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World War II Prelude to Global War. World War II Although times were hard in the United States throughout the Great Depression they were worse in other.

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Presentation on theme: "World War II Prelude to Global War. World War II Although times were hard in the United States throughout the Great Depression they were worse in other."— Presentation transcript:

1 World War II Prelude to Global War

2 World War II Although times were hard in the United States throughout the Great Depression they were worse in other countries. Although times were hard in the United States throughout the Great Depression they were worse in other countries.

3 Dictators Dictators rose to power throughout Europe Dictators rose to power throughout Europe Totalitarian- a form of government that controls every aspect of its citizens lives Totalitarian- a form of government that controls every aspect of its citizens lives Example: Soviet Union, Germany, Italy Fascism- Philosophy which places importance of the nation above the value of the individual Fascism- Philosophy which places importance of the nation above the value of the individual Example: Hitler (Germany), Mussolini (Italy) *Fascism allows private business unlike communism but individual rights and freedoms are lost

4 Benito Mussolini Rose to power in Italy after WWI and called himself Il Duce “the leader”. Rose to power in Italy after WWI and called himself Il Duce “the leader”. Organized a fascist group throughout Italy Organized a fascist group throughout Italy Threatened to march into Rome and the king appointed him Prime Minister out of fear. Threatened to march into Rome and the king appointed him Prime Minister out of fear.

5 Mussolini continued… Mussolini outlawed elections and political parties while establishing a dictatorship. Mussolini outlawed elections and political parties while establishing a dictatorship. Mussolini proclaimed the fascist slogan “The country is nothing without conquest.” Mussolini proclaimed the fascist slogan “The country is nothing without conquest.” Mussolini invaded Ethiopia Mussolini invaded Ethiopia East African Nation was in Italian hands East African Nation was in Italian hands

6 Adolf Hitler Leader of the Nazi party Germany. Leader of the Nazi party Germany. A charismatic powerful public speaker A charismatic powerful public speaker tried to overthrow German government and went to jail for five years tried to overthrow German government and went to jail for five years Wrote autobiography called “Mien Kampf” while in jail about his plans for Germany Wrote autobiography called “Mien Kampf” while in jail about his plans for Germany he believed in a purifying race “Aryan race” (blond hair blue eyes). he believed in a purifying race “Aryan race” (blond hair blue eyes).

7 Europe Goes to War German troops moved into Rhineland (West Germany) which violated the treaty of Versailles German troops moved into Rhineland (West Germany) which violated the treaty of Versailles Hitler got away with it which made him more eager to expand Hitler got away with it which made him more eager to expand Hitler signed an alliance with Mussolini and created “Axis” power between Rome and Berlin. Hitler signed an alliance with Mussolini and created “Axis” power between Rome and Berlin. Japan later joined the Axis power with Germany and Itlay Japan later joined the Axis power with Germany and Itlay

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9 German Empire Expanding Hitler annexed Austria (Britain and France Protested) Hitler annexed Austria (Britain and France Protested) Britain and France appeased (giving into someone's demands) with Germany b/c they were not ready for war and thought he might finally be satisfied with land. Britain and France appeased (giving into someone's demands) with Germany b/c they were not ready for war and thought he might finally be satisfied with land. Britain and France chose dishonor over war which in turn became a war Britain and France chose dishonor over war which in turn became a war Hitler invaded Poland and the WAR BEGAN Hitler invaded Poland and the WAR BEGAN

10 German’s Expansion Invasion of Poland took one month (West Poland) Invasion of Poland took one month (West Poland) Blitzkrieg- “lightening War” tactic. Tanks, artillery, and soldiers (moving by foot) struck deep into enemy territory before they had time to react Blitzkrieg- “lightening War” tactic. Tanks, artillery, and soldiers (moving by foot) struck deep into enemy territory before they had time to react Sitzkrieg- “sit-down war” quiet time for seven months after Poland Fell Sitzkrieg- “sit-down war” quiet time for seven months after Poland Fell

11 German continues to expand… Germany launched an attack on Denmark and Norway, then proceeded into France and France surrendered on June 14, Germany launched an attack on Denmark and Norway, then proceeded into France and France surrendered on June 14, Great Britain stood alone in the Allies of the countries. Great Britain stood alone in the Allies of the countries. Germany launched an air assault on Great Britain (largest the world had ever seen). This became known as the battle of Britain and by 1941 German raids ended with a loss for Germany Germany launched an air assault on Great Britain (largest the world had ever seen). This became known as the battle of Britain and by 1941 German raids ended with a loss for Germany

