2The Road to War Essential Question How did dictators acquire and expand power in Europe in the 1930s?
3The Rise of DictatorsBitterness over the outcome of WWI and serious economic problems led to the rise of dictators in several countries
4American DiaryMany people underestimated Adolf Hitler’s influence, but not journalist William Shirer. He described a rally for Hitler at Nuremberg in September 1934: “Like a Roman emperor, Hitler rode into this medieval town…When Hitler finally appeared on the balcony for a moment,…(people) looked up at him as if he were a Messiah, their faces transformed into something positively inhuman.” The passion of the Nazis shocked Shirer, and soon it would shock the world.From Berlin Diary
7Italy – Benito Mussolini Made fascism popularBanned all other political parties except the Fascist PartyEnded democratic ruleCivil liberties and free press ceased to existLeft the League of Nations
8Germany – Adolf HitlerWon support by appealing to German fears about the economy and Treaty of VersaillesLeader of National Socialist Party (Nazi)Believed German people were superior to othersAnti-SemitismEnded democracy and set up totalitarian stateFormed alliance with Italy in 1936
9Soviet Union – Joseph Stalin Communist leaderUsed force to gain obedience from his peopleExecuted his rivalsSent millions of people suspected of disloyalty to labor camps
10American Neutrality 1935 and 1937 Neutrality Acts Banned weapons sales and loans to nations that were at war
11Germany on the MarchOther European countries stood by as Germany expanded its territorySent German troops to take over neutral territorySent troops to Austria to unite them with GermanyClaimed parts of CzechloslovakiaBritain and France thought they could avoid war by accepting Germany’s demands – AppeasementGermany took Western CzechoslovakiaGermany prepared to invade Poland
12Answer the Essential Question How did dictators acquire and expand power in Europe in the 1930’s?
13War Begins Essential Question How did peaceful nations confront foreign aggressors in WWII?
14War in Europe1939 – Hitler invades Poland – Great Britain and France declare warGermans called their attack a blitzkriegSwift and fierceThousands of soldiers entered PolandSoviet Union and Germany divide Poland in half
16The War ExpandsGermany forces Denmark, Norway, the Netherlands and Belgium to surrender1940 – Germany invades France and captures ParisAllied PowersGreat BritainFranceAxis PowersGermanyItalyJapan
17Battle of Britain Hitler aims to break British morale before invading Bombed airbases, shipyards, industries and cities (London)Under inspiration of Prime Minister Winston Churchill, England fought backNever gave up control of the skies and inflicted heavy lossesHitler ended the attacks
19Germany Turns EastHitler wanted resources offered by Soviet land and invadedStalin ordered a scorched earth policyBurned their own cities and destroyed their own cropsMade it harder for Germans to supply their troops as they advanced
20America and the War Roosevelt favored neutrality but began to mobilize Openly supports AlliesBuilt up navySet up peace time draftThreatened by war, Roosevelt ran for third term and easily wins 1940 electionBegan sending supplies to the Allies
21The Japanese ThreatJapan continues their expansion and military conquests in the EastJapan planned to attack British, Dutch and American territory in the areaRoosevelt froze all Japanese reserves of money in US banks
23Attack on Pearl HarborDecember 7, 1941: Japanese war plans attack American military base at Pearl Harbor, HawaiiDestroyed battleships, cruisers and airplanesAmericans taken by surprise and more than 2,300 are killedAttack unites the countryRoosevelt asked Congress to declare war and joined Allied Powers
25Answer the Essential Question How did peaceful nations confront foreign aggressors in WWII?
26On the Home Front Essential Question In what ways did American men, women and minorities support the war effort at home?
27America Prepares Building an army Mobilization More than 15 million Americans joined the armed forcesWomen joined the military in large numbers (non combat roles)MobilizationNation refocused economy to providesupplies for the war effort
28Financing the War$320 billion dollars spent by government on war effort (10x amount of WWI)Raised taxesSold war bonds
29Making SacrificesCivilians provided training, equipment, transportation, medical care, food and shelter for the armed forcesSeparation from loved onesShortages of consumer goodsUsed government issued ration books to buy things likeGasolineTiresSugarMeat
33Women and Minorities in WWII African Americans1 million serve in armed forces in low level assignments and segregated units (at first)1942 – Army begins training white and black soldiers togetherMany migrate North to take factory jobsFought for equality on the home front
34Women and Minorities in WWII More than ever join the workforce“Rosie the Riveter” encouraged women to take factory jobsEarned less than menMany lose their jobs when men returnWWII changes public opinion about women’s right to work
36Women and Minorities in WWII Native AmericansServed in armed forcesWorked in industry“Code talkers” – armed forces used a special code in Navajo language that the Japanese never broke
37Where do you think this is? What do you think you are looking at?
