2The Struggle for Change in Latin America Mexican RevolutionPorfirio Diaz – brought economic growth, but peasants suffered. Removed from power in 1911.Pancho Villa & Emiliano Zapata – Leaders of Northern & Southern Mexico who fought for power after Madero was murdered.Venustiano Carranza – elected President in 1917.
3The Struggle for Change in Latin America Constitution of 1917It permitted the breakup of large estates.Placed restrictions on foreigners owning land.Nationalization: government takeover of natural resources.Church land was made property of the nation.Minimum wage set, protected workers’ right to strike.Male suffrage only, but females received some protection.Same pay for same work.Married women could draw up contracts, take part in legal suits, and have equal authority with men in spending family funds.Roosevelt Corollary : A political policy of the United States by President Theodore Roosevelt that states only the United States could intervene in the affairs of South America.Good Neighbor Policy: Franklin Roosevelt’s plan to ensure allies to the South by removing stationed troops and the Platt Amendment.
4Nationalist Movements in Africa and the Middle East Kenya South Africa NigeriaLeadership:Jomo KenyattaAfrican National Congress(ANC)W.E.B. DuBoisPan-African CongressIbo womenProtests Against:Loss of LandForced LaborHeavy TaxesIdentification CardsLoss of Political & Social PowerJob restrictions“Reserve” LivingLoss of landLosing control of marketplaceLack of VoiceResults:Kikuyu leaders jailedProtests continuedApartheid - blacks required to use separate trains, beaches, restaurants, schools, and no interracial marriage.Women’s War – full revolt
5Biography: Kemal Ataturk Nationalist leader of Turkey who is responsible for modernizing and westernizing his country after World War I. This enabled Turkey to resist imperialist attempts at takeover by various European powers.Westernization: To adopt western ideas and culture.Modernization:To change something to make it conform to modern standards( )
6ZionismDefinition: Jewish nationalist movement to establish a homeland in Palestine. This movement began in the late 1800s, as anti-Semitic feelings intensified in Europe. The main leader of this movement was a journalist by the name of Theodor Herzl. Herzl's dream of a homeland for Jewish peoples was realized in 1948 with the creation of Israel.Impact: Balfour Declaration issued by Britain in 1917 promised a national home for the Jews.Importance: Following WWI the Allies had promised the Arabs land including Palestine. This set the stage for conflict between the Arab and Jewish people.
7Indian Self-RuleTragedy at Amristar: April 3rd of British soldiers killed close to 400 unarmed Indian men, women, and children, and wounded 1,100 more. People had gathered in the center of town to protest British occupation of their country, and to demand equality. This was a turning point in British domination of India. Independence movements became very popular and eventually forced India's independence.
8Biography: Mohandas Gandhi Nationalist leader in India, who called for a non violent revolution to gain his country’s freedom from the British Empire.The Salt March (1930) Passive resistance campaign where Indians protested the British tax on salt by marching to the sea to make their own salt.Results of WWII for India: Britain postponed independence and brought India into the war without consulting them.( )Pakistan, translates as “the land of the ritually pure.”A separate Muslim state devised by Muslim Leagueleader Muhammad Ali Jinnah who like Gandhi learnedLaw in England.
9Problems in ChinaForeign Imperialism: The early 1900s showed increased influence by foreign merchants, missionaries and soldiers over Chinese ports.21 Demands:Cause: Too weak to resist Japan, Yuan gave into Japan’s demands.Effect: This move by Japan triggered a nationalistic surge in China, which led to rebellion.
10Problems in China May 4th Movement Biographies A patriotic outburst of new urban intellectuals & university students against foreign imperialists and warlords.BiographiesJiang Jieshi: ( ) After the death of Sun Yixian, he became the leader of the Guomindang, or Nationalist Party in China. Fought to keep China from becoming communist, and to resist the Japanese during World War II. He lost control of China in 1949, and fled to Taiwan where he setup a rival government. Also known as Chang Kai Shek.Mao Zedong: ( ) Leader of the Communist Party in China that overthrew Jiang Jieshi and the Nationalists. Established China as the People’s Republic of China and ruled from 1949 until 1976.
