Presentation on theme: "Between the World Wars. The Struggle for Change in Latin America Mexican Revolution –Porfirio Diaz – brought economic growth, but peasants suffered. Removed."— Presentation transcript:
Between the World Wars
The Struggle for Change in Latin America Mexican Revolution –Porfirio Diaz – brought economic growth, but peasants suffered. Removed from power in –Pancho Villa & Emiliano Zapata – Leaders of Northern & Southern Mexico who fought for power after Madero was murdered. –Venustiano Carranza – elected President in 1917.
The Struggle for Change in Latin America Constitution of 1917 –It permitted the breakup of large estates. –Placed restrictions on foreigners owning land. –Nationalization: government takeover of natural resources. –Church land was made property of the nation. –Minimum wage set, protected workers’ right to strike. –Male suffrage only, but females received some protection. Same pay for same work. Married women could draw up contracts, take part in legal suits, and have equal authority with men in spending family funds. Roosevelt Corollary : A political policy of the United States by President Theodore Roosevelt that states only the United States could intervene in the affairs of South America. Good Neighbor Policy: Franklin Roosevelt’s plan to ensure allies to the South by removing stationed troops and the Platt Amendment.
Nationalist Movements in Africa and the Middle East Kenya South Africa Nigeria Leadership: Jomo Kenyatta Leadership: African National Congress (ANC) W.E.B. DuBois Pan-African Congress Leadership: Ibo women Protests Against: Loss of Land Forced Labor Heavy Taxes Identification Cards Protests Against: Loss of Political & Social Power Job restrictions Identification Cards “Reserve” Living Protests Against: Loss of land Losing control of marketplace Lack of Voice Results: Kikuyu leaders jailed Protests continued Results: Apartheid - blacks required to use separate trains, beaches, restaurants, schools, and no interracial marriage. Results: Women’s War – full revolt
Biography: Kemal Ataturk Nationalist leader of Turkey who is responsible for modernizing and westernizing his country after World War I. This enabled Turkey to resist imperialist attempts at takeover by various European powers. Westernization: To adopt western ideas and culture. Modernization:To change something to make it conform to modern standards ( )
Zionism Definition: Jewish nationalist movement to establish a homeland in Palestine. This movement began in the late 1800s, as anti-Semitic feelings intensified in Europe. The main leader of this movement was a journalist by the name of Theodor Herzl. Herzl's dream of a homeland for Jewish peoples was realized in 1948 with the creation of Israel. Impact: Balfour Declaration issued by Britain in 1917 promised a national home for the Jews. Importance: Following WWI the Allies had promised the Arabs land including Palestine. This set the stage for conflict between the Arab and Jewish people.
Indian Self-Rule Tragedy at Amristar: April 3rd of British soldiers killed close to 400 unarmed Indian men, women, and children, and wounded 1,100 more. People had gathered in the center of town to protest British occupation of their country, and to demand equality. This was a turning point in British domination of India. Independence movements became very popular and eventually forced India's independence.
Biography: Mohandas Gandhi Nationalist leader in India, who called for a non violent revolution to gain his country’s freedom from the British Empire. The Salt March (1930) Passive resistance campaign where Indians protested the British tax on salt by marching to the sea to make their own salt. Results of WWII for India: Britain postponed independence and brought India into the war without consulting them. ( ) Pakistan, translates as “the land of the ritually pure.” A separate Muslim state devised by Muslim League leader Muhammad Ali Jinnah who like Gandhi learned Law in England.
Problems in China Foreign Imperialism: The early 1900s showed increased influence by foreign merchants, missionaries and soldiers over Chinese ports. 21 Demands: –Cause: Too weak to resist Japan, Yuan gave into Japan’s demands. –Effect: This move by Japan triggered a nationalistic surge in China, which led to rebellion.
Problems in China May 4 th Movement –A patriotic outburst of new urban intellectuals & university students against foreign imperialists and warlords. Biographies –Jiang Jieshi: ( ) After the death of Sun Yixian, he became the leader of the Guomindang, or Nationalist Party in China. Fought to keep China from becoming communist, and to resist the Japanese during World War II. He lost control of China in 1949, and fled to Taiwan where he setup a rival government. Also known as Chang Kai Shek. –Mao Zedong: ( ) Leader of the Communist Party in China that overthrew Jiang Jieshi and the Nationalists. Established China as the People’s Republic of China and ruled from 1949 until 1976.
