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 After WWI, US returned to isolationism  Raised tariffs  Restricted immigration  Insisted wartime allies pay back debts  Exceptions:  Washington.

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Presentation on theme: " After WWI, US returned to isolationism  Raised tariffs  Restricted immigration  Insisted wartime allies pay back debts  Exceptions:  Washington."— Presentation transcript:



3  After WWI, US returned to isolationism  Raised tariffs  Restricted immigration  Insisted wartime allies pay back debts  Exceptions:  Washington Naval Conference  Limit size of navy  Kellog-Briand Peace Pact  Renounce the use of war

4  President Hoover and Roosevelt worked to better relations with Latin American countries  “Good Neighbor Policy”  Not interfere with the internal affairs of Latin American countries  Relations between US and the countries Latin American began to improve

5  Rise of dictators  Joseph Stalin in Russia in Russia  Emperor Hirohito and General Tojo in Japan  Adolf Hitler and the Nazis in Germany  Benito Mussolini and the Fascists in Italy  Extreme nationalistic, racist and anti-Semitic views

6  Failure of the League of Nations  Too weak to resist dictators  Collective security – peaceful nations banning together to stop aggressive nations – failed when US and Soviet Union did not join  League did nothing to stop Hitler rebuilding army, Italy attacking Ethiopia, Japan invading Manchuria and China…

7  Appeasement  Hitler kept annexing countries, Britain and France let him to avoid war  Austria – 1938  Sudetenland (part of Czechoslovakia)  Munich Conference (1938)  Gave Hitler part of Czechoslovakia WITHOUT asking Czechs to avoid war  Hitler decided Britain and France were weak and kept making more and more demands

8  Hitler demands Poland; France and Britain say no  Hitler signs non- aggression pact with Stalin and invade Poland September 1939  France and Britain declare war  World War II begins  Hitler used blitzkrieg to defeat the Poles, French, and most of Europe  New technologies and bombings made it a more offensive war

9  Still “cautiously neutral”  Americans busy with Great Depression to be too involved overseas  Congress starting passing laws to stay out of the war  Neutrality Acts (1935-1937) – prohibited Americans from traveling on ships of nations at war  Could not sell arms to countries at war either  Allowed to sell non-military goods to the Brits and other non-aggressive nations on a “cash-and-carry” basis

10  Japan invaded China in 1937, Roosevelt gives “Quarantine Speech”  Growing unrest in the world and peaceful nations needed to act together to quarantine aggressive nations  Boycott aggressors  Most Americans opposed military action

11  Britain didn’t want China to fall to Japan  Used Burma Road to send supplies  700 mile route cut off, American volunteer fighters known as Flyer Tigers recruited to send supplies and engage with Japanese pilots  Destroyed 300 Japanese aircraft

12  1939 – started making preparations for war just in case  More Army and Navy spending, peacetime draft, Roosevelt ran for a third term  1941 – Lend-Lease Act  Sell, lease, or lend war materials to “any country whose defense the President deems vital to the defense of the United States”  Began protecting British ships carrying supplies for the British

13  Roosevelt told Americans he hoped to establish a world on the Four Freedoms  Freedom of speech and expression, religion, from want, and from fear  1941 – Met with British Prime Minister Winston Churchill  Announced their countries wanted no territorial gains, freedom of the seas, and and end to war  Atlantic Charter – laying foundation for United Nations

14  Japan had become industrial in 19 th century  Needed raw materials and markets  Wanted to replace European imperialism in Asia  1931 – Japan invaded Manchuria  1937 – Japan attacked the rest of China  1941 – Japan occupied southern Indochina  Roosevelt froze Japanese assets in the US and cut off trade with Japan  Resume trade if Japan withdrew from China  Japan refused

15  Japan decided to attack Indonesia for oil  Doing so would bring US into war, so they struck first  Japanese leaders believed a surprise attack would eliminate US naval power from the Pacific and allow Japan time to fortify  Before US could recover, Japan would be able to finish taking over East Asia and the Pacific  Americans would quickly tire of war and negotiate a peace compromise

16  December 7, 1941  Two waves of Japanese planes attacked US Pacific fleet stationed in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii  Sank or severely damaged 18 US ships  More than 260 airplanes damaged or destroyed  6,000 Americans killed or injured

