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WWII. Totalitarianism – state has complete control CommunismFascism – bundle of rods AAims to create a classless society – all people equal NNo private.

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Presentation on theme: "WWII. Totalitarianism – state has complete control CommunismFascism – bundle of rods AAims to create a classless society – all people equal NNo private."— Presentation transcript:

1 WWII

2 Totalitarianism – state has complete control CommunismFascism – bundle of rods AAims to create a classless society – all people equal NNo private property WWorking class should overthrow the wealthy minority SSole Focus: the people SStresses loyalty to the state BBelieves in class superiority FForbids/puts down opposition UUses violence and war to invigorate the people SSole Focus: the state

3 UUSSR: Josef Stalin (Communist) IItaly: Benito Mussolini (Fascist) JJapan: Emperor Hirohito (Fascist) GGermany: Adolf Hitler (Fascist)

4 Italy  Inflation- Rising Prices  Unemployment  Communist Led Strikes  Middle & Upper Class demand leader  1922 – Mussolini organizes fascist group: “Black Shirts”  Marches to Rome  King appoints Mussolini head of Government  “ I l Duce”

5 Soviet Union

6 Japan LLiving Room – Japanese need more space MMilitary seizes Manchuria RRacial superiority leads to horrible crimes RRape of Nanking LLeague of Nations condemns Japan JJapan quits League of Nations

7 Germany IInflation – rising Prices 11914: 4.2 Marks = $1 11919: 8.9 Marks = $1 11923: 4.2 BILLION MARKS = $1 66 Million unemployed Treaty of Versailles Took away colonies Took away border territories Rhineland Sudetenland Poland Germany took SOLE responsibility Weimar Republic Not strong, military unhappy

8 Hitler’s Rise to Power 11889: Born in Austria 11907: Failed Art Student 11918: Decorated veteran of WWI 11919: National Socialist Party (Nazis) 11923: Wanted to imitate Mussolini’s March to Rome MMarched to Munich, Arrested, Sent to Jail 11925: “Mein Kampf” My struggle 11932: Elected, quickly moves up to “Chancellor” 11933: Uses crisis of Reichstag Fire to be given more control 11934: Fuhrer

9 Axis Powers Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, Hideki Tojo, Josef Stalin

10 March 1936  Rhineland – Along Rhine River ( between France, Germany) Austria

11 March 1938  Anschluss – union – with Austria Austria

12 September 1938 Austria

13 "You were given the choice between war and dishonor. You chose dishonor and you will have war."

14 March1939 – all of Czechoslovakia

15 March1939  Result: England & France Draw the line…

16 Versailles Treaty Checklist- Who’s next? ? Austria

17 France & England vow to protect Poland

18 September 1, 1939

19 England & France Declare War against Germany September 1, 1939

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21 Invading Poland might threaten whom?

22 CColor allied powers with blue stripes WWho is next??

23  Winter 1939 – 1940… um…

24

25 April 1940: Germany (and Italy) attack France

26 June 1940 – France Falls

27

28 1940 Allies versus Axis Powers  Who’s Hitler’s next target?

29 Battle of Britain Battle of Britain - 1940

30 Battle of the AtlanticAtlantic  "When you think how easy it is to sink ships at sea, and how hard it is to build them, and when you realise that we never had less than 2000 ships afloat, and 300 to 400 in the danger zone, and of the great Armies we are nuturing,and reinforcing in the East, and of the world wide traffic we have to carry on, when you think of all this, can you wonder that it is the Battle of the Atlantic which holds the first place in the thoughts of those upon whom the responsibility for final Victory rests.”

