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The Great Depression and WWII 1929 - 1945 Ch. 31 (2,3,4) Ch. 32.

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Presentation on theme: "The Great Depression and WWII 1929 - 1945 Ch. 31 (2,3,4) Ch. 32."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Great Depression and WWII 1929 - 1945 Ch. 31 (2,3,4) Ch. 32

2 Concept Questions 1. How did WWI bring about the Great Depression? 2. What were the responses of the U.S., Germany, and the Soviet Union to the Global Depression? 3. What factors allowed the rise of totalitarian dictators like Mussolini and Hitler? 4. What were the causes and effects of WWII? 5. What were the causes and effects of new technologies in WWII?

3 Europe After the War Only U.S. and Japan not in financial crisis Only U.S. and Japan not in financial crisis Most European monarchies replaced by unstable democracies Most European monarchies replaced by unstable democracies Most required coalition govts. (joint rulers of different political parties) to rule Most required coalition govts. (joint rulers of different political parties) to rule Germany ruled by Weimar Republic Germany ruled by Weimar Republic Signed Treaty of Versailles – blamed for problems Signed Treaty of Versailles – blamed for problems Inflation out of control, no history of democracy, large number of political parties Inflation out of control, no history of democracy, large number of political parties Dawes plan to recover (U.S. investments) Dawes plan to recover (U.S. investments)

4 Causes of the Depression Stock market crash, banks closed, little trade, loans called in, massive unemployment Stock market crash, banks closed, little trade, loans called in, massive unemployment International – Treaty of Versailles, Nationalist movements in colonies stopped raw materials shipments to Europe, Germany can’t repay International – Treaty of Versailles, Nationalist movements in colonies stopped raw materials shipments to Europe, Germany can’t repay Political – high tariffs stopped most trade, govt. spending decreased, strong leaders demand absolute power Political – high tariffs stopped most trade, govt. spending decreased, strong leaders demand absolute power Economic – over speculation, over production Economic – over speculation, over production

5 The Great Depression World economy based on U.S. World economy based on U.S. Downward spiral due to uneven wealth Downward spiral due to uneven wealth Stock Market Crash (1929) Stock Market Crash (1929) Buying on margin Buying on margin Selling panic Selling panic Loss of jobs, farms, banks closed Loss of jobs, farms, banks closed Global Depression Global Depression U.S. investors demanded foreign loans be repaid U.S. investors demanded foreign loans be repaid High tariffs dropped world trade High tariffs dropped world trade

6 World Response Britain Britain Protective tariffs, etc…brought about steady recovery while maintaining democracy Protective tariffs, etc…brought about steady recovery while maintaining democracy France France Preserved democracy but had several political power changes Preserved democracy but had several political power changes Soviet Union Soviet Union Stalin’s command economy Stalin’s command economy Totalitarianism – propaganda, censorship, no religion, secret police, rule through fear and intimidation Totalitarianism – propaganda, censorship, no religion, secret police, rule through fear and intimidation Great Purge, gulags, Siberia, executions Great Purge, gulags, Siberia, executions U.S. U.S. New Deal – massive public works (govt. spending) and banking reform New Deal – massive public works (govt. spending) and banking reform Isolationism Isolationism Germany Germany Weak leadership of the Weimar Republic & poor economy led to the rise of Hitler and Nazism. Hitler used govt. agencies to create public works jobs and rebuilt the military Weak leadership of the Weimar Republic & poor economy led to the rise of Hitler and Nazism. Hitler used govt. agencies to create public works jobs and rebuilt the military

7 Fascism Fascist Beliefs Fascist Beliefs Loyalty to the state – extreme nationalism Loyalty to the state – extreme nationalism obedience to its leader obedience to its leader promised to revive economy, punish those responsible, restore national pride promised to revive economy, punish those responsible, restore national pride Nation’s must struggle, peaceful nations will be conquered Nation’s must struggle, peaceful nations will be conquered Uniforms, salutes, rallies, strong military Uniforms, salutes, rallies, strong military One political party, one leader One political party, one leader Denial of individual rights Denial of individual rights Class society – each has its place and function (differs from communism with no classes ) Class society – each has its place and function (differs from communism with no classes )

8 Fascism Italy & Benito Mussolini Italy & Benito Mussolini Disappointment over WWI Disappointment over WWI Mussolini promises to rescue Italy from inflation, unemployment Mussolini promises to rescue Italy from inflation, unemployment Fascist black shirts lead terror campaigns Fascist black shirts lead terror campaigns Legally took power – became Il Duce (the leader) Legally took power – became Il Duce (the leader) Abolished democracy Abolished democracy Outlawed all other political parties Outlawed all other political parties Used secret police to jail opponents Used secret police to jail opponents Censored radio, publications Censored radio, publications

