Presentation on theme: "Chapter 24: World War Looms WWII (1939-1945) 8.2: The causes and course of World War II, the character of the war at home and abroad, and its reshaping."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 24: World War Looms WWII (1939-1945) 8.2: The causes and course of World War II, the character of the war at home and abroad, and its reshaping of the U.S. role in world affairs
Road To WWII Totalitarianism – Total control over every aspect of citizen’s lives - a form of dictatorship Totalitarian governments gained power in Europe in the 1930’s Fiction vs. Reality
Political Philosophies 1. Communism- a society without class distinctions or private property (equality?) state has absolute authority 2. Fascism- 1 political party state has absolute authority Unlike communism, defends private property and social classes People do not have right to free speech!
Political Philosophies 3. Democracy – a system of government in which the people have the power to rule, either directly or indirectly through their elected officials Example of a Democratic Government: The United States FREEDOM of speech, press, religion Right to vote and elect political leaders Many political parties to choose from
Political Philosophies Communist & Fascist regimes are examples of Totalitarianism Examples: Soviet Union – Communist (1920’s-1991) Italy & Germany – Fascist (1930’s – 1945)
Totalitarian Rulers Around the World 1930’s-1940’s 1. Benito Mussolini – (Italy) fascist/military 2. Adolf Hitler – (Germany) gains power 1933. Fascist/military 3. Joseph Stalin – Soviet Union (Communist) 4.Japanese Military dictatorship 1930’s Fascist/Military
Anti-Comintern Pact, 1937 Alliance formed Between: Germany, Italy, Japan They pledge to oppose international communism Join forces against the Soviet Union ( & the spread of communism)
Nazi- Soviet Pact, 1939 But then… Hitler (Germany) signed non-aggression pact with Stalin (Soviet Union )! They agreed Not to invade/ attack each other
Section 2: War in Europe
Events Leading Up to WWII Hitler invaded: 1.Rhineland, 1936 Region between Germany & France 2. Austria 1938 3. Sudetenland 1938 (Czechoslovakia) Why??
WWII Officially Began When… Hitler & his German Troops invaded Poland Sept. 1 st, 1939 Great Britain & France declared war on Germany
Why Didn’t Anyone Stop Hitler Prior To Sept. 1 st 1939? The “Appeasement” Policy: Allowing aggressors to have what they want… In the hope they will demand no more
Sides & Alliances ALLIES: 1. Great Britain 2. France 3. U.S. (joined 1941) 4. Soviet Union (joined 1941 After Hitler betrayed Stalin) AXIS POWERS: 1. Germany 2. Italy 3. Japan
1940-German Troops… Invaded Northern European countries: Denmark, Norway
May, 1940- Hitler & German Troops Invaded France May 10, 1940 France surrendered on June 22, 1940 Defeat of France shocked the world
August 1940-Battle of Britain German planes bombed Great Britain Aug. 1940 1 night 70,000 fire bombs dropped Massive destruction Great Britain Defeated the German air force (Luftwaffe) …barely
Yes, This is a WWII Reference
After the Battle of Britain, 1940 Winston Churchill (British Prime Minister) asked American President Franklin Roosevelt for help Did the U.S. Join the war at this point???
Section 4: America Moves Towards War
American “Neutrality” Since 1939 Neutrality Act of 1939 U.S. neutrality in name, not in deed. Allowed for sale of American weapons/ supplies to European allies on a “Cash-and-Carry” basis – Great Britain had to travel to U.S. pick up supplies, pay in cash
“Destroyers for Bases” Deal, 1940 U.S. provided Great Britain with older naval ships (50) In return, U.S. gained rights to establish military bases in British held Caribbean islands
American President Franklin D. Roosevelt Franklin D. Roosevelt ran for 3 rd term (1940) Won 54% of popular vote “better a third term than a third rater”
Roosevelt’s Address to Congress (1940) To Protect “4 Freedoms” 1. Freedom of Speech 2. Freedom of Religion 3. Freedom of Want 4. Freedom of Fear
Lend Lease Act, 1941 Franklin D. Roosevelt & British Prime Minister Winston Churchill met secretly U.S. let Great Britain borrow war supplies
Churchill & FDR also signed the… Atlantic Charter, 1941 The Cornerstones of a world free of fascism include… 1. Self determination of people 2. Free trade 3. disarmament U.S. & Great Britain share political ideologies
Question!! Has the United States joined World War II yet?? When will the U.S. join WWII? Why?
