2Decolonization and the Third World The Third World consisted of nations in Latin America, Asia, Africa, and the Middle East that had:lagged behind countries in the West in economic and political developmentor had been kept under the political and economic thumb of foreign powersor had been directly colonized.
3Factors Leading to Decolonization After World War II, decolonization and national liberation became major agents of change in Asia, the Middle East, and Africa.After the world struggle against dictatorship, many leaders argued that no country should control another nation.Others questioned the high cost and commitment of holding colonies.Nationalist movements among native peoples.
4Internal Challenges Tribal allegiances Under developed education systemNo tradition of ongoing political leadership in modern timesReligious differencesDiverse geography and climateEstablished social hierarchies
5Polygenic TheoryPolygenism is a theory of human origins positing that the human races are of different lineages.What does this mean?Who thought this way?Why is it important to Africa?1700s through early 1900s - White European “scientists” declare there to be several different species of human in which Caucasian people were at the top of in terms of evolutionary development.
8Effect of WWII Post-WWII - a focus on self-determination in Europe Colonialism seemed to contradict the spirit of the Allies fight against Nazi Germany and Fascist ItalyOver 200,000 Africans had fought in Europe and Asia for the Allies’ freedom and democracy – most noticed the contradictionMany Africans returned home to find they had only fought for the European’s
9Effect of WWIISurge of anti-colonial nationalism after Leaders used lessons in mass politicization and mass mobilization of 1920’s and 1930’s.Three patterns:Violent Revolutions andCivil War (China, Algeria,Angola, Vietnam)Non-Violent, negotiatedindependence (India, Ghana,Turkey)Both violent and non-violentmethods (Kenya, Congo,Egypt, South Africa)
10Impact of the Cold WarSoviet pushed anti-colonial movement - offered assistanceUnited States wanted access to African markets (why were they closed before?) AND to prevent the spread of communism.When West refused to help nationalists, they turned to the Soviet Union
11Non-Violent Movements GhanaLeader:Kwame NkrumahGoals:“Freedom Now” from British rulePan-African CongressEvents/Methods:Influenced by Gandhi“Positive Action” movementStrikes and boycottsCivil disobedience
12Kwame Nkrumah What is his vision? Unify Africa politically and economically (Pan-Africanism)Harness vast natural resources in AfricaLessen influence of WestPositive economic influence
13Non-Violent Movements GhanaResults:1957 – Independence granted – 1st sub-Saharan nation to gain independenceNkrumah becomes 1st Prime MinisterFormation of Organization of African Unity in 1963 (OAU)Major Problems:Nkrumah makes himself “President for life” in 1964Economic downturn – general unrestOverthrown by Military coup – led to suspension of constitution and banning of political parties1992 – new constitution, multi-party politics, elections – continued poverty
14Both Violent and Non-Violent Movements KenyaLeader:Jomo KenyattaGoals:Independence from BritainWanted to unite all Kenyans, Kikuyu and non-KikuyuGet back fertile highland farmland
15Both Violent and Non-Violent Movements KenyaPresence of settlers prevented smooth transition of power.Jomo Kenyatta used non-violent protestsKenya (20,000 Europeans only) led to violent revolt.Mau-Mau Revolt, 1952, led by Kikuyus suppressed by British.1963 independence granted to black majority, led by Kenyatta.
