertain world, with US under threat from the “three bandit nations”, Germany, Italy, Japan FDR decided to break tradition and run for a 3 rd term in 1940 (by then war in Europe has already begun) Ran against Wendell Wilkie- a Wall Street Businessman (show Reps know they have little chance)
Nazis had spent 5 years building up military- Allies didn’t start until after Munich Conference in spring of ‘39, they are behind Fall of France changes the game- England is alone in 1940 so FDR created the Lend Lease Plan- where Britain would “borrow” war products and return (or pay for) when war was over. Really big deal for congress- they are involving US in war- and giving president a “blank check”. But FDR is adamant “When your neighbor’s house is on fire, you don’t talk about the cost of your garden hose”.
August 1941 Winston Churchill and FDR met off coast of Newfoundland and drew up Atlantic Charter- goals for war (eliminate the Nazis) and after war was over: Collective Security, Disarmament, Freedom of the Seas etc… We became more engaged- using convoy system to deliver lend –lease goods, with a “shoot on sight” directive which made it clear our entry into the war was only a matter of time.
We refused to recognize Japanese territorial expansions- and in 1940 put an embargo on trade with Japan. No fuel (and they NEED our oil), chemicals, iron and steel. We also made arrangements with the free French to take over military bases in Vietnam Clear to Japan that US will be on opposite side- started “peace negotiations” to buy time before fighting.
Japan begins planning to fight, and decide a 1 st strike attack is the way to play. Japanese War plan is to take Indonesia, Malaysia, and Philippines for oil and agriculture- so we assume 1 st attack on US will come at the Philippines. Instead they hit Hawaii. Dec 7 th 1941 (“A Day that Will Live in Infamy”) at 7:00 am. 2402 killed, 187 airplanes, 18 ships (8 battleships destroyed) in just over 2 hours. By chance, non of our aircraft carriers were at pearl (they were the ultimate target) but still, a devastating blow. December 8 th - we declare war on Japan. Dec 9 th – Germany declares war on US (which was a mistake on their part)
Total War- full commitment of resources – and the winner decided by who has the most (rather like Civil War, seems obvious on paper now that we will win, we have more stuff, but it didn’t seem so at the time). Even more destructive than WWI, we take all those technologies (minus the gas attacks) and add aircraft carriers, bombers, rocketry, radar and atomic weapons Lines between military and civilians blurred, both sides bombed cities full of noncombatants, and genocide was an important aspect of Nazi strategy (interestingly- that diversion of resources might have cost the Nazis the war)
Japan very successful in beginning of war. Invasion of Manchuria/China gave them the resources they needed and that allies needed- they controlled 95% of the world’s rubber supply (we develop synthetics), and 70% of tin, started taking European colonies: Hong Kong, Singapore, The Philippines Malaya and Indonesia. Dominated a population of 450 million (way more than Nazis) War in the Pacific fought primarily at sea- aircraft carriers vital. Bataan- 78,000 American troops forced to surrender- “Bataan Death March”. Battle of the Coral Sea our 1 st significant victory, Midway the turning point. Island Hopping the strategy.
Nazi strategy was Blitzkrieg- and worked really well in Poland, Denmark, Norway, Belgium and France. 1942 High water mark of Nazi rule First place they ran into a snag was the Battle of Britain- and that “defeat” prompted Hitler to order the invasion of Russia way ahead of schedule- and he gets stuck there (Stalingrad) Once US is in war- allies decide to attack through “Soft Underbelly” of North Africa - Which had been conquered by Italy while Nazis had been busy up north. Operation Torch successful by 1943 (El Alamein most important battle). But what is most significant Allies (US, Eng, Fr Resistance Canadians) get used to working together. With Africa cleared we head north into Italy, which flips sides, and hangs Mussolini
More transformation in the power of the government- as the war effect the entire population (far more than wwi) federal employees goes from 1 m to 4 mil. Unemployment goes from 14% in 1940 to 2% in 1943. Draft authorized for men 18-65, but majority of US forces are volunteer. By end of war 16 million men and women will serve (out of pop of 132 million) New Agencies: War Production Board, War Manpower Commission, Office of Price Administration. Even within our fear- this restores our confidence and optimism. Here is something we can DO- something concrete to fight. Once again- propaganda plays and important role
Began with Lend Lease- but by 1942 ½ of manufacturing capacity converted to military manufacturing, creating 60,000 planes, 45,000 tanks and 8,000,000 tons of military supplies in 1942 alone. By 1943 US produced 2x as many war goods as enemy nations combined Cost of war supplies 10x wwi and 100x Civil War Still used bond drives (raised 185 million), but also increased taxes (and the number of people who had to pay income tax) and increased the national debt from $49 billion in 1940 to $259 Billion by 1945 Gov’t spent $100 million on research for new tech (radar, sonar and atomic most important) Rationing of consumer items like gas, sugar, coffee and cloth. West coast develops into manufacturing center (Seattle)