The Long March 6000 mile march that Mao Zedong and his Communist Party underwent to avoid being captured and killed by China’s Nationalist Party. Effects –Soldiers gained discipline. –Communists gained popularity with peasants. –Gained a base in Northern China to fight the Guomindang.
Empire of the Rising Sun Causes –The government reduced military spending. –In the spirit of world peace, Japan agreed to limit size of navy. –Economy grew slowly during the 1920s and the Great Depression crippled the economy. –Ultranationalists emerged, angry at poor economy and lack of overseas expansion. –Manchurian Incident (1931) – Japanese army officers took over Manchuria without government approval. –As a result Japan withdrew from the League of Nations and the public sided with the military.
Rise of Militarism in Japan Effects –Early 1930s ultranationalists were winning popular support –Politicians and business leaders who opposed expansion were assassinated. –Military leaders briefly occupied Tokyo in –Traditional values were revived. –Most Democratic freedoms ended. –Education focused on absolute obedience to the emperor and service to the state. –While fighting against China, WWII broke out, Japan sided with Germany and Italy.
Western Democracies Between the Wars League of Nations Locarno Treaties Kellogg-Briand Pact When? Where? Versailles, France Geneva, Switzerland Locarno, Switzerland Paris, France Who? Almost every independent nation. Germany, France, Belgium, Czechoslovakia & Poland Almost every independent nation. What? Encouraged cooperation and a stop to aggression. Settled Germany’s disputed borders Treaty that renounced war as a means of solving disputes. Why Failed? American refusal to join. Ambitious dictators rearmed, pursuing aggressive foreign policy. Could not enforce the ban.
Recovery & Depression Global Imbalance –Increases Industrial workers wages Price of Manufactured Goods Supply of factory goods –Decreases Farmer’s earnings Manufactured goods purchased Demand The Crash –The crash of the NY Stock Exchange that triggered the Great Depression.
The Depression & Its Effects Great Depression ( ): –The dramatic decline in the world’s economy due to the United State’s stock market crash of 1929, the overproduction of goods from World War I, and decline in the need for raw materials from non industrialized nations. –Results in millions of people losing their jobs as banks and businesses closed around the world. Many people were reduced to homelessness, and had to rely on government sponsored soup kitchens to eat. World trade also declined as many countries imposed protective tariffs in an attempt to restore their economies.
European Countries Struggling Following WWI Great Britain –Experienced a general strike in 1926 due to unemployment and low wages. –Questions over Irish Independence. –Loss of Canada, Australia, New Zealand & South Africa to self-government. –Policy of lenience toward Germany angered France. France –WWI fighting devastated Northern France. –France suffered enormous casualties. –Not as effected by Great Depression due to reparations and territories received from Germany. The Maginot Line: A line of heavy munitions, which France constructed on its border with Germany. It was of little use when Germany invaded in Germany –Faced the Treaty of Versailles, which stated that Germany had to pay reparations for causing the war, cut their army, and they also lost land, including Alsace-Lorraine to France. –It had a huge impact on their economy as well as their morale, which is why the German people were so keen to believe Hitler and the Nazis when they said they would better Germany and make it like it was before the Treaty.
The Rise of New Governments Fascism is: –What Benito Mussolini in Italy and Adolf Hitler in Germany used to gain power and control over their countries. –Totalitarian rule that is imperialist & anti-communist. –Limited capitalism –Censorship –Use of terror & violence –Strong military –State control of economy –Extreme nationalism
Biography: Mussolini ( ) Italian leader. He founded the Italian Fascist Party, and sided with Hitler and Germany in World War II. In 1945 he was overthrown and assassinated by the Italian Resistance.
