Presentation on theme: "Sub-Sahara Africa & Decolonization. Decolonization and the Third World The Third World consisted of nations in Latin America, Asia, Africa, and the Middle."— Presentation transcript:
Sub-Sahara Africa & Decolonization
Decolonization and the Third World The Third World consisted of nations in Latin America, Asia, Africa, and the Middle East that had: lagged behind countries in the West in economic and political development or had been kept under the political and economic thumb of foreign powers or had been directly colonized.
Factors Leading to Decolonization After World War II, decolonization and national liberation became major agents of change in Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. After the world struggle against dictatorship, many leaders argued that no country should control another nation. Others questioned the high cost and commitment of holding colonies. Nationalist movements among native peoples.
Internal Challenges Tribal allegiances Under developed education system No tradition of ongoing political leadership in modern times Religious differences Diverse geography and climate Established social hierarchies
Polygenic Theory Polygenism is a theory of human origins positing that the human races are of different lineages. What does this mean? Who thought this way? Why is it important to Africa? 1700s through early 1900s - White European “scientists” declare there to be several different species of human in which Caucasian people were at the top of in terms of evolutionary development.
Effect of WWII Post-WWII - a focus on self-determination in Europe Colonialism seemed to contradict the spirit of the Allies fight against Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy Over 200,000 Africans had fought in Europe and Asia for the Allies’ freedom and democracy – most noticed the contradiction
Surge of anti-colonial nationalism after Leaders used lessons in mass politicization and mass mobilization of 1920’s and 1930’s. Three patterns: Violent Revolutions and Civil War (China, Algeria, Angola, Vietnam) Non-Violent, negotiated independence (India, Ghana, Turkey) Both violent and non-violent methods (Kenya, Congo, Egypt, South Africa) Effect of WWII
Impact of the Cold War Soviet pushed anti-colonial movement - offered assistance United States wanted access to African markets (why were they closed before?) AND to prevent the spread of communism. When West refused to help nationalists, they turned to the Soviet Union
Leader: Kwame Nkrumah Goals: “Freedom Now” from British rule Pan-African Congress Events/Methods: Influenced by Gandhi “Positive Action” movement Strikes and boycotts Civil disobedience Non-Violent Movements Ghana
Kwame Nkrumah What is his vision? Unify Africa politically and economically (Pan-Africanism) Harness vast natural resources in Africa Lessen influence of West Positive economic influence
Results: 1957 – Independence granted – 1 st sub- Saharan nation to gain independence Nkrumah becomes 1 st Prime Minister Formation of Organization of African Unity in 1963 (OAU) Major Problems: Nkrumah makes himself “President for life” in 1964 Economic downturn – general unrest Overthrown by Military coup – led to suspension of constitution and banning of political parties 1992 – new constitution, multi-party politics, elections – continued poverty Non-Violent Movements Ghana
Leader: Jomo Kenyatta Goals: Independence from Britain Wanted to unite all Kenyans, Kikuyu and non-Kikuyu Get back fertile highland farmland Both Violent and Non-Violent Movements Kenya
Presence of settlers prevented smooth transition of power. Jomo Kenyatta used non- violent protests Kenya (20,000 Europeans only) led to violent revolt. Mau-Mau Revolt, 1952, led by Kikuyus suppressed by British. 1963 independence granted to black majority, led by Kenyatta. Both Violent and Non-Violent Movements Kenya
Events/Methods: Clash between white settlers and Nationalists Harambee, “Pull Together” peaceful protest Mau Mau Rebels – Violent campaign British jailed many – Kenyatta for 7 years Results: 1963 – Kenya gets Independence Kenyatta – First President Ethnic groups continued to work together Major Problems: Difficulty of Ethnic diversity and Tribalism One party/Kikuyu domination Government corruption Both Violent and Non-Violent Movements Kenya
Leader: Patrice Lumumba and Mobutu Sese Seko Goals: Gain Independence from Belgium Create a National Party that represented and united the Congo, the non-tribal Movement National Congolais (MNC) Create a constitution and have free elections Both Violent and Non-Violent Movements Congo