The Four Freedoms were at the heart of American support of War- not only a desire for peace, but for security in a world that seemed to have changed “too” much. Sharp contrast with the coercive patriotism of WWI. Freedom of Speech- that was something we had been limiting in past- now it’s out front and center. War brought prosperity- and a “5 th ” Freedom began to be talked about for after the war – “freedom of choice” in a restored consumer economy (50s are all about that)
Really kept the economy moving during conflict – rep 1/3 of labor force Unmarried women from 20-35 could be called to work in key industries or as agricultural workers. US had 350,000 women in military In US and Britain rules about “women’s work” fell by wayside as new professional opportunities opened, and more married women worked. Led to the development of daycares etc. (and to criticisms of mothers leaving their children to work) “Rosie the Riveter” became a symbol of women’s contributions. Marriage Rates- which had fallen during depression- boomed during war. This will create a HUGE population burst (the Baby Boom) after the war.
War brings a new conception of America’s role in the world: tied to continued international involvement, the promise of economic abundance and the idea that the American experience should be a model for other nations. “Economic Bill of Rights” – in 1944 FDR spoke of the need for gov’t to ensure full employment, adequate income, medical care, education, and a decent home for all Americans. Not enacted- BUT GI Bill – (Serviceman’s readjustment act) offered veterans benefits like scholarships for college (over 1 million will use – half of total college students in 1946) and low interest mortgages (4 million – suburban housing boom of 50s) goal was to prevent a flood of unemployment for returning GIs.
If one can say anything good came out of the Holocaust (and that is tough to say) it would be that it discredited the idea of racial/ethnic “inferiority”. Pluralism became a part of the American ideal. (we literally re-wrote textbooks to make it look like the “melting pot” had always been our thing) Racism and Nativism (at least outside the south) became officially “unacceptable, and unAmerican”- though it would take time for actual intolerance to dissipate –and we hadn’t done a great job with tolerance/pluralism during to war itself)
1942 US encouraged Mexican agricultural workers to emigrate as part of Bracero program- which allowed short term residency. (about 150,000 came) Cultural differences created tensions and conflict- Zoot Suit riots 1943 Mexicans attacked by Marines/Navy who associated their fashions with frivolity a lack of patriotism (cloth was rationed) Still – nearly 500,000 people of Hispanic heritage served in the Armed forces.
Exercising their newly returned sovereignty, the Iroquois nation declared war on Germany and Japan separately from rest of US 25,000 native Americans served in US armed forces, most famous were the “wind-talkers” Navajo who transmitted messages in their own language- which the Japanese could not decifer.
After Pearl Harbor, anti-Japanese feelings were intense. Like German in WWI, we wanted to “Americanize” various aspects of culture. 120,000 Americans with Japanese heritage (2/3 born in US) were sent to “relocation centers” for the duration of the war by executive order 9066. Most were from west coast- moved to interior, forced to sell homes/businesses at a loss and conditions would best be compared to a communal prison. Korematsu v US in 1944 upheld the idea, but in 1984 congress voted to award reparations ($1.25 Billion- about $20k per person) as apology for racial blindness. No act of sabotage was ever proven against a Japanese American
Nazis used Jim Crow laws as samples to draft their own racial laws (Nuremberg laws) When War began air force and marines both excluded Blacks. Over 1 million African Americans served in the during, primarily in segregated units -although that was not possible in the Navy - and success there helped create an integrated military by 1947 Tuskegee Airmen served with exceptional distinction Labor needs also continued the migration of African American labor to the north – 700K move from north by 1945. And FDR (ex order 8802) required defense contractors to hire without discrimination
Really born in the war- America is turning against the idea of racism, “scientific” theories have been debunked- so why aren’t all Americans truly equal? For Blacks “freedom from Fear” meant ending lynching and discriminatory hiring practices. NAACP grew from 50k to 500k during the war. Congress on Racial Equality (CORE- they will be big in civil rights movement- based on ideas of Gandhi) founded For the 1 st time since reconstruction, status of African Americans assumed a place at the forefront on discussions of reform- and federal official were supporting idea (Truman de-segregating army etc)
FDR ran for a 4 th term in 1944….and while he won, it was his smallest margin of victory (primarily b/c Thomas Dewey, who ran against him was a bland choice) FDR had a different VP every term- this time he had chosen a virtually unknown senator from Missouri with little experience in international affairs.