Fascism V. Communism Rule by dictator Limited capitalism Ruled by the Communist Party Command economy Totalitarian Rule 1.A Single Party Dictatorship 2.State control of the economy 3.Use of police spies and terror to enforce the will of the state 4.Strict censorship and government monopoly of the media 5.Use of schools and the media to indoctrinate and mobilize citizens 6.Unquestioning obedience to a single leader
Nazi Rise to Power World War I –The Treaty of Versailles was extremely unfair to Germany, forcing them to accept all of the blame for the war. It is a major cause of World War II. Weak Government –Once the Weimar Republic accepted the Treaty of Versailles their time was limited. Economic Problems –Hyperinflation: As a result of paying reparations for war guilt, the rate of inflation hit 3.25 × 10 6 percent per month (prices double every 49 hours). Leadership –Anxiously looking for a leader to change the fortunes of the country, Germany turned to Adolf Hitler.
Biography: Adolf Hitler ( ) Austrian-born leader of Germany. He co- founded the Nazi Party in Germany, and gained control of the country as chancellor in Hitler started World War II with the invasion of Poland. He was responsible for the Holocaust. Mein Kampf – Hitler’s book, which explains the Nazi’s political ideology and goals. The Third Reich - refers to Germany from the start of Adolf Hitler's government in 1933 until the beginning of denazification in 1945.
The Decline of German Culture and Religion Why? –As Hitler took control of Germany he silenced supposed enemies of the state by persecuting Catholics and Jews. Gypsies, homosexuals, African-European, and mentally ill people were also murdered. Germany became a state of police spies and neighbors often turned on each other to stay on Hitler’s good side. Nazi Treatment of Jews –Hitler began his program by first limiting the rights of Jews through the Nuremberg Laws. Jews were restricted to a separate part of town, called a Ghetto, could no longer run businesses, nor could they marry outside of their race. Concentration Camps –As World War II progressed, Hitler began forcing Jews into concentration camps, where they were either immediately murdered, usually by poison gas, or used as slave labor until they died. Their bodies were disposed of through cremation in the concentration camp ovens. The Nazis also used Jews in horrific pseudo medical experiments. –As a result the United Nations passed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948 stating that all people had certain basic rights including life, liberty, equality, justice and self determination.
Two Nights of Terror Kristalnacht (The Night of Broken Glass) –In 1938 on November 9 th & 10 th, Nazi SA Stormtroopers were encouraged to begin street violence against Jewish shops, synagogues, and institutions. In all, 200 synagogues were burned, homes were destroyed with axes and sledgehammers, people were thrown from windows into the street, kicked to death, beaten with fists and truncheons, stabbed, and shot. Authoritarian Rule in Eastern Europe –Dictators in Spain, Italy, Germany and militarists in Japan threatened world peace leading to World War II.
World War II Causes 1. Versailles Treaty Admit war guilt Germany paid reparations Lost territory Scaled back their military Weapons prohibited League of Nations formed 2. Militarism Countries like Japan, Germany & Italy used Nationalism and military aggression to take over territory. 3. Nationalism & Racism Belief in the superiority of your country or people, which led to a desire by militarist countries to conquer weaker territory. 4. Imperialism a.Japan – took Manchuria. b.Italy – conquered Ethiopia. c.Germany – took Austria, Czechoslovakia & Poland. 5. Failure of Collective Security Attempts to create a lasting peace failed due to the League of Nations’ weakness. 6. Appeasement Instead of taking action against Hitler, Western democracies gave into his demands to keep the peace.
Aggressive Steps Toward WWII 1931 – Japan seizes Manchuria – Italy invaded Ethiopia and conquered them a year later – Germany sends troops to the “demilitarized” zone in the Rhineland – Japan overruns much of Eastern China – Anschluss, or union of Austria & Germany – Munich Conference, Germany agrees to stop their aggression in exchange for the Sudetenland – Francisco Franco wins the Spanish Civil War with support from Germany and Italy. Franco himself set-up a fascist state and the War acted as a “dress rehearsal” for WWII – Germany attacked Poland, an act of aggression that started World War II.
Road to War Hitler’s Challenge –Hitler challenged the will of western democracies and found them to be weak. Appeasement –These western democracies gave in to Hitler’s demands to keep the peace. Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis –An agreement by Italy, Germany, and Japan to fight Soviet Communism.
