Presentation on theme: "1939-1945 World War II. The Road to War Essential Question How did dictators acquire and expand power in Europe in the 1930s?"— Presentation transcript:
World War II
The Road to War Essential Question How did dictators acquire and expand power in Europe in the 1930s?
The Rise of Dictators Bitterness over the outcome of WWI and serious economic problems led to the rise of dictators in several countries
American Diary Many people underestimated Adolf Hitler’s influence, but not journalist William Shirer. He described a rally for Hitler at Nuremberg in September 1934: “Like a Roman emperor, Hitler rode into this medieval town…When Hitler finally appeared on the balcony for a moment,…(people) looked up at him as if he were a Messiah, their faces transformed into something positively inhuman.” The passion of the Nazis shocked Shirer, and soon it would shock the world. From Berlin Diary
Italy – Benito Mussolini Made fascism popular Banned all other political parties except the Fascist Party Ended democratic rule Civil liberties and free press ceased to exist Left the League of Nations
Germany – Adolf Hitler Won support by appealing to German fears about the economy and Treaty of Versailles Leader of National Socialist Party (Nazi) Believed German people were superior to others Anti-Semitism Ended democracy and set up totalitarian state Formed alliance with Italy in 1936
Soviet Union – Joseph Stalin Communist leader Used force to gain obedience from his people Executed his rivals Sent millions of people suspected of disloyalty to labor camps
American Neutrality 1935 and 1937 Neutrality Acts Banned weapons sales and loans to nations that were at war
Germany on the March Other European countries stood by as Germany expanded its territory Sent German troops to take over neutral territory Sent troops to Austria to unite them with Germany Claimed parts of Czechloslovakia Britain and France thought they could avoid war by accepting Germany’s demands – Appeasement Germany took Western Czechoslovakia Germany prepared to invade Poland
Answer the Essential Question How did dictators acquire and expand power in Europe in the 1930’s?
War Begins Essential Question How did peaceful nations confront foreign aggressors in WWII?
War in Europe 1939 – Hitler invades Poland – Great Britain and France declare war Germans called their attack a blitzkrieg Swift and fierce Thousands of soldiers entered Poland Soviet Union and Germany divide Poland in half
The War Expands Germany forces Denmark, Norway, the Netherlands and Belgium to surrender 1940 – Germany invades France and captures Paris Allied Powers Great Britain France Axis Powers Germany Italy Japan
Battle of Britain Hitler aims to break British morale before invading Bombed airbases, shipyards, industries and cities (London) Under inspiration of Prime Minister Winston Churchill, England fought back Never gave up control of the skies and inflicted heavy losses Hitler ended the attacks
Germany Turns East Hitler wanted resources offered by Soviet land and invaded Stalin ordered a scorched earth policy Burned their own cities and destroyed their own crops Made it harder for Germans to supply their troops as they advanced
America and the War Roosevelt favored neutrality but began to mobilize Openly supports Allies Built up navy Set up peace time draft Threatened by war, Roosevelt ran for third term and easily wins 1940 election Began sending supplies to the Allies
The Japanese Threat Japan continues their expansion and military conquests in the East Japan planned to attack British, Dutch and American territory in the area Roosevelt froze all Japanese reserves of money in US banks
Attack on Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941: Japanese war plans attack American military base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Destroyed battleships, cruisers and airplanes Americans taken by surprise and more than 2,300 are killed Attack unites the country Roosevelt asked Congress to declare war and joined Allied Powers
Answer the Essential Question How did peaceful nations confront foreign aggressors in WWII?
On the Home Front Essential Question In what ways did American men, women and minorities support the war effort at home?
America Prepares Building an army More than 15 million Americans joined the armed forces Women joined the military in large numbers (non combat roles) Mobilization Nation refocused economy to provide supplies for the war effort
Financing the War $320 billion dollars spent by government on war effort (10x amount of WWI) Raised taxes Sold war bonds
Making Sacrifices Civilians provided training, equipment, transportation, medical care, food and shelter for the armed forces Separation from loved ones Shortages of consumer goods Used government issued ration books to buy things like Gasoline Tires Sugar Meat
Women and Minorities in WWII African Americans 1 million serve in armed forces in low level assignments and segregated units (at first) 1942 – Army begins training white and black soldiers together Many migrate North to take factory jobs Fought for equality on the home front
Women and Minorities in WWII Women More than ever join the workforce “Rosie the Riveter” encouraged women to take factory jobs Earned less than men Many lose their jobs when men return WWII changes public opinion about women’s right to work
Women and Minorities in WWII Native Americans Served in armed forces Worked in industry “Code talkers” – armed forces used a special code in Navajo language that the Japanese never broke
Where do you think this is? What do you think you are looking at?