11The Long March6000 mile march that Mao Zedong and his Communist Party underwent to avoid being captured and killed by China’s Nationalist Party.EffectsSoldiers gained discipline.Communists gained popularity with peasants.Gained a base in Northern China to fight the Guomindang.
12Empire of the Rising Sun CausesThe government reduced military spending.In the spirit of world peace, Japan agreed to limit size of navy.Economy grew slowly during the 1920s and the Great Depression crippled the economy.Ultranationalists emerged, angry at poor economy and lack of overseas expansion.Manchurian Incident (1931) – Japanese army officers took over Manchuria without government approval.As a result Japan withdrew from the League of Nations and the public sided with the military.
13Rise of Militarism in Japan EffectsEarly 1930s ultranationalists were winning popular supportPoliticians and business leaders who opposed expansion were assassinated.Military leaders briefly occupied Tokyo in 1936.Traditional values were revived.Most Democratic freedoms ended.Education focused on absolute obedience to the emperor and service to the state.While fighting against China, WWII broke out, Japan sided with Germany and Italy.
14Western Democracies Between the Wars League of Nations Locarno Treaties Kellogg-Briand PactWhen?19251928Where?Versailles, FranceGeneva, SwitzerlandLocarno, SwitzerlandParis, FranceWho?Almost every independent nation.Germany, France, Belgium, Czechoslovakia & PolandWhat?Encouraged cooperation and a stop to aggression.Settled Germany’s disputed bordersTreaty that renounced war as a means of solving disputes.Why Failed?American refusal to join.Ambitious dictators rearmed, pursuing aggressive foreign policy.Could not enforce the ban.
15Recovery & Depression Global Imbalance The Crash Increases Decreases Industrial workers wagesPrice of Manufactured GoodsSupply of factory goodsDecreasesFarmer’s earningsManufactured goods purchasedDemandThe CrashThe crash of the NY Stock Exchange that triggered the Great Depression.
16The Depression & Its Effects Great Depression ( ):The dramatic decline in the world’s economy due to the United State’s stock market crash of 1929, the overproduction of goods from World War I, and decline in the need for raw materials from non industrialized nations.Results in millions of people losing their jobs as banks and businesses closed around the world. Many people were reduced to homelessness, and had to rely on government sponsored soup kitchens to eat. World trade also declined as many countries imposed protective tariffs in an attempt to restore their economies.
17European Countries Struggling Following WWI Great BritainExperienced a general strike in 1926 due to unemployment and low wages.Questions over Irish Independence.Loss of Canada, Australia, New Zealand & South Africa to self-government.Policy of lenience toward Germany angered France.FranceWWI fighting devastated Northern France.France suffered enormous casualties.Not as effected by Great Depression due to reparations and territories received from Germany.The Maginot Line: A line of heavy munitions, which France constructed on its border with Germany. It was of little use when Germany invaded in 1940.GermanyFaced the Treaty of Versailles, which stated that Germany had to pay reparations for causing the war, cut their army, and they also lost land, including Alsace-Lorraine to France.It had a huge impact on their economy as well as their morale, which is why the German people were so keen to believe Hitler and the Nazis when they said they would better Germany and make it like it was before the Treaty.
18The Rise of New Governments Fascism is:What Benito Mussolini in Italy and Adolf Hitler in Germany used to gain power and control over their countries.Totalitarian rule that is imperialist & anti-communist.Limited capitalismCensorshipUse of terror & violenceStrong militaryState control of economyExtreme nationalism
19Biography: Mussolini( ) Italian leader. He founded the Italian Fascist Party, and sided with Hitler and Germany in World War II. In 1945 he was overthrown and assassinated by the Italian Resistance.