9 Fascism Hitler & Germany Hitler & Germany WWI soldier WWI soldier National Socialist German Worker’s Party – Nazi National Socialist German Worker’s Party – Nazi Brown shirts – private army Brown shirts – private army Great organizer/speaker became der Fuhrer (the leader) Great organizer/speaker became der Fuhrer (the leader) Attempted to take over govt. – jailed for 9 months (?) Attempted to take over govt. – jailed for 9 months (?) Wrote “Mein Kampf” (My struggle) in jail Wrote “Mein Kampf” (My struggle) in jail outlined his plan for Germany outlined his plan for Germany Aryan race (incorrect), Non-aryans are subhuman Aryan race (incorrect), Non-aryans are subhuman Germany needs more land (lebensraum) Germany needs more land (lebensraum)

10 Hitler’s Germany Named Chancellor – legal power Named Chancellor – legal power Banned political parties Banned political parties Arrested opponents, many killed Arrested opponents, many killed Created the SS – loyal only to Hitler Created the SS – loyal only to Hitler Terror tactics by the Gestapo (Nazi secret police) Terror tactics by the Gestapo (Nazi secret police) Put Germans to work (unemployed from 6 million to 1.5 million Put Germans to work (unemployed from 6 million to 1.5 million Built factories, weapons, highways (Autobahn), served in military Built factories, weapons, highways (Autobahn), served in military Propaganda, book burning, church control Propaganda, book burning, church control Nazi youth, League of German Girls Nazi youth, League of German Girls Anti-Semitism – Jews blamed for all Germany’s problems Anti-Semitism – Jews blamed for all Germany’s problems 1% of population 1% of population Kristallnacht Kristallnacht

11 Aggressors Japan Japan struggling democracy, becomes militaristic struggling democracy, becomes militaristic Invasions of Manchuria and China – violated League of Nations Invasions of Manchuria and China – violated League of Nations Italy Italy Invaded Ethiopia Invaded Ethiopia Germany Germany Violating Versailles – rebuilding the army Violating Versailles – rebuilding the army Invaded Rhineland – appeasement by French/British Invaded Rhineland – appeasement by French/British Alliances Alliances Rome-Berlin Axis (Germany & Italy) Rome-Berlin Axis (Germany & Italy) Become Axis Powers when they add Japan (Hideki Tojo) Become Axis Powers when they add Japan (Hideki Tojo) League of Nation League of Nation Protested these actions, but DID nothing Protested these actions, but DID nothing Complete failure! Complete failure!

12 Western Democracies Fail to Halt Aggression U.S. – isolationist, Neutrality Acts U.S. – isolationist, Neutrality Acts Germany Germany Annexed Austria (Anschluss) Annexed Austria (Anschluss) Demanded Sudetenland of Czechoslovakia Demanded Sudetenland of Czechoslovakia Appeasement Appeasement Munich Conference – gave Sudetenland Munich Conference – gave Sudetenland Hitler promised he was done Hitler promised he was done Hitler took all of Czechoslovakia Hitler took all of Czechoslovakia Mussolini took Albania Mussolini took Albania Hitler threatening Poland Hitler threatening Poland Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact Germany & Soviets agree not to attack each other Germany & Soviets agree not to attack each other

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14 Hitler’s Lightning War Soviets - promise to divide Poland, get Baltic countries and Finland (back) Soviets - promise to divide Poland, get Baltic countries and Finland (back) Poland Poland Sept. 1, 1939 – start of WWII Sept. 1, 1939 – start of WWII Blitzkrieg – lightening war Blitzkrieg – lightening war

15 Hitler’s Lightning War France France Germans take Holland, Belgium & Luxembourg Germans take Holland, Belgium & Luxembourg Surround the French Surround the French French fall back to beaches of Dunkirk French fall back to beaches of Dunkirk Rescued by British – amateur armada Rescued by British – amateur armada Italy attacks southern France Italy attacks southern France France divided France divided North occupied, South – puppet govt. ( Vichy France) North occupied, South – puppet govt. ( Vichy France) Charles de Gaulle – govt. in exile, still fighting Charles de Gaulle – govt. in exile, still fighting

16 Hitler’s Lightning War Great Britain – Operation Sea Lion Great Britain – Operation Sea Lion Prime Minister – Winston Churchill Prime Minister – Winston Churchill Battle of Britain – air bombings Battle of Britain – air bombings Luftwaffe vs. R.A.F. Luftwaffe vs. R.A.F. Plan - knock out British air force then land troops Plan - knock out British air force then land troops Enigma (German coding machine) Enigma (German coding machine) Radar – electronic tracking system Radar – electronic tracking system 1 st successful defense against Hitler 1 st successful defense against Hitler

