Presentation on theme: "WWII. Totalitarianism – state has complete control CommunismFascism – bundle of rods AAims to create a classless society – all people equal NNo private."— Presentation transcript:
Totalitarianism – state has complete control CommunismFascism – bundle of rods AAims to create a classless society – all people equal NNo private property WWorking class should overthrow the wealthy minority SSole Focus: the people SStresses loyalty to the state BBelieves in class superiority FForbids/puts down opposition UUses violence and war to invigorate the people SSole Focus: the state
UUSSR: Josef Stalin (Communist) IItaly: Benito Mussolini (Fascist) JJapan: Emperor Hirohito (Fascist) GGermany: Adolf Hitler (Fascist)
Italy Inflation- Rising Prices Unemployment Communist Led Strikes Middle & Upper Class demand leader 1922 – Mussolini organizes fascist group: “Black Shirts” Marches to Rome King appoints Mussolini head of Government “ I l Duce”
Japan LLiving Room – Japanese need more space MMilitary seizes Manchuria RRacial superiority leads to horrible crimes RRape of Nanking LLeague of Nations condemns Japan JJapan quits League of Nations
Germany IInflation – rising Prices 11914: 4.2 Marks = $1 11919: 8.9 Marks = $1 11923: 4.2 BILLION MARKS = $1 66 Million unemployed Treaty of Versailles Took away colonies Took away border territories Rhineland Sudetenland Poland Germany took SOLE responsibility Weimar Republic Not strong, military unhappy
Hitler’s Rise to Power 11889: Born in Austria 11907: Failed Art Student 11918: Decorated veteran of WWI 11919: National Socialist Party (Nazis) 11923: Wanted to imitate Mussolini’s March to Rome MMarched to Munich, Arrested, Sent to Jail 11925: “Mein Kampf” My struggle 11932: Elected, quickly moves up to “Chancellor” 11933: Uses crisis of Reichstag Fire to be given more control 11934: Fuhrer
Axis Powers Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, Hideki Tojo, Josef Stalin
March 1936 Rhineland – Along Rhine River ( between France, Germany) Austria
March 1938 Anschluss – union – with Austria Austria
September 1938 Austria
"You were given the choice between war and dishonor. You chose dishonor and you will have war."
March1939 – all of Czechoslovakia
March1939 Result: England & France Draw the line…
Versailles Treaty Checklist- Who’s next? ? Austria
France & England vow to protect Poland
September 1, 1939
England & France Declare War against Germany September 1, 1939
Invading Poland might threaten whom?
CColor allied powers with blue stripes WWho is next??
Winter 1939 – 1940… um…
April 1940: Germany (and Italy) attack France
June 1940 – France Falls
1940 Allies versus Axis Powers Who’s Hitler’s next target?
Battle of Britain Battle of Britain
Battle of the AtlanticAtlantic "When you think how easy it is to sink ships at sea, and how hard it is to build them, and when you realise that we never had less than 2000 ships afloat, and 300 to 400 in the danger zone, and of the great Armies we are nuturing,and reinforcing in the East, and of the world wide traffic we have to carry on, when you think of all this, can you wonder that it is the Battle of the Atlantic which holds the first place in the thoughts of those upon whom the responsibility for final Victory rests.”
Battle of Stalingrad SSummer 1941: Hitler breaks the Nonaggression Pact IInvades Soviet Union UUSSR thus joins Allies! BBlitzkrieg quickly moves through Russia AAugust, 1942: Nazis invade Stalingrad GGermans surrender in ,120,000 Russians Dead 850,000 Germans KIA 100,000 German POWs 6,000 POWs survived TURNING POINT OF WAR IN EUROPE
Where is the USA??
Pearl Harbor USS Enterprise USS Lexington USS Saratoga 2,400 American Dead 1,200 Wounded 300 planes damaged or destroyed 18 warships sunk or damaged
Make A Timeline – Include: America places an embargo on Japan Germany & Italy declare war on the USA Italy invades Ethiopia Germany & USSR sign Non-Aggression Pact Nazis take Rhineland England & France Declare war on Germany Japan Bombs Pearl Harbor Anschluss Nazis take All of Czechoslovakia Japan invades Manchuria Hitler comes to power Nazis invade Poland America Declares war on Japan Nazis take Sudetenland
AAfter France fell, the fight shifted to whom would control the Mediterranean Sea, North Africa, and the Suez Canal IItaly, in Libya, tried to flush out the British from Egypt TThey failed
Operation Torch – the fight for North Africa Erwin Rommel “Desert Fox” Dwight D. Eisenhower
Battle of the Bulge DDecember 1944 HHitler wanted to push Allies Back during Winter! GGoal: Neutralize the Western Front AAmerican pilots dropped supplies and bombed Axis US causalities: 19,000 dead, 62,000 wounded German causalities: 84,000
The Home Front RRATIONING: Conserving at home to help the war effort FFats & Oils – gunpowder and armaments RRubber GGas MMetal NNylons SSugar MMeat BButter VVICTORY GARDENS: to help conserve RRation Books & Points: You were only allowed to buy so much of the above each week. Your Ration book helped you keep track
Women’s Role VVICTORY BONDS: Invest in the nation/war effort now, get your savings back later KKnitting, Collection Drives WWAVES: "Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service” Joined the NAVY EEmployment WWomen took the jobs men left when they went to war RRosie the Riveter: propaganda figure meant to encourage women to take men’s jobs
Propaganda LLook at your Propaganda poster with A PARTNER AAnswer the questions in the Cartoon Analysis questions CChange letter D to: WWhat TACTIC did they use to convince the viewer? Fear Patriotism Encouragement Other?
