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History of Counseling The Vocational Guidance Movement – Lysander S. Richards and Vocophy: The first to envision the role of a counselor or “vocopher” in helping people choose professions. – Frank Parsons: “The father of the guidance movement,” and credited with being the first true counselor. He used a scientific process to help people choose careers. – Jessie B. Davis: Brought vocational counseling into the schools. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
History of Counseling The Vocational Guidance Movement (continued) – Anna Y. Reed and Eli Weaver: In the early 1900’s they established counseling services based upon the concept of Social Darwinism. – National Vocational Guidance Association: Established in 1913, it advocated counseling in regard to career choice. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
History of Counseling The Mental Health Counseling Movement – Dorothea Dix: In the early 1800’s, she advocated for the establishment of institutions that would treat people with emotional disorders in a human manner. – Clifford Beers: Founded the Mental Hygiene Movement in the early 1900’s after his own experiences within a mental hospital. – William Healy, M. D. : In 1908, he established the first community psychiatric clinic. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
History of Counseling The Mental Health Counseling Movement (continued) – Wilhelm Wundt: In the late 1870’s, in Germany, he founded the first experimental psychology laboratory and studied the human mind. – William James: He carried on Wundt’s work regarding the human mind in the United States. – Granville Stanley Hall: He proposed a scientific approach to the study of social problems. He also founded the first psychology lab in the United States. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
History of Counseling The Mental Health Counseling Movement (continued) – David Spence Hill: He organized the first guidance and counseling services in New Orleans and used Simon Binet’s appraisal instruments to provide vocational counseling for kids in school. – James Cattell: He was the first person to focus on ways to measure intelligence in the 1890’s. – Binet-Simon Test: In 1905, this test was used in France to determine intelligence. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
History of Counseling The Mental Health Counseling Movement (continued) – L. M. Terman: Revised the Binet-Simon test to be used in the United States. It was called the Stanford-Binet as Terman was from Stanford University. At this time the term IQ (Intelligence Quotient) began to be used. – Army Alpha and Beta Tests: These were used during WWI to help decide placement for soldiers. This ushered in the proliferation of standardized testing. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
History of Counseling The Development of Professional Identity – E. G. Williamson: Developed what some consider to be the first theory of vocational counseling and utilized a directive counselor- centered approach which came to be known as the “Minnesota point of view.” – Dictionary of Occupational Titles: This was published in 1938 and provided counselors with a basic resource to match people with occupations. – The American Counsel of Guidance and Personnel Association (ACGPA): Formed in It name changed in 1939 to the Council of Guidance and Personnel Associations (CGPA). “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
History of Counseling The Development of Professional Identity (continued) – National Defense Education Act of 1958: This was the government’s response to Sputnik. The act provided for resources to determine which youths of America had mathematical and scientific talent that could be nurtured for use in the American space program. – WWII: Counselors were needed during WWII for testing and placement of soldiers. As soldiers returned with “battle neuroses” more counselors were needed to treat them. – Veterans Administration: Began hiring counselors in earnest to help returning soldiers cope with personal and vocational issues. They provided training and opened numerous positions. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
History of Counseling The Development of Professional Identity (continued) – The National Institute of Mental Health: It provided training stipends for doctoral students. – Carl Rogers: Developed a nondirective counseling approach called client-centered (now person-centered). He also identified core conditions for counseling that is utilized by many theories and approaches today. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
History of Counseling The Influence of Federal Legislation – Great Depression: It inspired government-sponsored programs that included counseling. – 1938 George-Dean Act: Appropriated 14 million dollars for vocational education. – Throughout the history of the counseling profession, the Federal Government has been influential. The following slides are a highlight of some legislation. Space constraints prohibit detailing all of it. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
History of Counseling The Influence of Federal Legislation (continued) – 1917: The Smith-Hughes Act created funding for a nationwide vocational education program. – 1944: The Veterans Administration established a nationwide network of guidance services to aid veterans including rehabilitation, counseling, training and advisement. – 1963: The Community Mental Health Centers Act created more than 2,000 mental health centers and provided an opportunity for counselors to be employed outside of educational settings. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
History of Counseling The Influence of Federal Legislation (continued) – 1972: Title IX of the Education Amendments to the 1964 Civil Rights Act mandated that no one is discriminated against, including through sex-biased appraisal. – 1981: The Older American Act was enacted to improve the lives of those over age 60. – 1994: The School To Work Opportunities Act set up partnerships between faculty, businesses and employers to aid student’s transition into the world of work. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
History of Counseling The Influence of Federal Legislation (continued) – 1998: The Workforce Investment Act revamped all the job training programs and reauthorized the Rehabilitation Act. – 1999: The Elementary-School Counseling Act allocated 20 million dollars for schools to hire qualified school counselors. – 1999: Work Incentives Improvement Act removed the financial disincentives that have kept the disabled out of the workforce. – There are many more important acts and pieces of legislation and any of the books used to make this presentation cover this area well. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
History of Counseling – : It was known as the American Personnel and Guidance Association. – : It was called the American Association for Counseling and Development. – 1992 to present: It is called the American Counseling Association. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
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