17 Hitler’s Lightning War North Africa – Italians attack North Africa – Italians attack Attack Egypt for control of Suez Canal Attack Egypt for control of Suez Canal Hitler sends help – General Erwin Rommel (the desert fox) Hitler sends help – General Erwin Rommel (the desert fox) Balkans Balkans Hitler needed staging ground Hitler needed staging ground Allied with some, conquered the rest Allied with some, conquered the rest Soviet Union – Operation Barbarossa Soviet Union – Operation Barbarossa Burn as they retreat Burn as they retreat Siege of Leningrad Siege of Leningrad Germans not allowed to retreat Germans not allowed to retreat Winter costs 500,000 lives Winter costs 500,000 lives

18 U.S. Aids Allies Lend-Lease Act Lend-Lease Act sell or lend arms to any country vital to the defense of the U.S. sell or lend arms to any country vital to the defense of the U.S. Must carry arms in their ships Must carry arms in their ships German subs told to sink any cargo ship German subs told to sink any cargo ship Atlantic Charter – upheld free trade, basis for WWII peace plan Atlantic Charter – upheld free trade, basis for WWII peace plan U.S. destroyer attacked by sub, we fight back, U.S. destroyer attacked by sub, we fight back, In undeclared naval war In undeclared naval war

19 Japan Seeking a Pacific Empire Seeking a Pacific Empire Plan for Southeast Asia revealed in broken code Plan for Southeast Asia revealed in broken code Threat to U.S. colonies (Philippines, Guam) Threat to U.S. colonies (Philippines, Guam) U.S. send aid to China, cut off oil shipments to Japan U.S. send aid to China, cut off oil shipments to Japan Pearl Harbor – Dec. 7, 1941 Pearl Harbor – Dec. 7, 1941 “A date which will live in infamy” “A date which will live in infamy” 18 ships, 2400 dead 18 ships, 2400 dead USS Arizona USS Arizona Planned by Isoroku Yamamoto Planned by Isoroku Yamamoto

20 Japan Victories Victories Guam Guam Wake Wake Philippines – Bataan Death March Philippines – Bataan Death March Corregidor Corregidor Malaya Malaya East Indonesia East Indonesia Burma – Burma Road, supply route to China Burma – Burma Road, supply route to China

21 Allies Strike Back Doolittle’s Raid Doolittle’s Raid Bomb Japanese cites – morale boost Bomb Japanese cites – morale boost Battle of Coral Sea Battle of Coral Sea 1 st aircraft sea battle 1 st aircraft sea battle U.S. lose more ships, BUT stop Japanese advancement for the 1 st time U.S. lose more ships, BUT stop Japanese advancement for the 1 st time Midway Midway Cracked code Cracked code U.S. ambush Japanese fleet, destroy aircraft carriers U.S. ambush Japanese fleet, destroy aircraft carriers Turning point of war in the Pacific Turning point of war in the Pacific

22 Allies Strike Back General Douglas MacArthur General Douglas MacArthur Island Hopping Island Hopping Skip strongholds Skip strongholds Attack closer to Japan, cut off supplies Attack closer to Japan, cut off supplies Battle of Guadalcanal Battle of Guadalcanal Hell Hell 6 months to win 6 months to win Japan loses 23,000 out of 36,000 (commitment?) Japan loses 23,000 out of 36,000 (commitment?)

23 Allied Victory Plan for Victory Plan for Victory Open a western front to relieve the Soviets Open a western front to relieve the Soviets North African Campaign North African Campaign General Montgomery (Br.) attacked Rommel at El Alamein in Africa General Montgomery (Br.) attacked Rommel at El Alamein in Africa Operation Torch – trapped Germans between Montgomery and General Eisenhower (U.S.) Operation Torch – trapped Germans between Montgomery and General Eisenhower (U.S.)

