2World War IIAlthough times were hard in the United States throughout the Great Depression they were worse in other countries.
3Dictators Dictators rose to power throughout Europe Totalitarian- a form of government that controls every aspect of its citizens livesExample: Soviet Union, Germany, ItalyFascism- Philosophy which places importance of the nation above the value of the individualExample: Hitler (Germany), Mussolini (Italy)*Fascism allows private business unlike communism but individual rights and freedoms are lost
4Benito MussoliniRose to power in Italy after WWI and called himself Il Duce “the leader”.Organized a fascist group throughout ItalyThreatened to march into Rome and the king appointed him Prime Minister out of fear.
5Mussolini continued…Mussolini outlawed elections and political parties while establishing a dictatorship.Mussolini proclaimed the fascist slogan “The country is nothing without conquest.”1935- Mussolini invaded Ethiopia1936- East African Nation was in Italian hands
6Adolf Hitler Leader of the Nazi party Germany. A charismatic powerful public speaker1923- tried to overthrow German government and went to jail for five yearsWrote autobiography called “Mien Kampf” while in jail about his plans for Germanyhe believed in a purifying race “Aryan race” (blond hair blue eyes).
7Europe Goes to WarGerman troops moved into Rhineland (West Germany) which violated the treaty of VersaillesHitler got away with it which made him more eager to expandHitler signed an alliance with Mussolini and created “Axis” power between Rome and Berlin.Japan later joined the Axis power with Germany and Itlay
9German Empire Expanding 1938- Hitler annexed Austria (Britain and France Protested)Britain and France appeased (giving into someone's demands) with Germany b/c they were not ready for war and thought he might finally be satisfied with land.Britain and France chose dishonor over war which in turn became a war1939- Hitler invaded Poland and the WAR BEGAN
10German’s Expansion Invasion of Poland took one month (West Poland) Blitzkrieg- “lightening War” tactic. Tanks, artillery, and soldiers (moving by foot) struck deep into enemy territory before they had time to reactSitzkrieg- “sit-down war” quiet time for seven months after Poland Fell
11German continues to expand… Germany launched an attack on Denmark and Norway, then proceeded into France and France surrendered on June 14, 1940.Great Britain stood alone in the Allies of the countries.Germany launched an air assault on Great Britain (largest the world had ever seen). This became known as the battle of Britain and by 1941 German raids ended with a loss for Germany
12London’s St. Paul’s Cathedral survived the German Bombing in 1940-1941
13Winston Churchill, Prime Minister of London, and his wife Ruins after the German attack in London.Winston Churchill, Prime Minister of London, and his wife
14Dark Green: Allies before the attack on Pearl Harbor Light Green: Allied countries that entered the war after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.Orange: Axis Powers
15Japanese ExpansionJapan along with Germany and Italy was not happy with their situation in Asia. Japan too was going through a Great Depression.1931 Japan seized Manchuria (region in china)Japan soon controlled most of eastern ChinaBy 1941 Japan was ready to challenge Europeans and Americans for supremacy in Asia
17American Involvement Grows… American’s build up naval fleets from San Diego to Pearl HarborAmericans remain neutral and declared the Neutrality acts. These included the US would withhold weapons and loans from all nations and required “cash and carry policy,” (goods sold to nations at war would be paid for in cash and transported by the purchaser.Lend-Lease Act- FDR passed to aid any nation whose defense was vital to American security
18Attack on Pearl HarborUS cut off all trade with Japan but still hoped for peaceDecember 7, 1941 Japan attacked Pearl harbor “a day which will live in infamy”
19FDR’s entering into war FDR asked congress to declare war the next day.Three days later Germany and Italy declared war on the United States
20World War II The Road to Victory in Europe Section 2 Chapter 24
21Americans Prepare for War! Churchill and FDR allied and wrote an agreement of goals called the Atlantic Charter. They pledged “a peace that will afford all nations the means of dwelling in safety inside their own boundaries.”GI’s- “government issued” clothes, shoes, weapons provided by the military. Soldiers are GI’s!
22Diversity in American Troops! Mexican Americans- 300,000Native Americans-25,000 (Navajo code talkers)Japanese Americans (not accepted until 1943 after released from internment camps in the United States)African Americans- 1 million joined the armyWomen-350,000 joined in all areas except combat. WASP (women air force service pilot) and WAVES (women accepted for volunteer emergency service)
24Fighting in North Africa and Italy The battle of the Atlantic- German Submarines attacking Great Britain in the Atlantic Ocean. Sonar (underwater sound equipment) was used to attack and locate enemy submarines.US had convoys so Great Britain receive food and supplies.Germans used Wolf Packs (30+ submarines) to attack their enemy. German submarines were successful sinking 175 ships in 1942!