31 Battle of Stalingrad SSummer 1941: Hitler breaks the Nonaggression Pact IInvades Soviet Union UUSSR thus joins Allies! BBlitzkrieg quickly moves through Russia AAugust, 1942: Nazis invade Stalingrad GGermans surrender in 1943 1,120,000 Russians Dead 850,000 Germans KIA 100,000 German POWs 6,000 POWs survived TURNING POINT OF WAR IN EUROPE

32 Where is the USA??

33 Pearl Harbor USS Enterprise USS Lexington USS Saratoga 2,400 American Dead 1,200 Wounded 300 planes damaged or destroyed 18 warships sunk or damaged

34 Make A Timeline – Include:  America places an embargo on Japan  Germany & Italy declare war on the USA  Italy invades Ethiopia  Germany & USSR sign Non-Aggression Pact  Nazis take Rhineland  England & France Declare war on Germany  Japan Bombs Pearl Harbor  Anschluss  Nazis take All of Czechoslovakia  Japan invades Manchuria  Hitler comes to power  Nazis invade Poland  America Declares war on Japan  Nazis take Sudetenland

35 AAfter France fell, the fight shifted to whom would control the Mediterranean Sea, North Africa, and the Suez Canal IItaly, in Libya, tried to flush out the British from Egypt TThey failed

36 Operation Torch – the fight for North Africa Erwin Rommel “Desert Fox” Dwight D. Eisenhower

37

38 On to Italy

39 D-Day OOperation Overlord JJune 6, 1944 PParatroopers FFired on beaches 55 Beaches OOmaha - US UUtah -US GGold -UK SSword -UK JJuno –Can

40 Battle of the Bulge DDecember 1944 HHitler wanted to push Allies Back during Winter! GGoal: Neutralize the Western Front AAmerican pilots dropped supplies and bombed Axis US causalities: 19,000 dead, 62,000 wounded German causalities: 84,000

41 The Home Front RRATIONING: Conserving at home to help the war effort FFats & Oils – gunpowder and armaments RRubber GGas MMetal NNylons SSugar MMeat BButter VVICTORY GARDENS: to help conserve RRation Books & Points: You were only allowed to buy so much of the above each week. Your Ration book helped you keep track

42 Women’s Role VVICTORY BONDS: Invest in the nation/war effort now, get your savings back later KKnitting, Collection Drives WWAVES: "Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service” Joined the NAVY EEmployment WWomen took the jobs men left when they went to war RRosie the Riveter: propaganda figure meant to encourage women to take men’s jobs

43 Propaganda LLook at your Propaganda poster with A PARTNER AAnswer the questions in the Cartoon Analysis questions CChange letter D to: WWhat TACTIC did they use to convince the viewer? Fear Patriotism Encouragement Other?

44

45 The Problem with Propaganda…

46 Propaganda in Film  Made by the Government, Armed forces  Used to:  Train  Inform/Educate  Influence  Entertain – especially the troops  Overt Racism in many of the films  Caricatures of race

47 While Watching the Film… TTake notes on: 1. What you think the purpose of the films were (training, education, influence, entertainment, encourage) 2. What tactic does the film use? (Patriotism, Fear, Encouragement, etc) AAfter the film: CCollins Type II: Describe an example of propaganda in film from WWII. Who made it, who did it target, what was its message, how did it try to influence, do you think it was successful?

48 Stand in the Place Where you…  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Strongly Agree  Agree

49 The Final Solution: Hitler’s plan to eliminate all Jews from Europe Anti- Semitism Prejudice towards the Jewish Race SCAPEGOAT: person who takes blame Nuremburg Laws Aim: To humiliate the Jews Examples: Star of David, citizenship taken away Kristallnacht German for: “Night of the Broken Glass” Germans broke Jewish store windows and burned synagogues

50 The Final Solution: Hitler’s plan to eliminate all Jews from Europe Ghettos Purpose: to separate the Jews from society Description: Crowded, little food, thousands of killings Concentration Camps Purpose: kill millions Jews by work & murder Description: Little food, filthy, disease, crematoriums, shootings, gassings Holocaust Definition: the systematic killing of Jews, gypsies, disabled, Communists, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Catholics, Homosexuals, and other groups during WWII

51 The deliberate and systematic killing of an entire race, ethnicity, or religious group Genocide

52 How to Analyze a Primary Source WATCHING NEIGHBORS AMSTERDAM, THE NETHERLANDS, JUNE 20, 1943 ​ Jews assembled for transport to theWesterbork transit camp (a way station to the Auschwitz killing center), in a photograph taken clandestinely from a nearby building. Neighborhood boys watch from the corner (left) and other local residents from their window (center).