12 London’s St. Paul’s Cathedral survived the German Bombing in

13 Ruins after the German attack in London. Winston Churchill, Prime Minister of London, and his wife

14 Dark Green: Allies before the attack on Pearl HarborAlliesattack on Pearl Harbor Light Green: Allied countries that entered the war after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.attack on Pearl Harbor Orange: Axis PowersAxis Powers

15 Japanese Expansion Japan along with Germany and Italy was not happy with their situation in Asia. Japan too was going through a Great Depression. Japan along with Germany and Italy was not happy with their situation in Asia. Japan too was going through a Great Depression Japan seized Manchuria (region in china) 1931 Japan seized Manchuria (region in china) Japan soon controlled most of eastern China Japan soon controlled most of eastern China By 1941 Japan was ready to challenge Europeans and Americans for supremacy in Asia By 1941 Japan was ready to challenge Europeans and Americans for supremacy in Asia

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17 American Involvement Grows… American’s build up naval fleets from San Diego to Pearl Harbor American’s build up naval fleets from San Diego to Pearl Harbor Americans remain neutral and declared the Neutrality acts. These included the US would withhold weapons and loans from all nations and required “cash and carry policy,” (goods sold to nations at war would be paid for in cash and transported by the purchaser. Americans remain neutral and declared the Neutrality acts. These included the US would withhold weapons and loans from all nations and required “cash and carry policy,” (goods sold to nations at war would be paid for in cash and transported by the purchaser. Lend-Lease Act- FDR passed to aid any nation whose defense was vital to American security Lend-Lease Act- FDR passed to aid any nation whose defense was vital to American security

18 Attack on Pearl Harbor US cut off all trade with Japan but still hoped for peace US cut off all trade with Japan but still hoped for peace December 7, 1941 Japan attacked Pearl harbor “a day which will live in infamy” December 7, 1941 Japan attacked Pearl harbor “a day which will live in infamy”

19 FDR’s entering into war FDR asked congress to declare war the next day. FDR asked congress to declare war the next day. Three days later Germany and Italy declared war on the United States Three days later Germany and Italy declared war on the United States

20 World War II The Road to Victory in Europe Section 2 Chapter 24

21 Americans Prepare for War! Churchill and FDR allied and wrote an agreement of goals called the Atlantic Charter. They pledged “a peace that will afford all nations the means of dwelling in safety inside their own boundaries.” Churchill and FDR allied and wrote an agreement of goals called the Atlantic Charter. They pledged “a peace that will afford all nations the means of dwelling in safety inside their own boundaries.” GI’s- “government issued” clothes, shoes, weapons provided by the military. Soldiers are GI’s! GI’s- “government issued” clothes, shoes, weapons provided by the military. Soldiers are GI’s!

22 Diversity in American Troops! Mexican Americans- 300,000 Mexican Americans- 300,000 Native Americans-25,000 (Navajo code talkers) Native Americans-25,000 (Navajo code talkers) Japanese Americans (not accepted until 1943 after released from internment camps in the United States) Japanese Americans (not accepted until 1943 after released from internment camps in the United States) African Americans- 1 million joined the army African Americans- 1 million joined the army Women-350,000 joined in all areas except combat. WASP (women air force service pilot) and WAVES (women accepted for volunteer emergency service) Women-350,000 joined in all areas except combat. WASP (women air force service pilot) and WAVES (women accepted for volunteer emergency service)

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24 Fighting in North Africa and Italy The battle of the Atlantic- German Submarines attacking Great Britain in the Atlantic Ocean. Sonar (underwater sound equipment) was used to attack and locate enemy submarines. The battle of the Atlantic- German Submarines attacking Great Britain in the Atlantic Ocean. Sonar (underwater sound equipment) was used to attack and locate enemy submarines. US had convoys so Great Britain receive food and supplies. US had convoys so Great Britain receive food and supplies. Germans used Wolf Packs (30+ submarines) to attack their enemy. German submarines were successful sinking 175 ships in 1942! Germans used Wolf Packs (30+ submarines) to attack their enemy. German submarines were successful sinking 175 ships in 1942!