25The fight goes on…General Eisenhower (United States) helped general Montgomery (Britain) defeat Germany in Northern Africa (Egypt) in the important battle El AlameinGeneral Patton attacked Sicily, Italy and Mussolini was over thrown. German troops remained in Italy to defend the land and for four months fighting continued and over 72,000 Americans died.Battle of Anizo was won by US and Rome was captured.
26War in the Soviet UnionHitler wanted to Expand into the USSR and 3.6 million German soldiers enter USSR through the Baltic and Black seaBattle of Stalingrad- turning point in the War when USSR defeated German armyGeneral George Marshall pushed the president to prepare for war and called for the invasion of western Europe. When the war ended he resigned and soon after became secretary of state and created the Marshall plan!Carpet Bombing- technique used by Britain in which they dropped large numbers of bombs over a wide area and German cities suffered heavy damages!
30D-DAYJune 6th, 1944-largest landing by sea in history D-DAY (code name for the day the invasion began)!!!!!4,600 warships and invasion crafts slipped out of the harbor in England and pounded the German defenses at Normandy (region in France)! 1,000 RAF bombers also attacked German defenses. Normandy was not an ideal place to attack so it caught the German troops off guard.23,000 airborne British and American soldiers were dropped behind enemy lines in the night.Five beaches were attacked (UTAH, OMAHA, GOLD, JUNO, SWORD)
32Clenching the VictoryFighting followed as US, British, and Canadian troops pushed through France and liberated ParisUS and Canadian troops then freed Brussels and Antwerp and HollandGermany launched a counter attack in Luxembourg and Belgium called the BATTLE of the BULGEUS troops were not looking that good until General Patton moved 250,000 soldiers from western France to help stop the German advanceBattle of the Bulge was the largest battle fought during WWII. 600,000 GI’s involved and 80,000 were killed, wounded or captured!
33War Ends in Europe!Yalta Conference- Plan for post war world between Churchill, Stalin, and FDR! Met in February although war was not yet complete!Soviet troops attacked Berlin and Hitler refused to flee and then committed suicide on May 1st 1945.Then Germany surrendered May 8th 1945!27,000,000 Soviets died throughout the War!Americans celebrated V-E Day (Victory in Europe! But Japan was not yet defeated!
35The War in the PacificThere was also fighting in the Pacific along with Europe.Bataan Death March- Brutal death march of American and Filipino prisoners by Japanese soldiersBattle of the Coral Sea- Battle between Japanese and American Aircraft (1st ever to be completely carried out in air)
36Battles in the Pacific between US and Japan Battle of Midway- TURNING POINT in the war also fought entirely in the air and US destroyed Japanese offenese!Battle of Guadalcanal- US now in control and forced Japanese into the JungleKamikaze- Japanese suicide planes used in the battle of Leyte GulfaBattle of Iwo Jima- Bloodiest battle for volcanic island, bombs and shells used to destroy the islandBattle of Okinawa- last obstacle to an allied invasion into their homeland
37Manhattan Project Secret American program to develop an atomic bomb Albert Einstein (Jewish Physicist)-refuge from Germany and the Nazi party, wrote FDR a letter to suggest a new bomb that could be built!Tested bomb in New Mexico desert!
38Decision to Drop the Bomb! Unanimous decision with an advisory group of scientist, military leaders, and government officials called the Interim Committee.August 6th, 1945 bomb dropped on Hiroshima, a army base (140,000 deaths)August 9th, 1945 a second bomb dropped on Nagasaki, which produced similar numbersAugust 14th Japan surrenders to US troops
40Hitler’s HolocaustHolocaust- Nazi Germany’s Systematic murder of European Jews!Anti-Semitism- hostility toward Jews1930’s Nazi party tells people to stop patronizing Jewish businessNuremburg laws- stripped Jews of citizenship and forbidden marriage between Jews and non-JewsJews were given middle names “Sarah” and Israel as well as identity cards with “j” on them
41Nazi’s Take ActionSS (Secret State Police) or Gestapo was formed and Concentration Camps (places for prisoners of war).Nazi’s placed the “undesirable” in these camps as well!Kristallnacht- (night of the broken glass) Organized attacks on Jews
42Murder to GenocideEinsatzgruppen- mobile killing units (not deemed good enough by Hitler)Wannsee Conference- plan for the “final solution to the Jewish question!”Death Camps-extermination centers for Jews.Auschiwitz concentration camp- #1 death camp murdering 1.5 million ppl
43American Involvement1944 FDR created War Refugee Board- to help people threatened with murder by the Nazis. (somewhat successful but more needed to be done!)