24 Allied Victory Battle of Stalingrad Battle of Stalingrad Germans conquer 90% Germans conquer 90% Soviets not allowed to retreat, surround city and cut off supplies to Germans Soviets not allowed to retreat, surround city and cut off supplies to Germans Germans not allowed to retreat or surrender Germans not allowed to retreat or surrender Winter – 90,000 Germans surrender from force of 330,000 Winter – 90,000 Germans surrender from force of 330,000 Puts Germans on the defensive Puts Germans on the defensive Italy Italy Mussolini caught and killed Mussolini caught and killed Allies get help from resistance fighters Allies get help from resistance fighters

25 Home Front Total War Total War Propaganda Propaganda Rationing Rationing Women at work Women at work Japanese Americans Japanese Americans Seen as threats Seen as threats Most were citizens and were born in the U.S. Most were citizens and were born in the U.S. Internment camps Internment camps Lost property and rights Lost property and rights

26 Victory in Europe D-Day – June 6, 1944 D-Day – June 6, 1944 Dummy army Dummy army Normandy Invasion Normandy Invasion Led to liberation of France, Belgium, Luxembourg & Netherlands Led to liberation of France, Belgium, Luxembourg & Netherlands Battle of the Bulge Battle of the Bulge Last offensive of Germans Last offensive of Germans Germany Surrenders Germany Surrenders Soviets surround city Soviets surround city Hitler commits suicide Hitler commits suicide May 8, 1945 – VE Day May 8, 1945 – VE Day Roosevelt had died, Truman now U.S. President Roosevelt had died, Truman now U.S. President

27 Victory in the Pacific Japanese retreat Japanese retreat Battle of Leyte Gulf (Philippines) Battle of Leyte Gulf (Philippines) Destroyed Japanese fleet_ Destroyed Japanese fleet_ Iwo Jima (picture) Iwo Jima (picture) Okinawa – bloodiest land battle Okinawa – bloodiest land battle Atomic bombs Atomic bombs Manhattan Project Manhattan Project Japanese warned – no reply Japanese warned – no reply Hiroshima, Nagasaki Hiroshima, Nagasaki Fat Man, Little Boy Fat Man, Little Boy Enola Gay – Paul Tibbets Enola Gay – Paul Tibbets Japan Surrenders – Sept. 2, 1945 – VJ Day Japan Surrenders – Sept. 2, 1945 – VJ Day

28 Devastation Europe in Ruins Europe in Ruins Millions displaced Millions displaced Nowhere to live, work Nowhere to live, work No food, electricity No food, electricity Cities, countryside destroyed Cities, countryside destroyed Thousands starving to death every day Thousands starving to death every day

29 Devastation Postwar Governments Postwar Governments Communists promise change – membership rising Communists promise change – membership rising Anti-Communists afraid of violent strikes Anti-Communists afraid of violent strikes Nuremberg Trials Nuremberg Trials War crimes trials against Nazi leaders War crimes trials against Nazi leaders Few expressed any remorse Few expressed any remorse

30 U.S. Occupation of Japan MacArthur in charge of occupation MacArthur in charge of occupation Demilitarized Japan Demilitarized Japan Restructured govt. – parliamentary democracy Restructured govt. – parliamentary democracy Emperor must declare he is not a god Emperor must declare he is not a god – became a constitutional monarchy – became a constitutional monarchy Parliament (Diet) Parliament (Diet) Bill of rights Bill of rights Voting rights Voting rights Could not make war, only defend if attacked Could not make war, only defend if attacked

31 Holocaust Beginnings Beginnings European history of Anti-Semitism European history of Anti-Semitism Persecution became government policy Persecution became government policy Nuremburg laws – denied citizenship, jobs, yellow star Nuremburg laws – denied citizenship, jobs, yellow star Later, Nazis were tried here for their war crimes Later, Nazis were tried here for their war crimes Kristallnacht – Night of Broken Glass Kristallnacht – Night of Broken Glass Destroy businesses, revenge for murder of German embassy employee Destroy businesses, revenge for murder of German embassy employee Refugees Refugees emigration is solution to Jewish problem emigration is solution to Jewish problem Few countries want them Few countries want them Isolation Isolation Ghettos Ghettos Goal – starve them all or let disease kill them Goal – starve them all or let disease kill them Some resistance Some resistance Jews tried to continue life Jews tried to continue life

32 Holocaust Final Solution – genocide Final Solution – genocide Jews, gypsies, Poles, Russians, homosexuals, insane, disabled, incurably ill Jews, gypsies, Poles, Russians, homosexuals, insane, disabled, incurably ill Mass killings Mass killings Killing squads Killing squads Concentration camps Concentration camps Mass Extermination Mass Extermination 6 Death camps, most famous was Auschwitz 6 Death camps, most famous was Auschwitz Separated weak for immediate death Separated weak for immediate death Gas chambers, crematoriums Gas chambers, crematoriums Survivors Survivors Few survived the camps Few survived the camps Hiding, escaping to neutral countries Hiding, escaping to neutral countries Raoul Wallenberg, Oscar Schindler, Danish people Raoul Wallenberg, Oscar Schindler, Danish people


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