25 The fight goes on… General Eisenhower (United States) helped general Montgomery (Britain) defeat Germany in Northern Africa (Egypt) in the important battle El Alamein General Eisenhower (United States) helped general Montgomery (Britain) defeat Germany in Northern Africa (Egypt) in the important battle El Alamein General Patton attacked Sicily, Italy and Mussolini was over thrown. German troops remained in Italy to defend the land and for four months fighting continued and over 72,000 Americans died. General Patton attacked Sicily, Italy and Mussolini was over thrown. German troops remained in Italy to defend the land and for four months fighting continued and over 72,000 Americans died. Battle of Anizo was won by US and Rome was captured. Battle of Anizo was won by US and Rome was captured.

26 War in the Soviet Union Hitler wanted to Expand into the USSR and 3.6 million German soldiers enter USSR through the Baltic and Black sea Hitler wanted to Expand into the USSR and 3.6 million German soldiers enter USSR through the Baltic and Black sea Battle of Stalingrad- turning point in the War when USSR defeated German army Battle of Stalingrad- turning point in the War when USSR defeated German army General George Marshall pushed the president to prepare for war and called for the invasion of western Europe. When the war ended he resigned and soon after became secretary of state and created the Marshall plan! General George Marshall pushed the president to prepare for war and called for the invasion of western Europe. When the war ended he resigned and soon after became secretary of state and created the Marshall plan! Carpet Bombing- technique used by Britain in which they dropped large numbers of bombs over a wide area and German cities suffered heavy damages! Carpet Bombing- technique used by Britain in which they dropped large numbers of bombs over a wide area and German cities suffered heavy damages!

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30 D-DAY June 6 th, 1944-largest landing by sea in history D-DAY (code name for the day the invasion began)!!!!! June 6 th, 1944-largest landing by sea in history D-DAY (code name for the day the invasion began)!!!!! 4,600 warships and invasion crafts slipped out of the harbor in England and pounded the German defenses at Normandy (region in France)! 1,000 RAF bombers also attacked German defenses. Normandy was not an ideal place to attack so it caught the German troops off guard. 4,600 warships and invasion crafts slipped out of the harbor in England and pounded the German defenses at Normandy (region in France)! 1,000 RAF bombers also attacked German defenses. Normandy was not an ideal place to attack so it caught the German troops off guard. 23,000 airborne British and American soldiers were dropped behind enemy lines in the night. 23,000 airborne British and American soldiers were dropped behind enemy lines in the night. Five beaches were attacked (UTAH, OMAHA, GOLD, JUNO, SWORD) Five beaches were attacked (UTAH, OMAHA, GOLD, JUNO, SWORD)

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32 Clenching the Victory Fighting followed as US, British, and Canadian troops pushed through France and liberated Paris Fighting followed as US, British, and Canadian troops pushed through France and liberated Paris US and Canadian troops then freed Brussels and Antwerp and Holland US and Canadian troops then freed Brussels and Antwerp and Holland Germany launched a counter attack in Luxembourg and Belgium called the BATTLE of the BULGE Germany launched a counter attack in Luxembourg and Belgium called the BATTLE of the BULGE US troops were not looking that good until General Patton moved 250,000 soldiers from western France to help stop the German advance US troops were not looking that good until General Patton moved 250,000 soldiers from western France to help stop the German advance Battle of the Bulge was the largest battle fought during WWII. 600,000 GI’s involved and 80,000 were killed, wounded or captured! Battle of the Bulge was the largest battle fought during WWII. 600,000 GI’s involved and 80,000 were killed, wounded or captured!

33 War Ends in Europe! Yalta Conference- Plan for post war world between Churchill, Stalin, and FDR! Met in February although war was not yet complete! Yalta Conference- Plan for post war world between Churchill, Stalin, and FDR! Met in February although war was not yet complete! Soviet troops attacked Berlin and Hitler refused to flee and then committed suicide on May 1 st Soviet troops attacked Berlin and Hitler refused to flee and then committed suicide on May 1 st Then Germany surrendered May 8 th 1945! Then Germany surrendered May 8 th 1945! 27,000,000 Soviets died throughout the War! 27,000,000 Soviets died throughout the War! Americans celebrated V-E Day (Victory in Europe! But Japan was not yet defeated! Americans celebrated V-E Day (Victory in Europe! But Japan was not yet defeated!