1941- Operation Barbarossa Hitler Betrayed Stalin! And invaded the Soviet Union in June! Soviet Union officially joined the allies - 1941
1941 – The Holocaust 1941 – extermination of Jews, people of color, Gypsies, Clergy, disabled, opponents of Hitler’s regime Gestapo = secret police arrest Hitler’s opponents
Concentration Camps 1941-1942: Jews from all over Europe transported to concentration camps 6 million Jews Killed 6 Million Non- Jews Killed
CLARIFICATION WWII began Sept. 1 st, 1939 Germany (Hitler) acted as the aggressor and invaded various countries throughout Europe. Meanwhile, Japan acted as an aggressor and invaded various countries in Asia.
Japan Invaded its Neighbors 1. Conquered Manchuria 1931 2. Invaded China 1937 Nanking- 200,000 Chinese citizens killed 3. Invaded Indo-China (Vietnam)
Tripartite Pact – Formal Alliance of Axis Powers 1940 An Alliance between Germany, Japan, Italy
In response to Japanese Aggression… President Roosevelt U.S. refused to trade with Japan Froze Japanese assets in U.S. Restricted oil exports to Japan Placed an embargo on sale of scrap iron to Japan
In Retaliation, Japan Planned a Secret Attack on American Territory
1941- Pearl Harbor, Hawaii December 7, 1941 Japanese planes attacked American Naval fleet 2,400 died 1,200 wounded
Pearl Harbor-Statistics 8 Battleships sunk 10 other ships damaged Including the U.S.S. Arizona 200 planes destroyed
Why Pearl Harbor, Hawaii?
Why Pearl Harbor? Key American military base in the Pacific Dec. 8 : President Roosevelt/Congress declared war on Japan Dec. 11: Germany & Italy declared war on U.S.
Franklin D. Roosevelt… “Yesterday, December 7 th,1941… a date which will live in infamy” - FDR
Section 1: Mobilizing for Defense
**** 1941- 1945*****
Executive Order #9066 “… the successful prosecution of the war requires every possible protection against espionage and against sabotage to national-defense material, national- defense premises, and national-defense utilities…” – Feb. 1942
Executive Order 9066 Feb 19, 1942 100,000 people of Japanese descent (Nisei) On West Coast Removed from homes Placed in “Internment camps”
A Civil Rights infringement? Was the decision to intern all people of Japanese descent in the West coast justified?
Japanese Internment- Justified? More 60% were U.S. citizens 1/3 under the age of 19
Re: Japanese Internment “I was born in Hawaii. I worked most of my life on the West Coast. I have never been to Japan. We would have done anything to show our loyalty. All we wanted to do was to be left alone on the coast.... My wife and I lost $10,000 in that evacuation. She had a beauty parlor and had to give that up. I had a good position worked up as a gardener, and was taken away from that. We had a little home and that’s gone now....” – anonymous “older Nisei”, 1943 (Manzanar)
Korematsu vs. United States (1944) RE: Japanese Internment Supreme Court decided that in times of war, the curbing of civil rights is justified. 1988 U.S. government formally apologized paid surviving families $20,000
Santa Anita Racetrack, Arcadia CA Used as an “assembly center”
Japanese Arriving at Santa Anita
Santa Anita Racetrack – over 3,000 Internees
Economic Impact of War in U.S. 1. War Industry/ Defense Jobs End of the economic depression as jobs became available 2. “Bracero Program” 1942- 200,000 Mexican farm workers were recruited to work in agriculture 3. Movement of People: 8 million people moved West of the Mississippi 1940-1950
Native American “Code Talkers” “code talkers” used Native- American languages to encode & decipher secret messages Employed by every branch of the military
“Rosie the Riveter” – Women & Work Women recruited to work in war industries 6 million women entered the job force Contributed to the war effort by producing weapons, supplies, etc.
