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The History of Perioperative Nursing By: Ruth Crothers, RN BSN CNOR RNFA.

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1 The History of Perioperative Nursing By: Ruth Crothers, RN BSN CNOR RNFA

2 Why Care About The History of Nursing? “You have to know who you are and where you come from. If you don’t know where you come from, how do you know where you are going?” F. Fleisher, The Jazz Singer-1980

3 Leg Surgery Performed in the Kitchen Hand Washing & Boiling of Instruments Practiced Much Later Eye Surgery in the City Plaza

4 Early Neurosurgery 1561

5 Women Go To War Early recognition of the importance of hand washing. Gradually, cloths, instruments and dressings were meticulously cleaned. The practice of asepsis was advanced.

6 Due to the Influence of Louis Pasteur, Various Types of Sterilizers Were Developed and Asepsis Became the Standard

7 Civil War Nursing Anesthetics allowed for more complicated surgeries. Fatal infections occurred in more than 30% of patients. Draining of incisions began around 1860 to treat infections.

8 “The Agnew Clinic” 1899

9 In 1891, rubber gloves were introduced and later the face mask was adopted Spanish-American War 1899

10 Positioning Patients in the 1800s OR Table 1850 Gyne Chair 1878

11 OR Nursing Late 1800s Operating Room Theatre 1898 Operating Theatre 1897 In 1901 the four blood groups were identified for blood transfusions.

12 OR Nursing in the 1890s The student nurse was responsible for sterility of equipment. She prepared the room, scrubbed the floor and walls with antiseptics. Dressings were boiled, soaked and wrapped in antiseptic towels or large glass jars. She prepared everything that was needed including….

13 Surgical Supplies Hot water bottle Stimulants Clean towels Soft rags Lint Basins Pails Hot and cold water Bran Sticking plaster Carbonized water Ice Pins Needles Silk Petroleum jelly Soap Oil silk Sponges Rubber blanket Pillow Sheet to cover patient

14 OR Nursing Education The nurse was to read no medical books. Nursing texts did not exist. “If she wishes to be a physician, she should go to medical school.” “Nurses who read medical books are overburdening their brains.” “In any case, any information read would not be remembered overnight.”

15 World War I

16 OR Nursing France 1918 Administered Anesthesia Sutured and Tied Placed Drains Removed Dead and Devitalized Tissue

17 OR & Anesthesia-First Nursing Specialties

18 Surgery 1918

19 Surgical Gloves Choosing gloves for an Appy 1941 Recycling Gloves

20 Surgery Prep 1940s

21 X-ray Department 1940s

22 WWII Nurses

23 World War II

24 World War II Nurse POWs

25 New Professionalism

26 Instrument Nurses 1950s

27 Surgical Bunker - Korean War

28 Korean War OR

29 M.A.S.H. – Images of Nurses

30 Margaret “Hotlips” Hoolihan A True Perioperative Nurse Major Hoolihan’s image evolved much like the image of nursing.

31 Surgery Team 1960s

32 Nursing Images of Viet Nam War Capt Eleanor Grace Alexander, US Army, BSN, RN, Age 27 Died in aircraft crash on 11/30/1967, Central Highlands, Republic of Vietnam Her remains were guarded by Sgt W. J. Doyle, Jr, USAF, at Dover AFB, DE Mortuary

33 Operation Desert Storm

34 Student Nurses in the OR Most nursing curricula offered 12- 16 weeks perioperative experience Students were exposed to the practice of perioperative nursing

35 1984 Survey of 1400 Schools 16.6% offered perioperative nursing in basic curriculum 13.3% reported integration of perioperative nursing as elective 67% had no perioperative content Virtually no perioperative experience offered today.

36 Welcome To Perioperative Nursing!


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