17  Four days later, Germany and Italy declared war on the US  US on a war of two fronts – Atlantic and Pacific

18  Paying for the war  War Bonds  Citizens bought to help fund the war  Reduced currency in economy to combat inflation  85 million Americans bought bonds, bring $185 billion to treasury  War cost $350 billion  US became debtor nation  High level of volunteerism – willingness of Americans to help in the war effort.  TQef8 TQef8

19  Rationing  Americans asked to conserve everything for the war effort  Ration books given on certain goods to avoid public anger over shortages  Draft and expansion of industrial production during the war finally brought an end to the high unemployment of the Great Depression  Women, African Americans, and other minorities filled in gap as workers went to war

20  Victory Gardens  Vegetable gardens to ensure enough food for everyone  Food grown by farmers sent to soldiers overseas

21  Office of War Information  OWI  Control of content and imagery of war messages  Pro-Allied, anti Axis propaganda  Own radio programs, newsreels, and required all movies to contribute in some way to war effort  Voice of America  Send messages overseas  Stir up distrust of Germans, Italians, and Japanese leaders  Lower morale of enemy soldiers

22  Women in the work force  Could not enlist in regular army, joined Women’s Army Corps or WACS  Took clerical jobs in the military  Replaced many jobs usually held by men  More men could go into combat  Rosie the Riveter  1941-1945: 6.5 million women entered the work force

23  African Americans  Many worked in war industries and government agencies  Played a big role in WWII  More than 2 and a half million registered for the draft  One million served, even though they were in segregated units

24  African Americans  Finally allowed to form all black combat units  Tuskegee Airmen  Fighter group in the Air Corps  Provide escorts for bombing missions  Performed so well bombers asked for their support  1944 – Army had to allow African Americans to engage in combat on the ground

25  Native Americans  Enlisted for service in higher proportion than any other group  More than 25,000 served in combat  40,000 left reservations to work in defense industries  Mexican Americans  Both Army and Navy and served in both campaigns  Continued to face segregated housing, high unemployment, low wages

26  Pearl Harbor created fear of Japanese Americans  Afraid they would commit acts of sabotage  Racially motivated since no evidence any more disloyal than German or Italian Americans…

27  February 1942 – Executive Order 906  Permitted military commanders to require Japanese Americans to relocate to interior internment camps away from Western Coastal regions  In camps – primitive and crowded conditions

28  Raised constitutional issues in wartime  Roosevelt justified that it was a military necessity  Korematsu v. US  Korematsu was Japanese citizen convicting of remaining in restricted area  SC upheld that constitutional liberties may be limited in wartime  50 years later, Congress apologized and paid compensation to the families involved.

29  Small number of German and Italian resident aliens also interned  2,000 German aliens forcibly sent back to Germany  Germans also sent from Latin America to US to be used in prisoner exchanges with Germany



32  Roosevelt decided to focus on defeating Germany first  Hitler controlled most of Europe and North Africa  Hitler invaded Soviet Union in June 1941 and declared war on US before defeating Britain  Both big mistakes  Late 1941 – Hitler stopped just before Moscow  Roosevelt and Churchill promised Stalin to open a second front against Germany in the West to help relieve Soviet Army

33  Churchill advised delay before invading Europe  1942 – Allies landed in North Africa  Defeat Germans and head into Mediterranean and into Sicily and Italy in 1943

34  George Patton  One of the commanders  Military family  Served under Pershing in WWI  Given command of Third Army  Popular commander and unconventional leader  Went quickly through Europe, capturing large numbers of enemy soldiers and freeing a vast territory

35  June 6, 1944 – D-Day  156,000 Allied troops under General Dwight Eisenhower  Invaded 5 beaches of Normandy  General Omar Bradley chosen to lead first American army in France  Allied planes attacked Nazi forces  Amphibious landing crafts carried thousands of Allied troops to the beaches of Normandy

36  After D-Day, began moving eastward  Liberated Paris in August 1944  Allies moved so quick got surprised by German counter- attack in Battle of the Bulge December 1944  German attack collapsed afterward

37  Allied troops crossed Rhine River and General Bradley pushed troops for final offensive into German  American, British, and French from the west, Soviet rom the east  May 1945 – Soviets captured Berlin  Hitler committed suicide and Germany surrendered  More than 20 million Soviet soldiers and citizens were killed