“Rosie “ at Work
Women in the Military 260,000 women volunteered for military service 1.Women’s Army Corp (WACs) 2.Women Appointed for Voluntary Emergency Service (WAVES)
Women in the Military 3.Women’s Auxiliary Ferrying Squadron (WAFs) Female pilots Team of 28 Transported soldiers & light aircraft
Women in the Military 4. U.S. Cadet Nurse Corps 20 nursing schools in the country Government paid training
Section 2: The War for Europe and North Africa
“Operation Overlord” Turning point in war! 176,000 Allied Soldiers British, Canadian, American Troops 600 warships, 10,000 aircraft Landed in…Normandy, France Also known as “D- DAY”
Why is D-DAY Significant? June 6, 1944 Victory for Allies Launched “amphibious” attack against German army Allies won – German forces retreated August 25
Allies Liberated France from German control - 1944!
Battle of the Bulge - 1944 December, 1944 Allied Forces continued towards Belgium Faces defensive attack by German forces
Yalta Conference -Feb. 1945 “The Big 3” 1. Franklin D. Roosevelt (U.S.) 2. Winston Churchill (G.B.) 3. Joseph Stalin (Soviet Union) Discussed postwar aftermath
“The Big Three” Agreed to divide Germany 4 Zones: Soviets would control east, U.S., Great Britain, France would control western Germany Berlin, Germany = joint occupation Germany to pay $20 billion in war reparations
Spring, 1945 American President Franklin D. Roosevelt Died Suddenly April, 1945 V.P. Becomes President – Harry S. Truman
May, 1945 Hitler committed suicide on April 30, 1945 Nazis surrendered May 7, 1945 Was this the end of the WWII???
Section 3: The War in the Pacific
Top Secret Manhattan Project Harry S. Truman ( American President) Considered using the top secret weapon The Atomic Bomb
Top Secret Manhattan Project $2 million top secret American nuclear weapon experiment First “A-bomb” tested July, 16 1945 In southwestern desert
President Truman’s Choice Ordered military to drop A-Bomb on Japan If they didn’t surrender by August 3.
August 6, 1945 B-29 bomber airplane called Enola Gay Dropped 5 ton uranium bomb (“little boy”) Hiroshima, Japan 80,000 people killed 60,000 more died radiation by the end of the year
August 9, 1945 Second bomb dropped (“ Fat man”) in Nagasaki, Japan Another 60,000 people died Japan surrendered September 2, 1945
The Bombing of Hiroshima & Nagasaki Necessary to end the war? Why is this still considered a controversial decision ??
WWII Aftermath… 55-60 Million People died during WWII Half were civilians (Holocaust, Atomic bomb) How much is a population of 60 million?? 2010 Population in California : 38 Million “Crimes against humanity” entered vocabulary – refers to atrocities committed by Nazis WWII Officially ended : September 1945
Impact on American Economy 1. End of Great Depression Increase in productivity (manufacturing) Full employment
New Technology Introduced During WWII 1. radar 2. computers 3. electronics 4. rockets 5. Nuclear Weapons (atomic bomb)
Opportunities for Women, Minorities 1. Women entered job force 2. Desegregation of armed forces AFTER the war 3. Native American Code talkers 4. Bracero program – Mexican farm workers recruited
Impact on American Life G.I. Bill : also known as the “Servicemen’s Readjustment Act” WWII Veterans are rewarded 1. College scholarships 2. home loans 3. small business loans
Two World Powers Emerged … 1. The United States And… 2. The Soviet Union