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The Great Depression and WWII

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Presentation on theme: "The Great Depression and WWII"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Great Depression and WWII 1929 - 1945
Ch. 31 (2,3,4) Ch. 32

2 Concept Questions How did WWI bring about the Great Depression?
What were the responses of the U.S., Germany, and the Soviet Union to the Global Depression? What factors allowed the rise of totalitarian dictators like Mussolini and Hitler? What were the causes and effects of WWII? What were the causes and effects of new technologies in WWII?

3 Europe After the War Only U.S. and Japan not in financial crisis
Most European monarchies replaced by unstable democracies Most required coalition govts. (joint rulers of different political parties) to rule Germany ruled by Weimar Republic Signed Treaty of Versailles – blamed for problems Inflation out of control, no history of democracy, large number of political parties Dawes plan to recover (U.S. investments)

4 Causes of the Depression
Stock market crash, banks closed, little trade, loans called in, massive unemployment International – Treaty of Versailles, Nationalist movements in colonies stopped raw materials shipments to Europe, Germany can’t repay Political – high tariffs stopped most trade, govt. spending decreased, strong leaders demand absolute power Economic – over speculation, over production

5 The Great Depression World economy based on U.S.
Downward spiral due to uneven wealth Stock Market Crash (1929) Buying on margin Selling panic Loss of jobs, farms, banks closed Global Depression U.S. investors demanded foreign loans be repaid High tariffs dropped world trade

6 World Response Britain
Protective tariffs, etc…brought about steady recovery while maintaining democracy France Preserved democracy but had several political power changes Soviet Union Stalin’s command economy Totalitarianism – propaganda, censorship, no religion, secret police, rule through fear and intimidation Great Purge, gulags, Siberia, executions U.S. New Deal – massive public works (govt. spending) and banking reform Isolationism Germany Weak leadership of the Weimar Republic & poor economy led to the rise of Hitler and Nazism. Hitler used govt. agencies to create public works jobs and rebuilt the military

7 Fascism Fascist Beliefs Loyalty to the state – extreme nationalism
obedience to its leader promised to revive economy, punish those responsible, restore national pride Nation’s must struggle, peaceful nations will be conquered Uniforms, salutes, rallies, strong military One political party, one leader Denial of individual rights Class society – each has its place and function (differs from communism with no classes)

8 Fascism Italy & Benito Mussolini Disappointment over WWI
Mussolini promises to rescue Italy from inflation, unemployment Fascist black shirts lead terror campaigns Legally took power – became Il Duce (the leader) Abolished democracy Outlawed all other political parties Used secret police to jail opponents Censored radio, publications

9 Fascism Hitler & Germany WWI soldier
National Socialist German Worker’s Party – Nazi Brown shirts – private army Great organizer/speaker became der Fuhrer (the leader) Attempted to take over govt. – jailed for 9 months (?) Wrote “Mein Kampf” (My struggle) in jail outlined his plan for Germany Aryan race (incorrect), Non-aryans are subhuman Germany needs more land (lebensraum)

10 Hitler’s Germany Named Chancellor – legal power
Banned political parties Arrested opponents, many killed Created the SS – loyal only to Hitler Terror tactics by the Gestapo (Nazi secret police) Put Germans to work (unemployed from 6 million to 1.5 million Built factories, weapons, highways (Autobahn), served in military Propaganda, book burning, church control Nazi youth, League of German Girls Anti-Semitism – Jews blamed for all Germany’s problems 1% of population Kristallnacht

11 Aggressors Japan struggling democracy, becomes militaristic
Invasions of Manchuria and China – violated League of Nations Italy Invaded Ethiopia Germany Violating Versailles – rebuilding the army Invaded Rhineland – appeasement by French/British Alliances Rome-Berlin Axis (Germany & Italy) Become Axis Powers when they add Japan (Hideki Tojo) League of Nation Protested these actions, but DID nothing Complete failure!

12 Western Democracies Fail to Halt Aggression
U.S. – isolationist, Neutrality Acts Germany Annexed Austria (Anschluss) Demanded Sudetenland of Czechoslovakia Appeasement Munich Conference – gave Sudetenland Hitler promised he was done Hitler took all of Czechoslovakia Mussolini took Albania Hitler threatening Poland Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact Germany & Soviets agree not to attack each other

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14 Hitler’s Lightning War
Soviets - promise to divide Poland, get Baltic countries and Finland (back) Poland Sept. 1, 1939 – start of WWII Blitzkrieg – lightening war

15 Hitler’s Lightning War
France Germans take Holland, Belgium & Luxembourg Surround the French French fall back to beaches of Dunkirk Rescued by British – amateur armada Italy attacks southern France France divided North occupied, South – puppet govt. (Vichy France) Charles de Gaulle – govt. in exile, still fighting

16 Hitler’s Lightning War
Great Britain – Operation Sea Lion Prime Minister – Winston Churchill Battle of Britain – air bombings Luftwaffe vs. R.A.F. Plan - knock out British air force then land troops Enigma (German coding machine) Radar – electronic tracking system 1st successful defense against Hitler