53 Do Now: You should be working quietly, as individuals, for about 5 minutes Group work should be productive and ON TASK  Analyze your primary source  Observe it without writing anything down for about a minute  Answer the questions on your form  If your question doesn’t apply to you write N/A  When everyone is done, share what you know about the image, and how it was a sign of the coming genocide

54 Evaluating the Evidence Which one piece of evidence will you bring to FDR? What 3 questions will he ask? Which images are most powerful/least powerful?

55 Reflection Collins Type I

56 Internment Camps EExecutive order 9066 AArmed forces power to establish military zones FForced people to leave zones RRemove Japanese Americans from Western US CCamps in Southwest OOnly factor was racial background IInternment Camps: only allowed to bring what they could carry. Homes, businesses, left behind LLife was hard – harsh climate, barbed wire, armed guards 4442 nd Regimental Combat Team: highest awarded regiment in history LLost 800 men saving Texan 1 st Batallian RReceived more than 18,000 individual decorations

57 “Follow the Screams Think Aloud”  Partner # 1 Reads out loud, THINKS out loud  Partner # 2 Records any thoughts  What is Dachau?  I don’t remember what the SS is  I know Salzburg is in Austria  EWWWW!  2 nd Article: Switch!  3 rd Article: Partner #1 reads 1 st page, #2 2 nd

58 Collins Type III: What was the “Final Solution?”  Use Terms:  Anti-Semitism, Nuremburg Laws, Kristallnacht, Ghetto, Concentration Camps, Holocaust, Genocide  FCA 1: Content– Use all Terms, answer Question completely  FCA 2: Conventions – Legible Penmanship (in pen) & Spelling  FCA 3: Organization – Clear sequence of detail

59 If You Cried You Died  What caused the Holocaust? Pick 3 choices from the list below, and explain your answer. Racism Prejudice Difficult economic times Effects of propaganda Germany’s post WWI feelings Nationalism Scapegoating (blame) Hitler’s charisma Feelings of racial superiority Indifference of bystanders

60 Yalta Conference – January 1945 FFDR (elected for the FOURTH time) CChurchill SStalin MMeet in resort town in Russia WWhat do we do with Germany when we win?? DDivide the country into SECTORS US Soviets British French EElections in Poland UUSSR would declare war on Japan within 3 months of German defeat

61 Crossing the Rhine - March 1945

62 April 12, 1945 EEisenhower decides to allow USSR to take Berlin AAfter Hitler’s death, German armies scattered MMay 7 Germans agree to a surrender VVE DAY: MAY 8, 1945, Victory in Europe Day April 30, 1945

63 Island Hopping – US strategy in Pacific, targeting weaker islands to reach Japan

64 Douglas MacArthur – led men to defend Philippines, forced to leave men “I will return.” Bataan Death March: 5 days marching to RR, thousands killed May, 1942: Battle of Coral Sea: Aircraft Carriers, 1 st stop in Japanese Advance June, 1942, Midway: Japanese lured US into sea battle by attacking island, we knew plan February 1945, Iwo Jima: rugged terrain, caves & tunnels – 7000 US, 20,000 Japanese August, 1942: Guadalcanal: 6 months, bloody fighting: put Japan on the run! April, 1945: Okinawa launching pad for final invasion of Japan 110,000 Japanese killed – would fight to last man October, 1944: Leyete Gulf – Return to Philippines, largest Naval Battle…Kamikaze (divebombers) December 7, 1941: limited US ability to strike back, major boost for Japanese pride US Strengths: Focus on Weaker Islands Soviets eased pressure in Europe War Production Navajo Code Talkers!

65 Manhattan Project

66 Hiroshima –August 6, 1945 EENOLA GAY – American B-29 dropped “Little Boy” 880,000 people died immediately 335,000 injured 22/3 of the citiy’s 90,000 buildings destroyed JJapan’s leaders took no action to end the war

67 Nagasaki –August 9, 1945 ““Fat Boy” 440,000 dead EEmperor Hirohito favored surrender MMilitary leaders resisted VVJ DAY- August 15


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