The Problem with Propaganda…
Propaganda in Film Made by the Government, Armed forces Used to: Train Inform/Educate Influence Entertain – especially the troops Overt Racism in many of the films Caricatures of race
While Watching the Film… TTake notes on: 1. What you think the purpose of the films were (training, education, influence, entertainment, encourage) 2. What tactic does the film use? (Patriotism, Fear, Encouragement, etc) AAfter the film: CCollins Type II: Describe an example of propaganda in film from WWII. Who made it, who did it target, what was its message, how did it try to influence, do you think it was successful?
Stand in the Place Where you… Strongly Disagree Disagree Strongly Agree Agree
The Final Solution: Hitler’s plan to eliminate all Jews from Europe Anti- Semitism Prejudice towards the Jewish Race SCAPEGOAT: person who takes blame Nuremburg Laws Aim: To humiliate the Jews Examples: Star of David, citizenship taken away Kristallnacht German for: “Night of the Broken Glass” Germans broke Jewish store windows and burned synagogues
The Final Solution: Hitler’s plan to eliminate all Jews from Europe Ghettos Purpose: to separate the Jews from society Description: Crowded, little food, thousands of killings Concentration Camps Purpose: kill millions Jews by work & murder Description: Little food, filthy, disease, crematoriums, shootings, gassings Holocaust Definition: the systematic killing of Jews, gypsies, disabled, Communists, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Catholics, Homosexuals, and other groups during WWII
The deliberate and systematic killing of an entire race, ethnicity, or religious group Genocide
How to Analyze a Primary Source WATCHING NEIGHBORS AMSTERDAM, THE NETHERLANDS, JUNE 20, 1943 Jews assembled for transport to theWesterbork transit camp (a way station to the Auschwitz killing center), in a photograph taken clandestinely from a nearby building. Neighborhood boys watch from the corner (left) and other local residents from their window (center).
Do Now: You should be working quietly, as individuals, for about 5 minutes Group work should be productive and ON TASK Analyze your primary source Observe it without writing anything down for about a minute Answer the questions on your form If your question doesn’t apply to you write N/A When everyone is done, share what you know about the image, and how it was a sign of the coming genocide
Evaluating the Evidence Which one piece of evidence will you bring to FDR? What 3 questions will he ask? Which images are most powerful/least powerful?
Reflection Collins Type I
Internment Camps EExecutive order 9066 AArmed forces power to establish military zones FForced people to leave zones RRemove Japanese Americans from Western US CCamps in Southwest OOnly factor was racial background IInternment Camps: only allowed to bring what they could carry. Homes, businesses, left behind LLife was hard – harsh climate, barbed wire, armed guards 4442 nd Regimental Combat Team: highest awarded regiment in history LLost 800 men saving Texan 1 st Batallian RReceived more than 18,000 individual decorations
“Follow the Screams Think Aloud” Partner # 1 Reads out loud, THINKS out loud Partner # 2 Records any thoughts What is Dachau? I don’t remember what the SS is I know Salzburg is in Austria EWWWW! 2 nd Article: Switch! 3 rd Article: Partner #1 reads 1 st page, #2 2 nd
Collins Type III: What was the “Final Solution?” Use Terms: Anti-Semitism, Nuremburg Laws, Kristallnacht, Ghetto, Concentration Camps, Holocaust, Genocide FCA 1: Content– Use all Terms, answer Question completely FCA 2: Conventions – Legible Penmanship (in pen) & Spelling FCA 3: Organization – Clear sequence of detail
If You Cried You Died What caused the Holocaust? Pick 3 choices from the list below, and explain your answer. Racism Prejudice Difficult economic times Effects of propaganda Germany’s post WWI feelings Nationalism Scapegoating (blame) Hitler’s charisma Feelings of racial superiority Indifference of bystanders
Yalta Conference – January 1945 FFDR (elected for the FOURTH time) CChurchill SStalin MMeet in resort town in Russia WWhat do we do with Germany when we win?? DDivide the country into SECTORS US Soviets British French EElections in Poland UUSSR would declare war on Japan within 3 months of German defeat
Crossing the Rhine - March 1945
April 12, 1945 EEisenhower decides to allow USSR to take Berlin AAfter Hitler’s death, German armies scattered MMay 7 Germans agree to a surrender VVE DAY: MAY 8, 1945, Victory in Europe Day April 30, 1945
Island Hopping – US strategy in Pacific, targeting weaker islands to reach Japan
Douglas MacArthur – led men to defend Philippines, forced to leave men “I will return.” Bataan Death March: 5 days marching to RR, thousands killed May, 1942: Battle of Coral Sea: Aircraft Carriers, 1 st stop in Japanese Advance June, 1942, Midway: Japanese lured US into sea battle by attacking island, we knew plan February 1945, Iwo Jima: rugged terrain, caves & tunnels – 7000 US, 20,000 Japanese August, 1942: Guadalcanal: 6 months, bloody fighting: put Japan on the run! April, 1945: Okinawa launching pad for final invasion of Japan 110,000 Japanese killed – would fight to last man October, 1944: Leyete Gulf – Return to Philippines, largest Naval Battle…Kamikaze (divebombers) December 7, 1941: limited US ability to strike back, major boost for Japanese pride US Strengths: Focus on Weaker Islands Soviets eased pressure in Europe War Production Navajo Code Talkers!
Hiroshima –August 6, 1945 EENOLA GAY – American B-29 dropped “Little Boy” 880,000 people died immediately 335,000 injured 22/3 of the citiy’s 90,000 buildings destroyed JJapan’s leaders took no action to end the war
Nagasaki –August 9, 1945 ““Fat Boy” 440,000 dead EEmperor Hirohito favored surrender MMilitary leaders resisted VVJ DAY- August 15