20Fascism V. Communism Totalitarian Rule Rule by dictator Limited capitalismRuled by the Communist PartyCommand economyTotalitarian RuleA Single Party DictatorshipState control of the economyUse of police spies and terror to enforce the will of the stateStrict censorship and government monopoly of the mediaUse of schools and the media to indoctrinate and mobilize citizensUnquestioning obedience to a single leader
21Nazi Rise to Power World War I Weak Government Economic Problems The Treaty of Versailles was extremely unfair to Germany, forcing them to accept all of the blame for the war. It is a major cause of World War II.Weak GovernmentOnce the Weimar Republic accepted the Treaty of Versailles their time was limited.Economic ProblemsHyperinflation: As a result of paying reparations for war guilt, the rate of inflation hit 3.25 × 106 percent per month (prices double every 49 hours).LeadershipAnxiously looking for a leader to change the fortunes of the country, Germany turned to Adolf Hitler.
22Biography: Adolf Hitler ( ) Austrian-born leader of Germany. He co-founded the Nazi Party in Germany, and gained control of the country as chancellor in Hitler started World War II with the invasion of Poland. He was responsible for the Holocaust.Mein Kampf – Hitler’s book, which explains the Nazi’s political ideology and goals.The Third Reich - refers to Germany from the start of Adolf Hitler's government in 1933 until the beginning of denazification in 1945.
23The Decline of German Culture and Religion Why?As Hitler took control of Germany he silenced supposed enemies of the state by persecuting Catholics and Jews. Gypsies, homosexuals, African-European, and mentally ill people were also murdered. Germany became a state of police spies and neighbors often turned on each other to stay on Hitler’s good side.Nazi Treatment of JewsHitler began his program by first limiting the rights of Jews through the Nuremberg Laws. Jews were restricted to a separate part of town, called a Ghetto, could no longer run businesses, nor could they marry outside of their race.Concentration CampsAs World War II progressed, Hitler began forcing Jews into concentration camps, where they were either immediately murdered, usually by poison gas, or used as slave labor until they died. Their bodies were disposed of through cremation in the concentration camp ovens. The Nazis also used Jews in horrific pseudo medical experiments.As a result the United Nations passed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948 stating that all people had certain basic rights including life, liberty, equality, justice and self determination.
24Two Nights of Terror Kristalnacht (The Night of Broken Glass) In 1938 on November 9th & 10th, Nazi SA Stormtroopers were encouraged to begin street violence against Jewish shops, synagogues, and institutions. In all, 200 synagogues were burned, homes were destroyed with axes and sledgehammers, people were thrown from windows into the street, kicked to death, beaten with fists and truncheons, stabbed, and shot.Authoritarian Rule in Eastern EuropeDictators in Spain, Italy, Germany and militarists in Japan threatened world peace leading to World War II.
25World War II Causes 1. Versailles Treaty 2. Militarism Admit war guiltGermany paid reparationsLost territoryScaled back their militaryWeapons prohibitedLeague of Nations formed2. MilitarismCountries like Japan, Germany & Italy used Nationalism and military aggression to take over territory.3. Nationalism & RacismBelief in the superiority of your country or people, which led to a desire by militarist countries to conquer weaker territory.4. ImperialismJapan – took Manchuria.Italy – conquered Ethiopia.Germany – took Austria, Czechoslovakia & Poland.5. Failure of Collective SecurityAttempts to create a lasting peace failed due to the League of Nations’ weakness.6. AppeasementInstead of taking action against Hitler, Western democracies gave into his demands to keep the peace.
26Aggressive Steps Toward WWII 1931 – Japan seizes Manchuria.1935 – Italy invaded Ethiopia and conquered them a year later.1936 – Germany sends troops to the “demilitarized” zone in the Rhineland.1937 – Japan overruns much of Eastern China.1938 – Anschluss, or union of Austria & Germany.1938 – Munich Conference, Germany agrees to stop their aggression in exchange for the Sudetenland.1939 – Francisco Franco wins the Spanish Civil War with support from Germany and Italy. Franco himself set-up a fascist state and the War acted as a “dress rehearsal” for WWII.1939 – Germany attacked Poland, an act of aggression that started World War II.
27Road to War Hitler’s Challenge Appeasement Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis Hitler challenged the will of western democracies and found them to be weak.AppeasementThese western democracies gave in to Hitler’s demands to keep the peace.Rome-Berlin-Tokyo AxisAn agreement by Italy, Germany, and Japan to fight Soviet Communism.