38  Vernon Baker  One of the first African American soldiers to see combat in the war  1945 – slipped through mine fields, barbed wire, and German defenses and single-handedly removed 3 machine gun nests, 2 observation posts, and 2 bunkers  Nominated for Distinguished Service Cross  50 years later – President Clinton gave him the Congressional Medal of Honor

39  The attempted genocide of the entire Jewish race  Final Solution – murder all European Jews  Housed and killed Jews in concentration camps  6 million Jews killed  6 million gypsies, Slavs, political prisoners, elderly, mentally disabled, and others also died in concentration camps

40  Liberation of concentration camps  During last months of the war, Allies advanced into Germany and found camps  American army units the first to liberate camps  Shocked to see prisoners

41  US was separated from Japan by Pacific Ocean  After Pearl Harbor, Japanese took Malaya, Burma, Indonesia, Singapore, Hong Kong, and threatened Australia, India, Midway, and Hawaii

42  Bataan Death March – 1942  Philippines surrendered to Japanese one month after Pearl Harbor  Japanese forced prisoners to walk 40 mile march through the jungle  5,000 of Americans died along the way.

43  1943 – War began to turn against Japan because of US “island- hopping” campaign  Navajo Code Talkers  Navajo language is unwritten and complex  Used this language for all communication and Japanese unable to crack code

44  Battle of Midway  Turning point in the Pacific  Japanese wanted to lure US Pacific fleet to battle near Midway where he believed he could destroy them  US Navy deciphered Japanese codes and knew of surprise attack

45  Battle of Midway  Admiral Chester Nimitz (Commander- in-Chief of US Pacific fleet)  US destroyed 4 Japanese aircraft carriers, ending Japan’s strength in the Pacific

46  Douglas MacArthur commanded US Army in Pacific  Began campaign on the Solomon Islands trying to take the Guadalcanal  Series of assaults drained Japanese resources  Took Philippines and Guam  June 195 – captured Iwo Jima and Okinawa and close enough to launch attacks against Japanese homeland  General George C. Marshall acted as Chief of Staff and “organizer of victory”  Built up and supplied army of 8 million men  Helped oversee creation of first atomic bomb

47  1939 – Albert Einstein informed Roosevelt Germany might be developing atomic bomb  1942 – Roosevelt sent team of scientists, several European refugees, to New Mexico to develop the first atomic bomb.  July 1945 was successful  Germany already defeated  Roosevelt died of a heart attack in April 1945 (after being elected 4 th time) – just before Germany surrendered

48  President Harry Truman (Roosevelt’s vice president) feared invasion of Japan would cause too many causalities  Truman decided using the atomic bomb would mean less casualties

49  August 6, 1945  Atomic bomb on city of Hiroshima  August 9, 1945  Atomic bomb on city of Nagasaki  230,000 people killed in both explosions combined  Critics argued Truman could have detonated bombs on uninhabited islands  Japan surrendered shortly after second explosion  American leaders agreed to let Japanese emperor stay on the throne

50  Radar, sonar, cryptic code breaking, proximity fuze, antibiotics, jet and rocket engines

51  More than 70 million people lost their lives  Most people killed were civilians, making it the deadliest conflict in history  Over 100 million military personnel fought in the war, making it the largest war in history

52  Nuremberg Trials – 1945- 1946  Full extent of Nazi brutality revealed, Allies put surviving Nazis on trial for crimes against humanity  Defended themselves claiming they had been following orders  Many found guilty and were hanged or imprisoned  Individuals are responsible for their actions, even in times of war

53  Denazification of Germany  Germany divided into 4 occupation zones split between US, France, Great Britain, and Soviet Union  Occupying powers explained the evils of the Nazi beliefs to the German people  Nazi ideas show dangers of racism, anti-Semitism, Social Darwinism, and eugenics  Helped contribute to civil rights movement in US

54  General MacArthur was assigned to rebuild and reform post-war Japan  Made Japan less aggressive  Overseas empire taken away, leaders put on trial and punished, renounced use of nuclear weapons and waging war  Forbidden to have a large army or navy  New constitution in 1947 turning Japan into a democracy

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