By 1943- the tide had turned against the Nazis Stalingrad turns the Germans back in the USSR (militarily, this is the most important battle in Europe) Operation Avalanche (allied invasion of Italy) cost Hitler his major Ally Allied forces captured and broke the code for the enigma machine- and that helped us win the battle of the Atlantic- now it is safe to transport massive numbers of troops and prepare for an end to the war- and to open up a 2 nd front against the Nazis
June 6 th 1944 Operation Overlord commences- the largest amphibious landing in history- 167,000 troops landed in 1 day. (2,245 kia) Fought our way up the beach- and pushed towards Paris. Germans gave a last ditch effort at the Battle of the Bulge- but we broke through. Russians are pushing from the east, Eng/US/Fr pushing from west- and Germany implodes. Hitler commits suicide sometime around May 1 st, and on May 7 th the Nazis surrender.
Hard to fight and supply- different climate, terrain etc, and US doesn’t have a ton of experience there. Australian helped US build the Burma Road to supply over the Himalayas Battle of Midway (June 1942) turning point in Pacific theater. We island hopped our way until we were close enough to start bombing Japan- but our experiences taught us that the Japanese would not give up without a huge fight. On Okinawa there were 50,000 American casualties, and 40,000 Japanese committed suicide rather than surrender. Experts predicted that a frontal invasion of japan would cost a million lives on each side….
We had been working on the technology since 1939 (when Einstein told us the Nazis were working on it)- by July 1945 we have it. President Truman authorized it’s use- after issuing an final ultimatum to the Japanese warning them of “prompt and utter destruction”. Aug 6 th Hiroshima “little boy” (80,000 instantly, 120,000 radiation) Aug 9 th Nagasaki “Fat man” (30,000 instantly, 60,000 radiation- smaller city) and warn the 3 rd bomb is for Tokyo (we don’t have a 3 rd bomb, but they don’t know that….) Japan surrenders Aug 14 th – treaty signed on Sept 2 nd (V-J day) and the war is over
Atomic bomb most controversial part of war in ensuing decades -didn’t really bother people at the time. After all- civilians have been targets in the war all along on both sides (Rape of Nanking, Battle of Britain, Firebombing of Dresden) of the 50 million who died- 20 million were NOT in military The big argument is that it SAVES lives (unless you live in Hiroshima or Nagasaki). Many also felt it was “payback” for sneak attack at Pearl. Critics say we could have used a blockade and conventional bombs. Also criticized b/c neither city was a military target Recently historians have been writing that Japan may not have been the TRUE target…the REAL goal was to SHOW the USSR what we had.
Churchill, Stalin, and FDR (Truman at last one) met 3 times during war: Tehran 1943, Yalta in Feb 1945, and Potsdam July 1945 to plan and coordinate war. Tense- all 3 countries had different “visions” for process of war and the world after. Soviets want buffers, Britain wants to keep colonies, we tell Eng, but not USSR about bomb (though Stalin finds out anyway and is mad) Britain and US genuinely close allies during the war- the USSR had been at best, a necessary evil. As war came to a close, their divisions became obvious, and tensions began mounting
Europe had been “leading” the world since exploration in 1500s- but they are done (some more than others) Japan in ruins- China goes into a death struggle between Communists and Nationalists- world is a hot mess when war is over- and a radical redistribution of power is happening. US was clearly the dominant power left standing – but the USSR (Stalin) is DONE being 2 nd place…. But there is new hope for internationalism- UN established in 1944, and unlike League of Nations, people WANT to join this one.
50 million dead worldwide (20 million in USSR) 30 million refugees in Europe and Japan. 4 million buildings destroyed in Britain, 7 million in Germany. 1,700 entire towns/cities wiped out in USSR Holocaust- 6 million Jews and 5-6 million “others” (gypsies, homosexuals, handicapped, political opponents, Jehovah’s Witnesses). Along with Japanese atrocities led to idea of “Crimes against Humanity”.