28Road to War cont… German Expansion: “Peace in Our Time” ReasonsHitler wanted to bring all German-speaking people into the Third Reich.He needed Lebensraum or “living space” for his superior “Aryan Race.”GoalsConquer or remove millions of the inferior Slavs.Annexed Austria and conquered Czechoslovakia.“Peace in Our Time”Meaning & Who said it?Neville Chamberlain claimed that the Munich Conference had halted Hitler.Winston Churchill would later say: “They had to choose between war and dishonor. They chose dishonor; they will have war.”Navi-Soviet Non-aggression PactAgreement between Hitler and Stalin to peaceful relations, such as:Not to fight if the other went to war.To divide up Poland and other parts of Eastern Europe.
29The Global Conflict: Axis Advances Invasion of PolandOne week after the Nazi-Soviet pact, France and Britain declared war on Germany when it invaded Poland.Attack of FranceWhen fight ceased in the winter of 1939 people called WWII the “Phony War.”As German forces poured into France with their blitzkrieg (lightning war), retreating forces were trapped creating the miracle at Dunkirk.France would surrender in June 1940.The Battle of BritainA stunning air offensive in which Germany bombed Britain on and off from September 1940 – June 1941.Instead of destroying Britain the British were more determined to fight back. The British were saved when Hitler turned his attention to the Soviet Union.
30U.S. Involvement Lend Lease Act Pearl Harbor Agreement of the U.S. to remain neutral, but still supply arms to countries fighting for freedom.Pearl HarborAfter the U.S. stopped the sale of natural resources to Japan and talks broke down General Hideki Tojo ordered an attack on Pearl Harbor on 12/7/1941.
31Occupied Lands German Occupation Treatment of Jews The Nazis believed that conquered land was an economic resource to be plundered and looted.Treatment of JewsIn addition to taking economic resources Hitler wanted to kill all people he judged to be “racially inferior,” particularly Jews.
32Turning Points in the War U.S. Entry – following Pearl Harbor.Battle of El Alamein (1942) – Allied victory over German general Rommel in Egypt.Invasion of Italy (1943) – Allied victory that forced Mussolini from power and Hitler to fight a third front.Battle of Stalingrad ( ) – Russia pushed the Nazis back and Germany lost over 300,000 troops.Invasion of Normandy (1944) – June 6th, D-Day when the Allied forces attacked France to push back Germany.
33Toward Victory Island-Hopping Campaign The goal of American forces was to recapture some Japanese-held islands while bypassing others. Captured islands served as stepping stones for movement toward Japan.Battle of the BulgeA month-long battle that was Hitler’s last success, albeit in defeat as it delayed the Allied advance.Yalta ConferenceSensing the end was near Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin met on the Crimean peninsula. Each leader had an agenda as Roosevelt asked for Soviet support in the U.S. Pacific War against Japan; Churchill pressed for free elections and democratic governments in Eastern Europe (specifically Poland); and Stalin demanded a Soviet sphere of political influence in Eastern Europe, as essential to the USSR's national security.
34Difficult Decision: The Atomic Bomb Reasons For:Invasion would cost a million of more casualties.Japanese proved that they would fight to the death rather than surrender.Impress the Soviets with American power.Reasons AgainstIncredibly powerfulLed to the deaths of 100,000+ civilians.ResultsAfter dropping bombs on Hiroshima & Nagasaki, Emperor Hirohito intervened on August 10, 1945 and surrendered.
35Impact of World War II Human Losses Economic Losses As many as 75 million people lost their lives as a result of World War II.Economic LossesTotal War had gutted cities, factories, harbors, bridges, railroads, farms, homes and lives.Holocaust – War Crimes trialsAt Auschwitz alone Rudolf Hoess supervised the killing of 2 ½ million Jews.Over 142 Germans and Austrians were found guilty of “crimes against humanity,” and a handful of top Nazis received death sentences.Occupied NationsAllied troops occupied Germany and Japan to strengthen Democracy to ensure tolerance and peace.United NationsSecurity organization that was created in April In addition to peacekeeping the UN has taken on problems such as: diseases, education, struggling economies.