Women and Minorities in WWII Japanese Americans Feared and hated by many other Americans Americans were worried about their loyalty FDR ordered more than 100,000 Japanese Americans to detention centers Internment camps Had almost everything taken away Crowded and uncomfortable Some were forced to stay for 3 years
Making Connections What kinds of sacrifices did American civilians make during wartime? What legal action was taken against many Japanese Americans? What does the word “legal” imply? Answer the Essential Question: In what ways did men, women and minorities support the war effort at home?
War in Europe Essential Question What strategies did the Allies pursue to defeat the Axis Powers in Europe?
Setting a Strategy German forces occupied almost all of Europe and most of North Africa Allied powers invade North Africa to gain combat experience and attack the edges of the German empire Under American general Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Allies drove the Germans out of North Africa in 1943 Invasion of Italy under American General George Patton forced Benito Mussolini to surrender Launched air raids on Germany
The Tide Turns in Europe Germans focused much of their effort on the Soviet Union Set up a military blockade on Leningrad (900 days) Thousands starved to death Germans never able to take the city 1941 – Germans tried to take Stalingrad Wintry weather slowed the attack Soviets forced a German retreat and cut off supply lines Major turning point in the war!
Invasion of France Allied forces were preparing to invade German occupied Europe June 6, 1944 – D-Day Allied troops took the shores of Normandy under heavy German fire and threat of landmines Allies landed millions of troops in France and pushed into Europe
Victory in Europe Looked as if war would be over soon German counter attacked at the Battle of the Bulge Americans won and headed to Germany 1945 – With Soviet troops just outside Berlin, Hitler commits suicide Germany signed an unconditional surrender (May 7, 1945)
The Holocaust As the Allies freed German-held areas, they discovered numerous instances of Nazi cruelty Genocide – Jews targeted for total extermination (6 million killed) Slavs, Gypsies, Communists, homosexuals and people with disabilities killed as well Beginning when Hitler gained power in 1933, Jews were deprived of many rights
Persecution of Germany’s Jews Marriage between Jews and other Germans banned German citizenship taken away Kept from voting or holding public office Not allowed to employ non-Jewish Germans Later, banned from owning businesses Could not practice law or medicine Forced to wear a yellow six pointed star Sent to concentrations camps
The Persecution Spreads Mass killing begins in 1941 Shot groups of Jews and dumped in mass graves
Primary Source “We marched into a forest where a huge long ditch was already dug…I could hear…a machine gun going…All of a sudden,…I saw my mother and four sisters lined up before I had a chance to say, “Mother!” they were already dead. Somehow, time stands still…But what woke me was the sight of my five nieces and nephews being marched, and the murderers had the audacity to ask them to hold hands…I would have been almost the next one but all of a sudden the bombers came over, we were ordered to lay face downwards, but everyone started running…and I…ran deep into the forest. From Remembering: Voices From the Holocaust
The Final Solution 1942 – Nazi’s built death camps like Aushwitz (1.6 million dead) and Treblinka to aid in extermination Poison gas chambers Cruel Experiments Some chosen for slave labor Elderly, women and children went to gas chambers Bodies burned in giant furnaces
The Final Solution News of atrocities reached western leaders well before 1945 Some historians argue that true atrocities were not realized until the Allies marched through the camps Other historians debate why so relatively little was done to stop
Making Connections What was the Nazi’s Final Solution? What strategies did the Allies pursue to defeat the Axis Powers in WWII?
War in the Pacific Essential Question: What characterized the WWII in the Pacific?
The Pacific Front Allies fought the Japanese for 4 long years in the Pacific Attacked the Philippines and other Allied territory American General Douglas MacArthur and his troops were forced to surrender
Island Hopping American morale improved as small victories defeated Japan at sea Island hopping: US captured and used key islands as a base for attacks Thousands died on both sides as American forces got closer to the Japanese mainland Kamikazes sank several American destroyers
The End of the War Japanese refusal to surrender led the US to drop the Atomic bomb President Truman believed it was his duty to use every weapon available to save American lives August 6, 1945 – Dropped bomb on Japanese city of Hiroshima – A second bomb dropped on Nagasaki three days later Killed between 115,000 and 194,000 people Burns and radiation sickness killed more August 16, 1945 – Japanese surrendered
The Cost of War Most destructive conflict in history 55 million dead More than ½ the casualties were civilians killed by bombing, starvation, disease, torture and murder American dead: 322,000 American injured: 800,000 Soviet deaths: 22 million Those who survived faced the huge task of rebuilding their countries and their lives
Making Connections Evaluate what was significant about the cost of WWII? Answer the Essential Question: What characterized the WWII in the Pacific?