38Women and Minorities in WWII Japanese AmericansFeared and hated by many other AmericansAmericans were worried about their loyaltyFDR ordered more than 100,000 Japanese Americans to detention centersInternment campsHad almost everything taken awayCrowded and uncomfortableSome were forced to stay for 3 years
41Making ConnectionsWhat kinds of sacrifices did American civilians make during wartime?What legal action was taken against many Japanese Americans? What does the word “legal” imply?Answer the Essential Question: In what ways did men, women and minorities support the war effort at home?
42War in Europe Essential Question What strategies did the Allies pursue to defeat the Axis Powers in Europe?
43Setting a StrategyGerman forces occupied almost all of Europe and most of North AfricaAllied powers invade North Africa to gain combat experience and attack the edges of the German empireUnder American general Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Allies drove the Germans out of North Africa in 1943Invasion of Italy under American General George Patton forced Benito Mussolini to surrenderLaunched air raids on Germany
44The Tide Turns in Europe Germans focused much of their effort on the Soviet UnionSet up a military blockade on Leningrad (900 days)Thousands starved to deathGermans never able to take the city1941 – Germans tried to take StalingradWintry weather slowed the attackSoviets forced a German retreat and cut off supply linesMajor turning point in the war!
45Invasion of FranceAllied forces were preparing to invade German occupied EuropeJune 6, 1944 – D-DayAllied troops took the shores of Normandy under heavy German fire and threat of landminesAllies landed millions of troops in France and pushed into Europe
46Victory in Europe Looked as if war would be over soon German counter attacked at the Battle of the BulgeAmericans won and headed to Germany1945 – With Soviet troops just outside Berlin, Hitler commits suicideGermany signed an unconditional surrender (May 7, 1945)
47The HolocaustAs the Allies freed German-held areas, they discovered numerous instances of Nazi crueltyGenocide – Jews targeted for total extermination (6 million killed)Slavs, Gypsies, Communists, homosexuals and people with disabilities killed as wellBeginning when Hitler gained power in 1933, Jews were deprived of many rights
48Persecution of Germany’s Jews Marriage between Jews and other Germans bannedGerman citizenship taken awayKept from voting or holding public officeNot allowed to employ non-Jewish GermansLater, banned from owning businessesCould not practice law or medicineForced to wear a yellow six pointed starSent to concentrations camps
53The Persecution Spreads Mass killing begins in 1941Shot groups of Jews and dumped in mass graves
54Primary Source“We marched into a forest where a huge long ditch was already dug…I could hear…a machine gun going…All of a sudden,…I saw my mother and four sisters lined up before I had a chance to say, “Mother!” they were already dead. Somehow, time stands still…But what woke me was the sight of my five nieces and nephews being marched, and the murderers had the audacity to ask them to hold hands…I would have been almost the next one but all of a sudden the bombers came over, we were ordered to lay face downwards, but everyone started running…and I…ran deep into the forest.From Remembering: Voices From the Holocaust
55The Final Solution1942 – Nazi’s built death camps like Aushwitz (1.6 million dead) and Treblinka to aid in exterminationPoison gas chambersCruel ExperimentsSome chosen for slave laborElderly, women and children went to gas chambersBodies burned in giant furnaces
56The Final SolutionNews of atrocities reached western leaders well before 1945Some historians argue that true atrocities were not realized until the Allies marched through the campsOther historians debate why so relatively little was done to stop
57Making Connections What was the Nazi’s Final Solution? What strategies did the Allies pursue to defeat the Axis Powers in WWII?
58War in the Pacific Essential Question: What characterized the WWII in the Pacific?
59The Pacific FrontAllies fought the Japanese for 4 long years in the PacificAttacked the Philippines and other Allied territoryAmerican General Douglas MacArthur and his troops were forced to surrender
60Island HoppingAmerican morale improved as small victories defeated Japan at seaIsland hopping: US captured and used key islands as a base for attacksThousands died on both sides as American forces got closer to the Japanese mainlandKamikazes sank several American destroyers
62The End of the WarJapanese refusal to surrender led the US to drop the Atomic bombPresident Truman believed it was his duty to use every weapon available to save American livesAugust 6, 1945 – Dropped bomb on Japanese city of Hiroshima – A second bomb dropped on Nagasaki three days laterKilled between 115,000 and 194,000 peopleBurns and radiation sickness killed moreAugust 16, 1945 – Japanese surrendered
64The Cost of War Most destructive conflict in history 55 million deadMore than ½ the casualties were civilians killed by bombing, starvation, disease, torture and murderAmerican dead: 322,000American injured: 800,000Soviet deaths: 22 millionThose who survived faced the huge task of rebuilding their countries and their lives
65Making ConnectionsEvaluate what was significant about the cost of WWII?Answer the Essential Question: What characterized the WWII in the Pacific?