Presentation on theme: "Www.cengage.com/cj/white Jonathan R. White Rosemary Arway Hodges University Chapter 8: Nationalistic and Endemic Terrorism."— Presentation transcript:
www.cengage.com/cj/white Jonathan R. White Rosemary Arway Hodges University Chapter 8: Nationalistic and Endemic Terrorism
Post World War II Anti-Colonial Terrorism: Cyprus Cyprus 1955-1959 oClaimed by Britain as a crown Colony after WW I. oGreek and Turkish Cypriots had different ideas about a post-colonial future for the island. oGeorge Grivas, a Greek Cypriot Organized a Greek Cypriot movement EOKA to overthrow the British. Developed a two fold strategy: Encourage international sympathy for an independent Cyprus Fight the British by tying up large numbers of troops in an urban environment
Post World War II Anti-Colonial Terrorism oCyprus 1955-1959 oThe British Responded with overwhelming force to EOKA attacks Negotiated independence for the island The island was ultimately partitioned into Greek and Turkish communities
Post World War II Anti-Colonial Terrorism: Algiers The Battle for Algiers 1954-1962 oFrance had ruled Algeria since the 19 th century. oAfter World War II: Algerians hoped to negotiate a peaceful separation from France. When the French refused independence, the Algerian National Front was formed. The French responded with a brutal counterinsurgency campaign.
Post World War II Anti-Colonial Terrorism The Battle for Algiers 1954-1962 oThe French campaign mobilized the native population against French rule and provoked strong protests in France. oAlgeria received its independence in 1962 after the French lost their taste for a dirty war. oDavid Galula: French counterinsurgency strategist Opposed the French approach His work has been influential in shaping counterinsurgency doctrine in the United States in the 21 st century.
Post World War II Anti-Colonial Terrorism: Kenya The Mau Mau in Kenya 1950-1960 oKenya after WW I The British solidified colonial rule in Kenya and displaced local farmers and providing land to European farmers. The Kikuyu people of Kenya created the Mau Mau organization that advocated violent resistance to British domination in Kenya. British respond with force, violating the United Nations Universal Declaration on Human Rights. Killings, tortures Creation of concentration camps
Post World War II Anti-Colonial Terrorism: Kenya Differed in important ways from the movements in Cyprus and Algeria: oIt was rural. oIt was based in tribal rites and ceremonies which sought to unify the community. oViolence was typically marked by massacres. oThe British used overwhelming military force, including mass detention and torture. oThe Mau Mau insurgents suffered the majority of casualties. oThe movement was destroyed, but the result was many of the reforms the Mau Mau had been seeking.
Post World War II Anti-Colonial Terrorism: The Russian Federation The Russian Federation oBreakaway States and Crime oFollowing the collapse of the Soviet Union, three new nations – Moldova, Georgia, and Azerbaijan – have spawned internal separatist movements. oOrganized crime thrives in these shell states.
Post World War II Anti-Colonial Terrorism: Chechenya Chechnya oAnnexed to Russia in 1859. oConsidered a nationalist revolt oInternational jihadists have rallied to the Chechen cause. oKey Chechen leaders: Shamil Basayev Ibn al Khattab After their death Chechen violence has continued oMajor attacks inside Russia and former Soviet Republics oChechens have used suicide bombing Women bombers, “Black Widows”
Post World War II Anti-Colonial Terrorism: Turkey Turkey oTurkey was established as a secular republic in 1923. oIt is a member of NATO and has recognized the State of Israel. oTurkey looks to Europe for economic and cultural reasons, but Europe has resisted welcoming Turkey into the European Union.
Post World War II Anti-Colonial Terrorism: Turkey Turkey’s Struggle with Terrorism oTurkish Hezbollah (unrelated to the Lebanese Shiite group) seeks to establish an Islamic state. oEl Kaida Turka, an al Qaeda offshoot, attacked Western interests, but their tactics backfired, with Turkish citizens demanding a government crackdown on the group.
Post World War II Anti-Colonial Terrorism: Kurdistan The Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) and Its Alter Egos oThe PKK seeks an independent Kurdistan, including lands that are currently parts of Turkey, Iraq and Iran. oInitially, the PKK sought to conduct a guerilla war, but with low popular support for its Marxist principles, turned to campaigns of terrorism. oLarge scale massacres of the Kurdish population turned public sentiment away from the PKK, who turned its attention on security targets by the 1990s. oThe group has changed its political stance as well, downplaying Marxist-Lenninist theory and emphasizing Muslim texts to justify revolt against the secular government of Turkey.
Post World War II Anti-Colonial Terrorism: China China’s Problems in Xinjiang oThe Uighars, ethnic Turkmen, who live in Xinjiang, seek to restore an Islamic state in that Province. oChina links the Uighar’s interests to those of international jihadists, but the majority of militants are not jihadists.
Post World War II Anti-Colonial Terrorism: India Sikh Separatism in India oThe Sikhs, whose religion embodies elements of Hinduism and Islam, sought an independent state in Punjab following the partition of India and Pakistan in 1947. oFollowing an Indian government attack on the Golden Temple, (1984) a sacred site to Sikhs, small groups of Sikhs formed terrorist cells. oIn response, Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi was assassinated by his Sikh bodyguards. oAfter a period of intense terrorist activity, violence decreased without a resolution in the political situation.
Post World War II Anti-Colonial Terrorism: Africa Endemic Ethnic Terror in Sub-Saharan Africa oEndemic terrorism refers to terrorism created by artificial division of tribes, families and ethnic groups. oCountries were established by colonial European powers without regard to tribal and ethnic groupings.
Post World War II Anti-Colonial Terrorism: Conclusion Following decolonization, many countries have experienced inter-group terrorism including ethnic cleansing, child armies and wars waged by self appointed militias. oAfrica’s status as the most poverty stricken region in the world and poor health conditions, including the effects of the AIDS pandemic, have made it difficult to focus on terrorism on the continent.
Post World War II Anti-Colonial Terrorism: Oil Regions Oil Regions oIn the oil regions of Western Africa, terrorism should be considered a potential problem. oGovernments and rebel groups vie for control in these countries, and criminal organizations are in league with corrupt governments. oLiberia experienced two violent civil wars which destabilized the country.
Post World War II Anti-Colonial Terrorism: Oil Regions oNigeria is economically important to the united States because it currently provides 7% of its oil supply. The country is sharply divided between a Muslim north and a Christian south. While there is no evidence of jihadist cells currently in the country, the potential is there. oThe tradition of rule by a Big Man poses potential problems for diplomacy in Central and western Africa because other countries can enter into alliances with autocratic and corrupt rulers.
Post World War II Anti-Colonial Terrorism: Conclusion The United States, Britain and France have followed different patterns of post 9/11 diplomacy. The United States has focused on cooperation in the war on terror. Britain has focused on a moral and humanitarian approach. France has maintained a special military unit, the African Cell, to militarily support big men, overthrow governments and protect French interests.