34 World War II The War in the Pacific Section 3

35 The War in the Pacific There was also fighting in the Pacific along with Europe. There was also fighting in the Pacific along with Europe. Bataan Death March- Brutal death march of American and Filipino prisoners by Japanese soldiers Bataan Death March- Brutal death march of American and Filipino prisoners by Japanese soldiers Battle of the Coral Sea- Battle between Japanese and American Aircraft (1 st ever to be completely carried out in air) Battle of the Coral Sea- Battle between Japanese and American Aircraft (1 st ever to be completely carried out in air)

36 Battles in the Pacific between US and Japan Battle of Midway- TURNING POINT in the war also fought entirely in the air and US destroyed Japanese offenese! Battle of Midway- TURNING POINT in the war also fought entirely in the air and US destroyed Japanese offenese! Battle of Guadalcanal- US now in control and forced Japanese into the Jungle Battle of Guadalcanal- US now in control and forced Japanese into the Jungle Kamikaze- Japanese suicide planes used in the battle of Leyte Gulfa Kamikaze- Japanese suicide planes used in the battle of Leyte Gulfa Battle of Iwo Jima- Bloodiest battle for volcanic island, bombs and shells used to destroy the island Battle of Iwo Jima- Bloodiest battle for volcanic island, bombs and shells used to destroy the island Battle of Okinawa- last obstacle to an allied invasion into their homeland Battle of Okinawa- last obstacle to an allied invasion into their homeland

37 Manhattan Project Secret American program to develop an atomic bomb Secret American program to develop an atomic bomb Albert Einstein (Jewish Physicist)-refuge from Germany and the Nazi party, wrote FDR a letter to suggest a new bomb that could be built! Albert Einstein (Jewish Physicist)-refuge from Germany and the Nazi party, wrote FDR a letter to suggest a new bomb that could be built! Tested bomb in New Mexico desert! Tested bomb in New Mexico desert!

38 Decision to Drop the Bomb! Unanimous decision with an advisory group of scientist, military leaders, and government officials called the Interim Committee. Unanimous decision with an advisory group of scientist, military leaders, and government officials called the Interim Committee. August 6 th, 1945 bomb dropped on Hiroshima, a army base (140,000 deaths) August 6 th, 1945 bomb dropped on Hiroshima, a army base (140,000 deaths) August 9 th, 1945 a second bomb dropped on Nagasaki, which produced similar numbers August 9 th, 1945 a second bomb dropped on Nagasaki, which produced similar numbers August 14 th Japan surrenders to US troops August 14 th Japan surrenders to US troops

39 World War II The Holocaust Section 4 Chapter 24

40 Hitler’s Holocaust Holocaust- Nazi Germany’s Systematic murder of European Jews! Holocaust- Nazi Germany’s Systematic murder of European Jews! Anti-Semitism- hostility toward Jews Anti-Semitism- hostility toward Jews 1930’s Nazi party tells people to stop patronizing Jewish business 1930’s Nazi party tells people to stop patronizing Jewish business Nuremburg laws- stripped Jews of citizenship and forbidden marriage between Jews and non-Jews Nuremburg laws- stripped Jews of citizenship and forbidden marriage between Jews and non-Jews Jews were given middle names “Sarah” and Israel as well as identity cards with “j” on them Jews were given middle names “Sarah” and Israel as well as identity cards with “j” on them

41 Nazi’s Take Action SS (Secret State Police) or Gestapo was formed and Concentration Camps (places for prisoners of war). SS (Secret State Police) or Gestapo was formed and Concentration Camps (places for prisoners of war). Nazi’s placed the “undesirable” in these camps as well! Nazi’s placed the “undesirable” in these camps as well! Kristallnacht- (night of the broken glass) Organized attacks on Jews Kristallnacht- (night of the broken glass) Organized attacks on Jews

42 Murder to Genocide Einsatzgruppen- mobile killing units (not deemed good enough by Hitler) Einsatzgruppen- mobile killing units (not deemed good enough by Hitler) Wannsee Conference- plan for the “final solution to the Jewish question!” Wannsee Conference- plan for the “final solution to the Jewish question!” Death Camps- extermination centers for Jews. Death Camps- extermination centers for Jews. Auschiwitz concentration camp- #1 death camp murdering 1.5 million ppl Auschiwitz concentration camp- #1 death camp murdering 1.5 million ppl

43 American Involvement 1944 FDR created War Refugee Board- to help people threatened with murder by the Nazis. (somewhat successful but more needed to be done!) 1944 FDR created War Refugee Board- to help people threatened with murder by the Nazis. (somewhat successful but more needed to be done!)


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