16Both Violent and Non-Violent Movements KenyaEvents/Methods:Clash between white settlers and NationalistsHarambee, “Pull Together” peaceful protestMau Mau Rebels – Violent campaignBritish jailed many – Kenyatta for 7 yearsResults:1963 – Kenya gets IndependenceKenyatta – First PresidentEthnic groups continued to work togetherMajor Problems:Difficulty of Ethnic diversity and TribalismOne party/Kikuyu dominationGovernment corruption
17Both Violent and Non-Violent Movements CongoLeader:Patrice Lumumba and Mobutu Sese SekoGoals:Gain Independence from BelgiumCreate a National Party that represented and united the Congo, the non-tribal Movement National Congolais (MNC)Create a constitution and have free elections
18Both Violent and Non-Violent Movements CongoEvents/Methods:Anti-colonial strikes and riots led to Belgium granting Congo IndependencePatrice Lumumba became first legally elected Prime Minister of the Republic of the Congo after he helped to win its independence.Ten weeks later, Lumumba's government was deposed in a coup during the Congo Crisis. He was subsequently imprisoned and murdered under controversial circumstances.Results:1965 – Mobutu Sese Seko takes over the nation and rules as Military dictator for 32 yearsMajor Problems:One party stateGovernment corruption – “Kleptocracy”
19Algeria Violent Movements Leader: Ahmed Ben Bella Goals: Independence from French RuleArab NationalismEvents/Methods:FLN (National Liberation Front)Used violence, guerilla warfare, Terrorism, Torture8 year civil war
20Algeria Violent Movements Results: 1962- Algeria won its Independence As many as 300,000 diedMajor Problems:Religious and ethnic conflictRise of Islamic Salvation Front (FIS)Ethnic minority Berbers – ongoing autonomy campaignSocial and infrastructure problems (unreliable electric and water supply
21Angola Violent Movements Leader: Goals: Events/Methods: The Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), proclaimed the country's first president, Dr Agostinho Neto,Goals:Independence From PortugalEvents/Methods:1961 – War of Independence began after Portugal refused to give Angola self-ruleUNITA disputed the MPLA's rule, and civil war broke out almost immediately. With the Soviet Union and Cuba supporting the Marxist MPLA, and the United States and South Africa supporting the anti-Communist UNITA, the country became a cold war battleground.
22Angola Violent Movements Results: Major Problems: Up to 1.5 million lives may have been lost - and 4 million people displaced - in the quarter century of fighting1992 – Shift to multiparty Democracy – Free electionsMajor Problems:Constant civil wars and violencePoor infrastructure and technologyFamine due to corruption and mismanagement of oil revenue
23Factors that Impacted the Economic and Political Success of Newly Liberated Nations: Did the nation fight to become free?How enlightened had the colonizing power been? Had it educated a native elite, leaving behind politicians, economists, and trained personnel with practical skills?Were there serious ethnic, cultural, or religious divisions?Did a country have natural resources to exploit? Did the government exploit them efficiently or were they unable to diversify its economy?Did a newly liberated country take sides in the Cold War, i.e. the United States or the Soviet Union? Superpowers often intervened in the affairs of decolonized nations.
24Varying Transitions of Freedom in Africa For the most part, decolonization in the parts of African that had been British and French went smoothly.Both Britain and France prepared their colonies for freedom by educating native elites, allowing greater native representation in transitional governments, and minimizing the possibility of interethnic conflict.The worst transitions to independence were made by Belgian and Portuguese colonies who had been exploitative and did not prepare colonies for independence.
25South Africa- The Exception White minority gain independence in some 4 million whitesIn 1948 the government enacted an extreme form of racial segregation called apartheidThe African National Congress (ANC) opposed measures
26South Africa- The Exception Gov’t takes strong anti-communist stance - West ignores apartheidNelson Mandela sentenced to life in prison for ANC actions1980’s apartheid endsMandela becomes first African presidentRelatively peaceful transfer of power
27Problems Facing Independent Africa Intertribal and interethnic conflict: Nearly all African wars have been fought within national borders, not between different countries.Uncontrolled flow of small arms and light weapons: Thousands of children have been forcibly drafted into militias and paramilitaries.Treatment of women: In African’s more developed countries and especially in cities, women have attained a certain degree of economic and social equality.However, progress has been slow and women are still dominated by men, especially in rural areas.
28Violence Caused by Colonialism Southern Sudan Northern Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Sierra Leon, Somalia, etc…Why?
29ConclusionsDecolonization was sometimes a violent process- dependent in large part on how many settlers had come to the colony.In many parts of world, decolonization was not revolutionary. Power passed from one class of elites to another. Little economic and social reform occurred.Significant challenges faced independent nations.Western economic dominance of the global trade system continued unabated. WHY?