Road to War cont… German Expansion: –Reasons Hitler wanted to bring all German-speaking people into the Third Reich. He needed Lebensraum or “living space” for his superior “Aryan Race.” –Goals Conquer or remove millions of the inferior Slavs. Annexed Austria and conquered Czechoslovakia. “Peace in Our Time” –Meaning & Who said it? Neville Chamberlain claimed that the Munich Conference had halted Hitler. Winston Churchill would later say: “They had to choose between war and dishonor. They chose dishonor; they will have war.” Navi-Soviet Non-aggression Pact –Agreement between Hitler and Stalin to peaceful relations, such as: Not to fight if the other went to war. To divide up Poland and other parts of Eastern Europe.
The Global Conflict: Axis Advances Invasion of Poland –One week after the Nazi-Soviet pact, France and Britain declared war on Germany when it invaded Poland. Attack of France –When fight ceased in the winter of 1939 people called WWII the “Phony War.” –As German forces poured into France with their blitzkrieg (lightning war), retreating forces were trapped creating the miracle at Dunkirk. –France would surrender in June The Battle of Britain –A stunning air offensive in which Germany bombed Britain on and off from September 1940 – June –Instead of destroying Britain the British were more determined to fight back. The British were saved when Hitler turned his attention to the Soviet Union.
U.S. Involvement Lend Lease Act –Agreement of the U.S. to remain neutral, but still supply arms to countries fighting for freedom. Pearl Harbor –After the U.S. stopped the sale of natural resources to Japan and talks broke down General Hideki Tojo ordered an attack on Pearl Harbor on 12/7/1941.
Occupied Lands German Occupation –The Nazis believed that conquered land was an economic resource to be plundered and looted. Treatment of Jews –In addition to taking economic resources Hitler wanted to kill all people he judged to be “racially inferior,” particularly Jews.
Turning Points in the War U.S. Entry – following Pearl Harbor. Battle of El Alamein (1942) – Allied victory over German general Rommel in Egypt. Invasion of Italy (1943) – Allied victory that forced Mussolini from power and Hitler to fight a third front. Battle of Stalingrad ( ) – Russia pushed the Nazis back and Germany lost over 300,000 troops. Invasion of Normandy (1944) – June 6th, D-Day when the Allied forces attacked France to push back Germany.
Toward Victory Island-Hopping Campaign –The goal of American forces was to recapture some Japanese-held islands while bypassing others. Captured islands served as stepping stones for movement toward Japan. Battle of the Bulge –A month-long battle that was Hitler’s last success, albeit in defeat as it delayed the Allied advance. Yalta Conference –Sensing the end was near Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin met on the Crimean peninsula. Each leader had an agenda as Roosevelt asked for Soviet support in the U.S. Pacific War against Japan; Churchill pressed for free elections and democratic governments in Eastern Europe (specifically Poland); and Stalin demanded a Soviet sphere of political influence in Eastern Europe, as essential to the USSR's national security.
Difficult Decision: The Atomic Bomb Reasons For: –Invasion would cost a million of more casualties. –Japanese proved that they would fight to the death rather than surrender. –Impress the Soviets with American power. Reasons Against –Incredibly powerful –Led to the deaths of 100,000+ civilians. Results –After dropping bombs on Hiroshima & Nagasaki, Emperor Hirohito intervened on August 10, 1945 and surrendered.
Impact of World War II Human Losses –As many as 75 million people lost their lives as a result of World War II. Economic Losses –Total War had gutted cities, factories, harbors, bridges, railroads, farms, homes and lives. Holocaust – War Crimes trials –At Auschwitz alone Rudolf Hoess supervised the killing of 2 ½ million Jews. –Over 142 Germans and Austrians were found guilty of “crimes against humanity,” and a handful of top Nazis received death sentences. Occupied Nations –Allied troops occupied Germany and Japan to strengthen Democracy to ensure tolerance and peace. United Nations –Security organization that was created in April In addition to peacekeeping the UN has taken on problems such as: diseases, education, struggling economies.