Events/Methods: Anti-colonial strikes and riots led to Belgium granting Congo Independence Patrice Lumumba became first legally elected Prime Minister of the Republic of the Congo after he helped to win its independence. Ten weeks later, Lumumba's government was deposed in a coup during the Congo Crisis. He was subsequently imprisoned and murdered under controversial circumstances. Results: 1965 – Mobutu Sese Seko takes over the nation and rules as Military dictator for 32 years Major Problems: One party state Government corruption – “Kleptocracy” Both Violent and Non-Violent Movements Congo
Leader: Ahmed Ben Bella Goals: Independence from French Rule Arab Nationalism Events/Methods: FLN (National Liberation Front) Used violence, guerilla warfare, Terrorism, Torture 8 year civil war Violent Movements Algeria
Results: Algeria won its Independence As many as 300,000 died Major Problems: Religious and ethnic conflict Rise of Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) Ethnic minority Berbers – ongoing autonomy campaign Social and infrastructure problems (unreliable electric and water supply Violent Movements Algeria
Leader: The Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), proclaimed the country's first president, Dr Agostinho Neto, Goals: Independence From Portugal Events/Methods: 1961 – War of Independence began after Portugal refused to give Angola self-rule UNITA disputed the MPLA's rule, and civil war broke out almost immediately. With the Soviet Union and Cuba supporting the Marxist MPLA, and the United States and South Africa supporting the anti-Communist UNITA, the country became a cold war battleground. Violent Movements Angola
Results: Up to 1.5 million lives may have been lost - and 4 million people displaced - in the quarter century of fighting 1992 – Shift to multiparty Democracy – Free elections Major Problems: Constant civil wars and violence Poor infrastructure and technology Famine due to corruption and mismanagement of oil revenue Violent Movements Angola
Factors that Impacted the Economic and Political Success of Newly Liberated Nations: Did the nation fight to become free? How enlightened had the colonizing power been? Had it educated a native elite, leaving behind politicians, economists, and trained personnel with practical skills? Were there serious ethnic, cultural, or religious divisions? Did a country have natural resources to exploit? Did the government exploit them efficiently or were they unable to diversify its economy? Did a newly liberated country take sides in the Cold War, i.e. the United States or the Soviet Union? Superpowers often intervened in the affairs of decolonized nations.
Varying Transitions of Freedom in Africa For the most part, decolonization in the parts of African that had been British and French went smoothly. Both Britain and France prepared their colonies for freedom by educating native elites, allowing greater native representation in transitional governments, and minimizing the possibility of interethnic conflict. The worst transitions to independence were made by Belgian and Portuguese colonies who had been exploitative and did not prepare colonies for independence.
South Africa- The Exception White minority gain independence in some 4 million whites In 1948 the government enacted an extreme form of racial segregation called apartheid The African National Congress (ANC) opposed measures
South Africa- The Exception Gov’t takes strong anti- communist stance - West ignores apartheid Nelson Mandela sentenced to life in prison for ANC actions 1980’s apartheid ends Mandela becomes first African president Relatively peaceful transfer of power
Problems Facing Independent Africa Intertribal and interethnic conflict: Nearly all African wars have been fought within national borders, not between different countries. Uncontrolled flow of small arms and light weapons: Thousands of children have been forcibly drafted into militias and paramilitaries. Treatment of women: In African’s more developed countries and especially in cities, women have attained a certain degree of economic and social equality. However, progress has been slow and women are still dominated by men, especially in rural areas.
Violence Caused by Colonialism Southern Sudan Northern Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Sierra Leon, Somalia, etc… Why?
Conclusions Decolonization was sometimes a violent process- dependent in large part on how many settlers had come to the colony. In many parts of world, decolonization was not revolutionary. Power passed from one class of elites to another. Little economic and social reform occurred. Significant challenges faced independent nations. Western economic dominance of the global trade system continued unabated. WHY?