17 Hitler’s Lightning War
North Africa – Italians attack Attack Egypt for control of Suez Canal Hitler sends help – General Erwin Rommel (the desert fox) Balkans Hitler needed staging ground Allied with some, conquered the rest Soviet Union – Operation Barbarossa Burn as they retreat Siege of Leningrad Germans not allowed to retreat Winter costs 500,000 lives

18 U.S. Aids Allies Lend-Lease Act
sell or lend arms to any country vital to the defense of the U.S. Must carry arms in their ships German subs told to sink any cargo ship Atlantic Charter – upheld free trade, basis for WWII peace plan U.S. destroyer attacked by sub, we fight back, In undeclared naval war

19 Japan Seeking a Pacific Empire Pearl Harbor – Dec. 7, 1941
Plan for Southeast Asia revealed in broken code Threat to U.S. colonies (Philippines, Guam) U.S. send aid to China, cut off oil shipments to Japan Pearl Harbor – Dec. 7, 1941 “A date which will live in infamy” 18 ships, 2400 dead USS Arizona Planned by Isoroku Yamamoto

20 Japan Victories Guam Wake Philippines – Bataan Death March Corregidor
Malaya East Indonesia Burma – Burma Road, supply route to China

21 Allies Strike Back Doolittle’s Raid Battle of Coral Sea Midway
Bomb Japanese cites – morale boost Battle of Coral Sea 1st aircraft sea battle U.S. lose more ships, BUT stop Japanese advancement for the 1st time Midway Cracked code U.S. ambush Japanese fleet, destroy aircraft carriers Turning point of war in the Pacific

22 Allies Strike Back General Douglas MacArthur Island Hopping
Skip strongholds Attack closer to Japan, cut off supplies Battle of Guadalcanal Hell 6 months to win Japan loses 23,000 out of 36,000 (commitment?)

23 Allied Victory Plan for Victory North African Campaign
Open a western front to relieve the Soviets North African Campaign General Montgomery (Br.) attacked Rommel at El Alamein in Africa Operation Torch – trapped Germans between Montgomery and General Eisenhower (U.S.)

24 Allied Victory Battle of Stalingrad Italy Germans conquer 90%
Soviets not allowed to retreat, surround city and cut off supplies to Germans Germans not allowed to retreat or surrender Winter – 90,000 Germans surrender from force of 330,000 Puts Germans on the defensive Italy Mussolini caught and killed Allies get help from resistance fighters

25 Home Front Total War Japanese Americans Propaganda Rationing
Women at work Japanese Americans Seen as threats Most were citizens and were born in the U.S. Internment camps Lost property and rights

26 Victory in Europe D-Day – June 6, 1944 Battle of the Bulge
Dummy army Normandy Invasion Led to liberation of France, Belgium, Luxembourg & Netherlands Battle of the Bulge Last offensive of Germans Germany Surrenders Soviets surround city Hitler commits suicide May 8, 1945 – VE Day Roosevelt had died, Truman now U.S. President

27 Victory in the Pacific Japanese retreat Atomic bombs
Battle of Leyte Gulf (Philippines) Destroyed Japanese fleet_ Iwo Jima (picture) Okinawa – bloodiest land battle Atomic bombs Manhattan Project Japanese warned – no reply Hiroshima, Nagasaki Fat Man, Little Boy Enola Gay – Paul Tibbets Japan Surrenders – Sept. 2, 1945 – VJ Day

28 Devastation Europe in Ruins Millions displaced Nowhere to live, work
No food, electricity Cities, countryside destroyed Thousands starving to death every day

29 Devastation Postwar Governments Nuremberg Trials
Communists promise change – membership rising Anti-Communists afraid of violent strikes Nuremberg Trials War crimes trials against Nazi leaders Few expressed any remorse

30 U.S. Occupation of Japan MacArthur in charge of occupation
Demilitarized Japan Restructured govt. – parliamentary democracy Emperor must declare he is not a god – became a constitutional monarchy Parliament (Diet) Bill of rights Voting rights Could not make war, only defend if attacked

31 Holocaust Beginnings Kristallnacht – Night of Broken Glass Refugees
European history of Anti-Semitism Persecution became government policy Nuremburg laws – denied citizenship, jobs, yellow star Later, Nazis were tried here for their war crimes Kristallnacht – Night of Broken Glass Destroy businesses, revenge for murder of German embassy employee Refugees emigration is solution to Jewish problem Few countries want them Isolation Ghettos Goal – starve them all or let disease kill them Some resistance Jews tried to continue life

32 Holocaust Final Solution – genocide Mass killings Mass Extermination
Jews, gypsies, Poles, Russians, homosexuals, insane, disabled, incurably ill Mass killings Killing squads Concentration camps Mass Extermination 6 Death camps, most famous was Auschwitz Separated weak for immediate death Gas chambers, crematoriums Survivors Few survived the camps Hiding, escaping to neutral countries Raoul Wallenberg, Oscar Schindler, Danish people


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